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Princes and Nations fhail difappear from the face of the Earth — and 
this revolution fhall be the work of secret societies. 

Weijloaupt's Difcoutfe for the Myjïeries. 



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Firft American Edition, from the Second London Edition» 
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Printed by Shepard Kollock for Cornelius Davjs, No. g& 
Water-Street, Ntiv-Vork % 



On feme articles publijhed in the Monthly Review, 
relative to the " Memoirs on Jacobinism." 

THERE are Reviewers of vvhofe approbation I ffiall ever be 
proud, becaufe I know the propagation of good princi- 
ples to be the objecl of their labors. There are others, how- 
ever, whofe applauie would always be hateful to me, becaufe, 
under the mafk of fcience, they diffeminate the principles of 
Impiety and Rebellion. To which of theie daffies' the Monthly 
Review may belong, 1 mall not pretend to determine, as I am 
not in the habit of reading it ; but fliould be forry to ground 
my judgment on the account which Dr. Griffiths, or his aiTo- 
ciates, have given of the Memoirs ofjacohinifm. In the ap- 
pendix to his twenty-fifth Volume, he has loaded me with im- 
putations which I ihouid leave to the good fenfe of my Read- 
er, were I engaged in a mere literary difpute ; but I have de- 
nounced the moll: formidable confpuacy that ever was con- 
trived againft Religion and Society. I owe it, therefore, to my 
caufe, and to myfelf, to prove which of us is molt open to the 
charge of unfairnefs, of dexterity, or of treacherous ingenuity. 
Fortunately the talk is not difficult. 

Dr. Griffiths is pleafed to pals a favorable fentence on my firft 
Volume, treating of the Con/piracy of the SophiJIers againft the 
Altar; but he fays, that the Con/piracy " or the Sophiiters 
" of Rebellion againft the Throne is fb imperfectly fupported 
" in the fécond Volume, that he muft fti!! afcribe the extinction 
*' of Royalty in France much more to the comfe of local e- 
** vents in Pans, than to the previous concert and deliberate 
*' wifli of the leaders of the Revolution.'' — Certainly the Ja- 
cobins would not be forrow to fee fuch an opinion become pie- 
valent, for they alfo claim the right of faying to Kings, if we 
attack your thrones you may thank yourfelves ; it was your 
perfidy and defpotifm, much more than the eitorts of a BrifTot 
or a Syeyes, that dethroned Lewis XVI ; it was more owing 
to vou than to Petion or Robefpiene that He was led ro the 
fcafFold ; and, above all, it was the tyranny of Lewis XVI. that 
engraved in our hearts that wifh to exterminate every King 
on earth. Dr. Griffiths a!fo finds it more convenient per»; 
torily to pronounce on the validity of the proofs which I ad- 
duce, than to fubmit any of them to his readers, left they mould 
draw a very different conclusion. Not a word does he men- 
tion of the Letters, of the Syftems, of Holbach's Club, of the 
Central Committee, of the EmifTaties of the Grand Orient, of 
the Declamations and formal its Le Roi, 

Condorcet, Dudin, and bis fellow-re >f the Mercure. 

All this muft lead us to, that Dr. Griffiths is difficult 
of conviclion when hepleafes to be fo ; ar.d that he can with- 


#fiold proofs when he is not in a humour to refute therh. Sd 
many perfons will take the word of their teachers for grant- 
ed, that it is unnecefTary for him to condefcend to give his rea- 
fons. We fhall fee whether he will deign to notice Sir Horace 
Walpole, who fo long fince denounced the Confpiracy of the 
Sophifters of Rebellion. If Dr. Griffiths be determined to be 
blind, I cannot pretend to make him fee. 

adly, Dr. Griffiths alfo declares, that my pofittan "is whol- 
ly erroneous," when I fay, that Equality and Liberty form the 
effential and perpetual Creed of the Freemafons. Heue I was 
tempted to recognize a brother dupe, but he had his reafonS 
for appearing to be better informed than I was. He then fpeaks 
of a communication opened between the Grand Lodges of 
London and Berlin 1776; and Berlin, he fays, was at that ara 
the very f ecus of convergence for every ray of modern Pbilofo- 
phy ; and then he afks, were thefe embaffies mere child* s play i 
or ivere there Timoleons concealed in the Latomies ( Lodges ) ? 
I candidly confefs, that had I known of theie communications 
with the very center of Sophiftry, fo far ffiould I have been 
from retracing my proofs of the Confpiracy of the Freema- 
fons, that I mould have given them a ftronger turn. I can alfo 
affure him, that 1 would not have generalized to fuch an ex- 
tent my exception in favor cf the Mafonry of the Grand Lodge 
of London, had I been informed that it could poffibly have 
contained members fo inimical to Kings as that Timoleon who 
afiaflinated his brother Timophane, for that fame caufe of hat- 
red to Royalty in which the Elder Brutus became the execu- 
tioner of his Children, and the Younger Brutus the murderer 
ofCcfar his benrfaclor. Let Englifh Mafons defend them- 
felvts againft. the imputations of Dr Griffiths ; but every read- 
er will perceive, that the method he has adopted to prove that 
my poftion <iuas erroneous is rather extraordinary ; for, accord- 
ing to his alertions, iff am culpable, it is of having general- 
ized my exception toe much in favOr of thofe to whom I tho't 
no guilt could attach* 

When we proceed to the third Volume treating of the Illu- 
minées, and I fpeak of their Confpiracy againft all fociety, 
property, and fciences, then is he far more difficult of perfua- 
fion. It is here that I am guilty of treacherous ingenuity, of 
partiality-, and of unfair nefs. Let the reader judge to which 
of us fuch imputations are the moft applicable. 

jdly, The Reviewerdeduceshisgrandproofsagainftmefrom 
the manner in which I have tfanflated two of Weilhaupt's texts. 
I mult own, that one of them gave me a confiderable deal of 
trouble, îlot on account of the language* for the words are clear 
enough; but on account of the arrant nonfenfe, and, to me, 
irreconcileable contradiction of this text in the phce where it 
ftands. To have tranflattd .Weifhatipt literally, we muft have 
made him fay, "few wants j this is thefirjl ftèp towards Li- 
*' herty. it is for this reafen that Savages and the Learned (or 
**■ men enlightened in the fupreme degree J are perhaps the only 
" free men> the o?i,y independent men.'" I here law a great er- 
ror in ftating our men of learning as thofe who have xhçjèfveji 


Wants, or as the freeft, or as the moft independent of Socie^ 
ty. i'o enable them to attend folely to their ftudies, they Hand, 
in need of a fufficieot fortune to relieve them from attention to 
temporal concerns. They Hand in need of the labor of others 
to cloath, lodge, and noai ilh them. They are above ail others 
dependent on fociety for that ftate of peace and tranquillity fo 
necelTary to the progrefs of fcience. They mud, therefore, be 
monfters of ingratitude if they do not tecognize that public au- 
thority, without which fciencesmuftbanilh. Futthemoitlearned 
member of the Royal Society into a defert or a foreft, and in 
another part put a country clown, and fee which of the two 
will tare beft, or ftand moftin need of the help of others. 

But this is not all; Weifhaupt pofuively alTerts.that flavery 
is the offspring of the fciences ; and can it follow from fuch 
a pofition, that the moft fbientific are the freeft and moft in- 
dependent of men ? As from a variety of other paffages I knew 
that, according to the modern Spartacus, no men were really 
cnlig^cned, unlefs it were the favages, or thofe who wifhed 

to carry us back to the favage ftate; I tranflated it thus : 

*' Hence few wants is the firjl fiep towards Liberty. — // it 
" for this reafon, that ire favages are the vwfi enlightened of 
*' men, and perhaps they alone are free'," but 1 took the pre- 
caution to add the German text, (" Darum find wilde, und 
*' in hocftken grad aufgeklârte, vielleicht die einzige freye 
V menfchen") that each reader might give the fenfehe chofe 
to the original. Dr. Griffiths has done more, he has quoted 
tha' other text, in which Weifhaupt literally declares flavery 
to be the offspring of the fciences ; he neverthelefs makes 
Weifhaupt fay, that favages and the fully enlightened are per •- 
baps the only free men. '1 his certainly approaches nearer to a 
literal tranuation, and the fentence taken in-the abftract may 
be more correct ; my tranflation, however, is conformable to 
the fenfe of the difcourfe ; but I have no objt&ion to fubftitute 
that given by Dr. Griffiths, provided a N.B. be added, to warn 
the reader of the nonfenfe of it, and the grofs contradiction it 

4th!y, Dr. Griffiths, or the writer he employs, next pro- 
ceeds to the French. " The text of Weifhaupt exprefly 

" fa^s, out of our pre fat imperfeel for?ns of civil union nvè 
** jhaU pafs into new and better chofe n ; but the Abbé, in 
"order to attribute to hint the per verle project of perpetu- 
" ating anarchy, unfairly renders the paflage as if we were to 
*' pafs back into the favage ftate." Then, as if he had it in his 
power to quote numberlefs examples of my unfair tranflations, 
he adds, " On the topic of Property, fimilar freedoms have 
*' been ufed, with a not lefs treacherous ingenuity." 

Upon my word Dr. Griffiths here fathers, with great facili-» 
ty, his own failing upon others. Sir, notwithstanding the bafe 
and calumr.icus accufations which you chofe to vent againft 
me, 1 wrote to yen as to a Reviewer upright in his intentions, 
yet liable to miftake, but who. after fuch violent imputations, 
would condtilend at le^ft to infert in a future number of his 
Review the explanation which I had fent him. You denitd me 


this means of defence; I then told you, that I Ihouîd not leave 
the public in that error into which your Review might lead 
them, as in the prefent citcumilances the confequences might 
be too dangerous. I requefted a meeting in order to lay before 
you the Original Writings, and therein to point out evident 
proofs that your imputations were unjuft. You refufed thefe 
means of rectifying your miftake. What, then, entitles you to 
better treatment than you have given to a man who was molt 
certainly actuated by no other fentiment than that of the pub- 
lic good, and whom you chooie to calumniate in defiance of 
conviction ? 

It pleafes Dr, Griffiths alfo to reprefent my letter (in which 
I informed him, that 1 would not leave the public in an error) 
as a rifible threat of denouncing him as an Illuminée (June 
1798). He adds, that I am " at full liberty to accufe or com- 
*' pHment him by fuch a iefcriptUn" You may, Sir, take what 
I am going to fay as a reproach or as a compliment; but^vith- 
out pretending to fay whether you are initiated in the iRrets 
of Iliuminifm or not, this much i can affert, that no Illuminée 
could have mown lefs candor than has the author of the article 
to which I am about to reply. 

So far was I from attributing any other intention to Wei- 
fhaupt, than that which he really had, when he wrote thefe 
words, Aus den jlaaten tretten nvir in ?ieue kl tiger geivdhlte t 
which I have tranflated, de cesfociêtés nous pajfons a des vœux 
a ten choix plusfage (from thefe focieties we proceed to further 
wi.'hes, and to a wifer choice); and as this fentence, taken ab- 
ftractly, has no lignification either in German or French, I, 
in a note, called the attention of the reader to the fentence 
that immediately followed, as explaining the nature of the 

K-.rfcr choice (Fr. Vol. III.) The Englifh tranfiator has o> 

muted this note, which, in reality was only added through 
an excefs of precaution. But had he inferted it what would it 
have proved ? Nothing but an efpeciai care on my fide not to 
attribute to Weifhaupt any meaning that did not entirely co- 
incide with the text. Am I to blame, if what precedes and 
what follows that fentence evidently demonftrate that this So- 
phifter was endeavoring to lead us back to thefavage frate? — 
I fhould fpare the Reviewer too much, or mould rather hold 
him out as an Ignoramus, were I to fay that he could have been 
jrjiftaken as to the meaning of that fentence. Here it is, with 
what precedes and follows it: " Nature drew men from the 
*' favage ftate, and re-united them in civil focieties ; from 
" thefe focieties w<? preceed to further ivijbes , and îj a iuifer 
" choice* New aiTociations prefent themfeives to thefe wi/hes ; 

* The note in jmtefton would aftfwer to the ward choice, 
Volume III. and is literal ows: li Ion tarifer choice i 

6; this is the literal tranflation of the text, aus den ftaaten tret- 
*' ten wir in neue kiiiger gewiihlte. The fentence that follow 
'* èlearly enough exprejfes what this choice is." I placed the 
German text bettueçn a pSrentheJis immediately after the -cord 
choice ; and as the fentence alluded to immediately followed, £ 


* ' and by their means we return to the (late whence ive catm^ 
■ not again to run the former courfe, but the better to enjoy 
" our deftiny." Since the Reviewer did not ccndefcend to fa- 
vor me with the interview I requefted, that I might mow him 
the German text, 1 here print it, that he may get it tranflated 
by whom, and where he pleafes ; and I defy him to (how that 
I have either altered or warped the fenfe of that pafTage : " Die 
*' natur hat das menfehen gefchlecht ausden wildheitgeriiTen, 
" und in ftaaten vereinight; ans âenflaatentr$tten t wirinneus 
*' Kluger gemoahtte. Zu unferen wiinfehen nahen fich neue 
" verbindungen, und durch diefe langen wir wieder dort an, 
" wo wir aufaegangen find ; aber tiicht um dereinft den alten 
** zirkul wieder zuruck zu machen, fondern um unfere weitere 
" beitimTrlBng naher zu erfahren," Nowl boldly afk, whether 
natural ftu^idity can be carried fo far, or whether any man can 
be fo totally dellitute of every idea of logic, as not plainly to 
fee, that the ftate from which Weifhaupt fays that Nature has 
drawn us, and to which it is leading us back by means of his 
(fecret) affociations, is not the favage ftate. Befide, he adds, 
Let ».r explain this and how does he do this? why, by 
dedicating more than forty pages to prove, that the object of 
Nature in Secret Societies is to eradicate even the very name of 
People, Prince, Nation, or Country ; and this he pofitively tells 
us is one sf 'his grand myjleries. This monftrous Sophifler alfo 
fays, that Original Sin, the Fall of Man, was no other than 
their reunion into civil fociety; and that Redemption is our re- 
instatement in that ftate which was anterior to fuciety. It is 
even thus that he pretends to explain the gofpel: it is thus thatQ 
he explains the rough JIo?>es, the 'Jlçnejplit or broken, and the po- 
lifted Jlone of ' Mafonry. — And after this Dr. Griffiths and his 
co-operators will come and accufe us of unfairnefs, dexterity, 
and treacherous ingenuity, becaufe we unfold the abfurdity of 
his favorite Illuminifm ! Let our readers aflïgn thofe epithets 
to whom in their opinion they belong. 

5thly. What can the Reviewer mean by that great zeal which 
he (hows for the characters of Weifhaupt and Jvnigge, thofe 
two prototypes of Illuminifm ? ïn order tojuftify them, he 
comes and talks to us of the theifm and of the opinions which 
they affected in their public writings, and acts the brother 
dupe, grounding his opinion on Weifhaupt's giving the wri- 
tings of the Socinian Bajfedottt to his novices. What does all 
this prove to a man who is fpeaking of the fecret opinions of 
Koigge and Weifhaupt, and who lias demonftrated the whole 
doctrine of their confpiring myfteries; to a man who proves to 
you, by the very letters of Weifhaupt and Knigge, that after 
the perufal of the writings of the Socinian Baffedow, thefe two 
atheilts recommend and give to their adepts the writings of 

looked upon the remainder of the note as per feclly ufelefs, and o- 
viitted it ; for nvho could have dreamt that any perfon could have 
cavilled atfo clear a fntence ? I only tranferihe the note in this 
pi ace, that every reader may judge of Dr. Griffiths' s candour.—* 



the atheift Boulanger, of the atheift Robinet, of the atheifê 
Helvetius, of the atheift Diderot; and that Knigge even com- 
plains, that fuch a fuperabundance of Atheifrn would betray 
the tendency of the Seel too foon ? (Original Writings, VoL 
J. Let. 3, from S part ecu s to Cato. — Vol. II. Let. %. from Pki~ 
lo to Cato) — To what purpofe, let me afk, is all the fluff 
which the Reviewer has copied from the German Illuminées 
about the Jefuits; all thofe panic terrors which he afFe&s about 
the return of Catholicifm in a protectant country; as if protes« 
tants and perfons of every religion were r.otfjound in one in- 
tereft to counteract the plans of Uluminifm ? If Dr. Griffiths 
wifhes to miflead the Englifh nation, as fome of the adepts did 
for a time in Germany, let him learn that the trick i3 ftale ; 
that it will be in vain foi him to copy Mirabeau or Bonneville, 
and, like them, cry up the alledged proofs of Jefuits Mafonry 
difcovered by the Illuminée L-acian-ti icol ai. We are on the 
fpot, and can verify thefe grand proofs. We beg Dr. Griffiths 
to favor us with a fight cf that famous Pelican difcovered at 
Oxford; and that he will not forget to tell us how it comes to 
pafs, that this Pelican is replaced by a Sparrotu-hamui, whole 
feathers grow again, and koiu a Sparroiv-haivk, nvho thus re- 
fledges itfelf evidently demonftrates that Jefuits have long fines 
teen bidden in the Evglijh Ledges ; and that if great care be 
not taken, they are on the eve of fallying forth to make a moft 
terrible havock. He will alfo tell us how this demonftration 
becomes evident, when we obferve, that Sir Chriftopher Wren 
(the architect who built St. Paul's )was profefTor in one college 
1fet Oxford, and that the Pelican and Sparroiv-haivk were found 
in another college. But I am forry to conlider, that, when Dr, 
Griffiths /hall have ably developed all the grand proofs given 
by Nicoiai, the Englifh reader will be much tempted to rank; 
the inventor and his panegyrift in the fame clafs.* 

Let not Dr. Griffiths think that while we fhrug our fhoulders 
at this miferable fable of Catholicifm and Jefuitifm latent in 
Freemafonry, we cannot produce fubftantial proofs that this: 
fable was only invented to avert the attention of the inhabitants 
of proteftant countries from the progrefs made by the Ulumi r 
nees. We can <how thofe leaders of Illuminifm B runner, the 
apoftate catholic curate of Tiefenbach ; the apoftate Nimis, the 
Chabot of Germany; the adepts Dorfeh, Blaa, and Wreden, 
the famous Illuminées of Spire, Mentz, and Bonne, meditating 
and combining among themfelves the means of propagating 
this fable in Germany, juft as Dr. Griffiths had done in Eng- 
land. We can produce the letter of the adept Brunner to A7- 
?,Wj, difcovered among the papers of Blau and fent by the of- 
ficers who had feized them to the Bijhop of Spire. Dr. Grif- 
fiths knows many things concerning Mafonry and Illuminifm % 
but he may probably be unacquainted with this letter; it would 
not be right that he lhould commue fo, as he will, by the in* 

* See Monthly Review, Augufi, 1798, pages 460 and 461— 
Seealjl the miferable difcoveries of Nicetai appreciated in a Ger-> 
man ivork called the Veil torn from Mafonry, page 318, &c. 


formation be better able to judge of the partthat he is a&ing, 
and of the fervices that he is rendering Illuminifm. 

This difpatch is dated June 9, 1791, that is, juft about the 
time when the coalition of the crowned heads feemed to me» 
nace Jacobinifm with immediate deftruclion. The adepts are 
much occupied with inventing a plan for remodelling Illumin- 
ifm, that it might acquire new vigor. Jn this plan a cloak is 
fought, which, hiding the grand machine, leaves its inflruments 
at liberty to ad without being feen, and 10 attain the object of 
the Sect without being fufpected of meddling with Illuminifm. 

The cloak that was thus to favor the views of the brethren, 
•was an Academy of Sciences formed of two clafles of men, the 
one of men remarkable for their zeal in the caufe of religion, 
the other of profound Illuminées. Honorary members were to 
be elected as protectors; and if '(fays the author of the plan) 
Dalbert ■once gets to his government (that is, if the Suffragan 
becomes Elector of Mentz) be of ail ether princes would be the 
moji proper for our objecl. We may perhaps unfold the txthpls 
of our pian to him, and make Mentz the central point of our 
academy. — To do away every idea of the hidden myjleries of this 
academy y it ivou/d be right that each member Jheuld ivear on his 
breajl a medal bearing the infer iption lit: Li Gi ON 1 etScientiis 
(to religion and fciences}. — The better to conceal our fecret ob- 
jecl, *we mufi be careful to engage ail the learned jcfuits,fucb 
as Sattler, Sailer, Mutschelle, and other learned re- 
ligious, that are perfeûly orthodox, fuel) as Gerbert, and 
Schwartzueber. — It would even be right if it could be bro't 
about, that the eftablift>me?it of this academy Jhould be announced 
to the public by a Jefuit, and not by one of us. 

Pray, Dr. Griffiths, has this plan come to your knowledge? 
Now liften to what the adept author of the plan fays : " But if 
*' people cry out againft hidden jfefuitifm and again ft the pro- 
81 grefs oj ' Catholicifn, it will be ib much the better. That 
" would the better do away all fufpicion oi a fecret aflbciation ; 
*' one might (and this is worthy of Dr. Griffiths s obfervation) 
** one's felf help to fpread this falfe alarm." 1 here add the 
text, for the benefit of a tranllation from Dr. Griffiths, which 
if he gives, I hope he will alfo add the text, that the public 
may pronounce on the treacherous ingenuity: " Wurde iiber 
*' heimlichen Jefuitifm, oder iiber grofei.e au&reitunjg des 
*' Katholicifm gefchrien, delto btffiïr; dadurch wiirde aller 
** verdacht einer geheimen verbindung nur um fo mehr be- 
*' feitiget. Man konte fogar diefen blinden lïrmTelbftichlagen 
*' belfen." When, tvir, you ffiail have dnly meditated on this 
plan of the adepts, 1 mould like to know what you could have 
done more to favor their views than you did in giving an ac- 
count of Mr. Robilbn's work, of my work, and of the mifera- 
ble produi'licn calling ni'eif A firjl Letter of a Free msfon to 
the Abbe Barrutl. You will, doubtlefs, remark, that the date 
of this plan is June, T792; fo you cannot refer your readers 
to the ///?w»wwBoéticer to make them believe, that fmcethe 
year 1790 there fus been no farther queition of Illuminifm itt 



t flatter myfelf that you now coincide in opinion with méi 
fend that you think it might have been better — ift, To have ei- 
ther fpoken of the above works with more candor and polite- 
nefs, or not to have mentioned them at all. — zdly, To have ac- 
cepted the invitation that I lent you. that I might lay the ori- 
ginal texts before you. — .idly, To hare publifhed the letter 
that I requefted you would infert in your Review. — And 4thly» 
Not to have pretended that 1 had threatened to denounce you 
as an Illuminée. For reaily, Sir, 1 never felt the {lighted in- 
ducement to pronounce whether the Illuminées had ever ini- 
tiated yourfelf or your co-operators in their laft myfteries.— ■ 
You begin with granting that the conspiracy of the Sophifters 
againft the altar really exifls ; and when you come to the 
Illuminées you tell us, " that however extravagant may bet hi 
" opinions offome leading men amongrhe ÎUuminees,the ave? 
*' rage ivif/of the party, the collecled pnrfuit of the confederated 
il Lodges* appears rather to have had socinianism and re- 
" publicanism than Aikcifm and Anarchy fir its objetts''—* 
(June, 1798, p. 240.) — This is avowing at leaitthat there ex- 
ills in thele Lodges a confpiracy againft the God of the Gos- 
pel, and againfl the thrones of all fovereigns. This is alfo 
abandoning the chiefs or foundets of the confederacy of the 
Illuminées. When you go lb far youilL-lf, Sir, as to grant all 
this, am I not entitled to afk what could induce you to accufe 
me of io much treacherous ingenuity, when you confefs your* 
felf that I might be in the right ; for you mult have l'een that £ 
diftinguifhed the degrees; I have fhewn by the very code ol the 
illuminées how in their fir ft fchools they only infufed hatred 
for kings, and that fpecies of Socinianilm which borders fo 
clofely on rank Deifm. This, I think, was fufficientjy proving 
a confpiracy whofe tendency well deferved the attention of the 
public. When I accufe the Sedt of aiming at the wildeft an- 
archy, I iliow that this myllery was reierved to the profound 
adepts and chiefs, though their iecret at prêtent frequently es- 
capes them before a public audience. Generally, Sir, they make 
the fame avowals as you do. They are pleafed to hear it faid 
that Voltaire, and thofe men whom they denominates?*?^ />/•;'- 
lofophers, confpired againft Chriflianity 5 and that other i'elf- 
created philofophers of the Lodges confpired againft kings.— 
This might contribute to make nations believe that it is notfo 
very criminal a thing to engage in fuch confpiracies. But it 
is a more difficult thing to invent a plaufible pretext for con- 
fpiring againft all property and civil fociety ; and for that rea- 
fon more care is taken to conceal the ultimate views of their 
plots. Meanwhile, however, they cry down every author that 
dares to unmafk thefe hideous confpirators. Was it under an 
illufion, or wittingly, that you followed lb neatly the fame 
method in reviewing the works of Mr. Robifon and myfelf? 
Do not expect a decidon from me. My objed is, that the pub- 
lic fhould not bemiflead to believe that 1 have exaggerated the 
myfteries of the Illuminées. I leave to that fame public to judge 
Whether any of the Reviewers are dupes or accomplices. 


N. B. In fupport of the account given by the Monthly Re- 
view, I am threatened with an anfwer from Spartacus 
WEISHAUP r. My rejoinder is ready for this perfonage alfo. 
Let him meet me at the archives of Munich, where his letters 
are preferved. But as that might expofe him to the peril of 
the gallows, I confent that he mould acî by attorney. Let him 
prove then that thefe letters are fpurious ; and that the Court 
and Magiftrates of Bavaria impofed upon the world, when they 
puWilhed thole letters, and invited perfons of every country to 
come and verify the originals ; for all other apology on his fide 
muil be ufelefs, and any anfwer on minefuperfluous. A com- 
plete anfwer to all his publications, as well as to his firft apolo- 
gy, is already publimed in the code and hiftory of his Illumin- 
ifm , and all that I can poffibly fay with reference to his vyri? 
fings may be reduced to three words, read and verify* 


Object and Plan of this Volume. 

(CONCEIVED but a fhort time before the French 
_^ Revolution, by a man whofe ambition feemed con- 
fined within the narrow compafs of the town oflngol- 
ftadt and to the dully folios of his fchools, by whatftrange 
means did Illuminifm in lefs than fifteen years, become 
that formidable Sect which, under the name of "Jacobin* 
rides triumphant over ruined altars, fhivcred fceptres, and 
Scattered crowns; over the wrecks of nations and their 
conftitutions ; over the bodies of potentates fallen beneath 
their poifons or their poignards, while they drag others in 
their train, craving a (ervitude termed peace, or branding 
themfelves with the infamy of what they call an alliance? 
Under this name of Jacobin abforbing all the myfte- 
ries, plots, and combinations of every feclary againlt eve- 
ry religion, government, and fociety, by what artifice; 
could Illuminifm acquire that dominion of terror which 
forbids any foVereign within the aftonifhed univerfe to 
fay, To-morrow I ihall continue leated on my throne ; 
which forbids nations and citizens to fay, that their laws 
and religion, their houfes and property, will not be torn 
from them; which forbids the peaceful inhabitant to lie 
down to reft with any aflurance that he will not rife in the 
morning beneath the fhade of that fy mbol of blood called 
the Tree of Liberty, and threatened by the axe of the de- 
vouring guillotine ? How is it poffible, that the fecret 
adepts of the modern Spartacus mould be the invifible and 
exclufive movers of that long chain of crimes and calam- 
ities, that difaftrous torrent of ferocity and rapine, which 
is called the revolution ? How do they continue to direct 
thofe machinations which are to confummate the diiTolu- 
tion and mifery of human fociety ? 

In dedicating this Fourth Volume to the inveftigation Object of 
of thefe queft ions, I do not flatter myfelf with the hopes ^is vo- 
of iiluftrating them with all that precifion, and of point- lutne * 
ing out thofe particularities, which other men might have 
done who have had it in their power to follow the Seel 
of Illuminées into their dark abodes, without ever lofing 
iight of the adepts or their teachers, The monfter has 


taken its courfe through wilderneiTes, and darknefs has 
more than once obfcured its progrefs. "Weimaupt had 
adopted the bird of night for his emblem, becaufe he 
courted darknefs; but the fcreechings of this ominous 
bird, rending the air in fpite of him, difcover his fecret re- 
treat. The venemous reptile is often uncovered- by the 
ftench of its poifon; the beaten and blood-ftained track 
leads to the difcovery of the cavern inhabited by brigands; 
and, riotwithftanding all the efforts of the wicked, an all- 
powerful God will fometimes in his mercy permit a ray 
of light to mine on their tenebrous recelTes, which may 
fufficeto develope their plots. Many horrid particulars, 
no doubt, have been loft under the veil of darknefs ; but 
in claflirig thofcr which have come to my knowledge, I 
find abundance of proofs to trace the Seel; wherever crime 
has pointed out its fatal influence. In vain does the black- 
cloud hover round thefummit of the volcano, the bitumin- 
ous and fulphurous vapors which it exhales, bear teitimo- 
nyof the interior combullions, till at length the eruption 
denotes the abyfs where fo great a convulfion was gene- 

Hence, without flattering myfelf with the hopes of lei- 
zing every link of that horrid chain of iniquity which mufc 
blacken the page of hiflory when treating of the Seel, or 
of decyphering the alTumed names of all its adepts, I 
(hall proceed to lay before my readers what has already 
come to light. AtTerting nothing but will bear the flriifteir. 
fcrutiny,I {hall {till find matter Sufficient to trace the pro- 
grefs of the Sect from its origin to that congrefs to which, 
at the prefent moment, it calls the vanquifhed fovereigns, 
not fo much to quell the horrors of the field of battle, as 
to enjoy that dominion of terror which it defpotically 
{ways without, and to prepare within new refources to 
extend its triumphs; not fo much to reltore to nations the 
tottering remnants of their laws and religion, as to invent 
means of obliterating the very traces of either that may 
yet remain. I {hall here attempt to lead the hiftoriati 
through thefe mazy windings left he fnould lofe himfelf 
when in purfuit of the Se£t. The reader has already leerj 
(in our remarks on the Code) its oaths and threats againi^ 
every religion, all fociety, and property. Now, when 
reading of what the Sec"t has done, of the plots and ma- 
chinations it has fuccefsfully undertaken and executed, 
may nations and their rulers acquire new ardor, and be 


Simulated to oppofe the^r. future projets with all the 
courage ana ail thé means' they ate matters of. It is to tri- 
umph over Jacobinilm, colt what it may, that nations are 
to ftudy the records of this Seel, and not to link meanly 
into defpair. I know I am but mortal, and that ere long 
I Iliall defcend into the grave; and I calmly wait mydis- 
folution i but fhouid that confederation prevent iny weep- 
ing over the general diilblution which threatens fociety, 
after I have awakened my readers to the dangers which 
threaten them, only to fee them finking once more into 
that apathy which portends ruin, under pretence that it is 
too !af'., that it is ufelefs to refill the fate which the Se£t 
has decreed for all nations ? God forbid that I mould hold 
fuch langu ^ge! Cannot the good be fired with that zeal 
which confumes the breaft of the mifcreant heaving for 
wickednefs. Let the rulers of nations will it, let nations 
wity to fave their religion, their laws, their property, as 
this infernal Sect wills the deftruclion of them all, and 
jfuccefs muff, infallibly crown their endeavors» It is only 
in hopes of contributing to their luccefs, that I once mors 
confent to fully my pen with the names of IVeifiaupt, of 
Illuminée^ and of face-bin. and to. wade through their dis- 
gull: ing annais. 

The order to be obferved in treating of the hiilory of Plan of 
the Sect fhali be regulated according to its moll remarks- f !ns v0 '* 
ble epochs. lume * 

The firfffhal! fhew Weifhaupt laying the foundations 
of his Illuminifm, preparing and initiating his firit adepts, 
founding his firft Lodges, trying his firft apoftles, and pre- > 
paring every thing for great conqueffs. 

The fécond fhail treat of that fatal intrunon which em- 
bodied thoufands and thoufands of adepts under Wei- 
fhaupt's banners; and this epoch will be called the Illu- 
nunvzation of Free-mafonry. 

Very few years fuifice to extend thefe tenebrous and 
myfterious conqueiis^ but the thunderbolts of heaven 
warn mankind of their danger. The 5e<5tand its confpi- 
racies are difcovered in Bavaria, and it fpeaks of this dis- 
covery under the appellation of its perfections i nations 
and their rulers have been led to believe that it was the 
death-blow and extinction of the Seal. 

Shrinking back, however, into its dark recelTes, with 
unabating ardor, it crawls from den to den until it attains 
thofe of Philip of Qrleans, who, joining the Sect with all 


the adepts of his occult Lodgesygives it fovcreigti (way 
over the whole of French Malonry. From this monftrous 
aflbciation fprungthe Jacobins» with all the crimes and 
horrors of the Revolution. This conftitutes the fourth 
epoch of Illuminifm; for as the lion, feeling his ftrength 
fufficient, fallies from his den, roars loudly, and victims 
muft be facrificed to him ; fo the Jacobins, or Illumini- 
zed Mafom, quit their lurking places, and with horrid 
yell announce to nations and their rulers that they may 
tremble, for the day of revolution is come. This is the 
epoch at which the Seel: begins the execution of its plots. 
He only knows how low the earth is condemned to bend 
beneath their yoke, who in his vengeance permits the 
plague and other fcourges to devaftate empires until he 
has been avenged of an impious generation. I neither 
pretend to be a prophet nor defcendant of a prophet; but 
in treating of the numerous crimes already committed by 
the Seel:, it will be but too eafy to point out thole that it 
has frill to commit, and that it will commit, if princes and 
their people difregard the leffons of that fame God, teach- 
ing them the conducl they fhould hold, in order to avert 
the impending fcourge. 




Chap. I. Firft Epoch of Illuminifm l 7 

Chap. JI. Of the principal Adepts during the fis ft 

Epoch of Illuminifm - -34 

Chap. III. Second Epoch of Illuminifm. — The II- 
luminizationofFreemafonry. — Wei- 
fhaupt's attempts on the Mafonic 

Lodges. Aequifition of Knigge, 

and his firft Services - "63 

Chap. IV. Gongrefl ; of the Freemafonsat Willems- 
baden. — Of their divers Se&s, and 
particularly of that oftheTheofophi- 
cal Illuminées - 78 

Chap. V. Knigge's Intrigues and SucccrTes at the 
Congrefs. — Ofricial Reports of the 
Superiors of the Order. — Multitude 
of Mafons Iiluminized at this Period 101 

ChAp. VI. New means practifed, and new con- 
quers made by Knigge and Wei- 
lhaupt on Mafo'.'.ry — Difputes be- 
tween thefe two Chiefs of Illumin- 
ifm — Their defigns on the German 
Muions confummated before Knigge's 
retreat - - - 122 

Chap. VII. Third Epoch of Illuminifm. — Difcove- 

ry of the Seel - - 141 

Chap. VIII. Continuation of the Difcoveries made 
in Bavaria as to the Illuminées. — 
Proceedings of the Court with res- 
pect to the Chiefs of the Seel:. — A 
few Remarks on, and a Lilt of the 
principal Adepts - - 163 

Chap. IX. New Chiefs and New Means of the Il- 
luminées. — Device of the JefuitsMa- 
fonry and Succefs of that Impofture 17S 

Chap. X. The Germanic Union — Its principal 


Attors, and the Conquefb it prepa- 
red for the Illuminées - - 190 

Chap. XI. Fourth Epoch of Illuminifm. — The 
Deputation from Weifhaupt's Illu- 
minées to the Freemafons of Paris.— . 
State of French Mafonry at that pe- 
riod. — Labors and SuccelTes of the 
Deputies — Coalition of the Confpi- 
ring Sophillers, Mafons, and Illumi- 
nées, generating the Jacobins - 209 

Chap. XII. Application of the three Confpiracies 

to the French Revolution - %^i 

Chap. XIII. Univerfality of the Succefs of the Seel: 
explained by the univerfality of its 
Plots - 282 

Conclusion - « - - 335 





Fir/} Epoch of Illuminifm. 

FOR many years paft, and particularly fince Free- 
mafonry had acquired fuch repute throughout Eu- 
rope, a multitude of petty fecret focieties had been form- 
ed in the Proteftant univerfities of Germany, each hav- 
ing its lodge, its mailer, its myfteries, all modelled on 
thole founded by mafons coming from England and Scot- 
land. Hence fprung thofe various Orders of Hope ■, of 
Harmony^ the ConjUvitiJis, the Black Brethren^ and the 
like. The difputes and quarrels, nay, the diforderly be- 
havior of thefe young brethren attracted, more than once, 
the attention or the mag ill rates; fame few attempts were 
made to crufh thefe meetings, but being made without e- 
nergv they were of courfe uielefs. Governments had not 
fufficiently confidered, that the mo ft dangerous abufe of 
thefe focieties was not fo much the quarrels and the boy- 
ifh battles which enfued, as the tafte which they inculcat- 
ed for focieties impervious to the eye of the magiftrate, 
and under the cover of which their iecrets were fo eafilv 
transformed into the myfteries of impiety and the plots of 


* The fophifticated mafons of France were not ftrangers to 
thefe boyilh Lodges. A few years before the deftrudtion of the 
Jefuits, one of thefe lodges was fet on foot in their college of 
Tulle, ftiling its members the Chevaliers de la Pure Vérité» 
(Knights of the Pure Truth.) The Jefuits foon perceived, 
whither this doctrine of" pure truth and its fecret meetings 
would lead. Before any other method for putting a ftop to this 
new eftablilhment was propofed, they refolved to try the pow- 
er of ridicule which was almofl: infallible in France. Accord- 
ingly one of the mailers undertook to compofe a mod f areas - 
tic fong on our young Knights, and copies were fecretly dis» 


ît would, however, be difEcult I believe to prove, that 
any fyftems or opinions militating againft religion or go- 
vernments had as yet been introduced into thefe puerile 
aiîbciations. Many were even known to profefs princi- 
ples conducive to good manners and morality. The re- 
medy may be found in the very (burce whence fprung the 
evil, that is to fay, from the conftitutioaof thofe univer- 
fities, which, on the one fide» 'leaves the choice of the dif- 
ferent profeftbts in each branch to their fcholar9, and on 
the other does not fufficiently provide for an honeft teach- 
er to place him beyond the powers of want or the temp- 
tations of avarice and vanity. Hence it followed, that 
mailers, little delicate as to the means of obtaining a no- 
minati«n,and nearly deftitute of talents, had onlytofhow 
great zeal for one of thefe little focieties, or invent fome 
new myftery more enticing than the reft, and his Lodges 
immediately filled j the fcholars formed parties for him; 
in a fhort time h;s fchools were as much flocked to 
as his Lodges, and contributions in his favor kept pace 
with his growing reputation. The fear of pafling- for a 
feducer of youth was a bar againft his making ute of thefe 
focieties for inftiUiag bad principles into his young fol- 
lowers, however much he might have wifhed itj and on 
the other fide, the authority which he had acquired in the 
fchools gave him a fufSicent power in the Lodges to 
thwart any perverfe intentions in the young adepts j and 
thefe oppofite reaibr.s proved in general a fufEcient guard 
againft the introduction of great abufes.* 

The time was not yet come, however» when proofs 
were to be acquired of the ufe to which the great con- 
fpirators were to turn thefe myfterious nurièries. 

When public report fpread the news in Germany of a 
new order of Illuminées having been founded in the uni- 
verfity of Ingolftadt by Weifhaupt, many people (impos- 
ed it to be one of thofe little college Lodges» which could 
no longer intereft the adepts, when omcc they had fuiim- 
ed their ftudies. Many even thought that Weifhaupt, 

tributed to all the young men who <à\à not belong to the lodge. 
Scarcely could one of the Juvenile Knights make his appear» 
ance without hearing fome ridiculous line of this fong bum- 
med in his ears; and in a Ihort time fquares, compaffès, Lodge 
and all difappeared, 

* See the Memoirs of a Proteitant Minifter on the Illumi- 


who was at that time a fworn enemy to the Jefuits, had 
only founded this Lodge with a view to form- a party for 
himfelf againft thofe fathers who, after the destruction of 
their order, had been continued in their offices of public 
teachers at theuniveifity of Ingolftadt.* The Illuminées 
fuccefsfully availed themfelves of this opinion on an oc- 
cafion which we (hall hereafter fee to have been decifive 
as to their future exiftence in Germany. Had not the na- 
ture of their code and of their myfteries demonstrated 
views of far other importance both for nations and their 
governments, to have been the grand object of the foun- 
der, the Archives of the Sect would ihow beyond all 
doubt that from its firft institution Weifhaupt had coh- 
ceived the hopes, and determined on means for extend- 
ing the plots of the Sect to the utmoft boundaries of Em- 

It was on the ift of May, 1776, that Weifhaupt laid 
the firft foundations of his Illuminifm. The lift of adepts 
feised among their Archives fhows his name inferibed 
on that day at the head of the Regifter; on the fame day 
^'tf.v-Maiienhaufen and 'Tiber ius-Mexz were declared 
Areopagites.f It is true that he /'elected thefe two firft 
adepts from ameng his pupils who were ftudying the law 
under him at the univerfity of Ingolftadt; thefe were ge- 
nerally young men from eighteen to twenty, a moft dan- 
gerous age, when the paflions eafily lay open the un- 
guarded mind to the feduction of Sophiftry. Weifhaupt 
could not overlook fo fair an opportunity of forming a- 
poftles, who, returning home when they had fihifhed their 
ftudies, might, under his direction, continue the fame ca- 
reer of feduclion which he himfelf carried on at Ingol- 
ftadt. Atrocioufly impious, we fee him in the firft year 
of his Illuminifm aping the God oî Chriftianity, and or- 
dering ^"flx-Mallenhaufen in the following terms to pro- 
pagate the doctrines of his new gofpel: " Did no: ChrifL 
*' fend his Apoftles to preach his Gofpel to the univerfe? 
" You that are my Peter, why fhould you remain idle ac 
K home, go then and preach. "| 

* See the Memoirs of a Proteftant Minister on the Illumi- 

f Original Writings, Seel. IV. 

X Hat doch Chriftus audi feine apoitel in die welt gefchickt, 
und warum foil te ich meinen Pen as zu haafe laflenl Ifretpre- 
Jkate, — Original Writipgs> Letters te Jjax, 19th Sept. 177*. 


The modem Cephas had not waited for the orders of 
his mafter to give him proofs of his zeal. .In the enthu- 
fiafm of his fir ft fervor, and during the very month of his 
inftallation, he had acted the part of Infinuator to Xave- 
rius Zwack.* "We fhall foon fee him outwitted by his 
pupil ; but fo great a conqueft covered a multitude of fins 
of which he was afterwards guilty. By the name of Cato 
we fee Zwack pafs under the direction of Weifhaupt him- 
felf, and he foon became his favorite difciple. He may be 
faid to have robbed his Infinuator of the honor of hav- 
ing founded the Lodges at Munich 5 and it was through 
the means of this new apoftle that the Sect made that ra- 
pid progrefs which Weifhaupt boafts of in his letter to 
Tiberius-WLerz., 13th May, 1778: 

<; It is with great pleafure that I can inform you of the 
tc happy progrefs my Order is making: knowing how 
" anxious you are for its welfare, and that you have pro- 
*' mifed to contribute to its fuccefs by all the means in 
<c your power, I muft inform you, that in a few days I fhall 
<l be able to found two Lodges at Munich. The firft will 
<c be compoied of Cato, of Hencl, to whom I have given 
ct the name of Marius, and of MafTenhaufen, whom we 
" call Ajax. Thefe three will receive their inftructions 
" in direct line from me. You alfo fhall have a feat in 
* c their council when at Munich. I have been obliged to 
" fix Ajax there, though he might have been of great ufe 
ct to me; for he was the firfr, to whom I opened myfelf 
<l on the fubjecl, and he alfo recruited Cato for me. Had 
" Ï to begin again, I certainly would not make choice of 
" him; but I have fo clipped his wings that he can no 
11 longer play off any of his intrigues. I don't leave him 
" in poiTeilion of a iingle halfpenny of our funds; they 
" are entrufted to Marius. Cato is the main fpring 
li at Munich, and the man who conducts every thing. It 

* In the Third Volume of thefe Memoirs, page 9, in the 
Note, it is faid, " it is clear that Znvack was only initiated 
*' te?i months after the two adepts Ajax and Tiberius." In 
place of ten we mould read tnneuty-ttvo months, as I meant to 
fpeak cf his inftallation among the Arcopagites, which only 
took place on the izd of Feb. 1778. (Original Writings, FoL 
J. Seel. IV.) ; but he had been received into the Order on the 
■3,9th May, 1776, as may be feen by the tablets of Ajax. Be- 
flde, thefe tablets, and the lift juil mentioned, do not perfect- 
Jy coincide. The reafon of this difference will be explained 
when treating of the fit ft adepts. 


* c is for that reafon that you mud in future correfpond 
'* with him. It is in this Lodge that all is regulated with 
" regard to the general direction of the order; but then 
** every thing is to be fubmitted to me for approbation. 

" The fécond college (or Lodge) fhall conlift of the 
K above-named brethren, of Berger, under the name of 
tl Cornelius Scipio-, and of a certain Troponero, whom we 
<l have furnamed Coriolanus-, a moil excellent man for us, 
** about forty years of age, and who has been for a long 
** time concerned in the Hamburgh trade: He is an able: 
" financier, and at this very time reads public lectures ou 
" finance at Munich. 

To thefe will foon be added Baader and Werftenrie- 
" der, both profeffors in the fame town. This Lodge is 
" to attend to all local concerns, that is, to all that may 
h be of fervice or differvice to .us at Munich. Claudius^ 
<c one of Cato's cou fins, and the young Sauer, an appren- 
<c tice to a merchant, are in the Noviciate. Beieramer, 
" furnamed Zoroajler, who was initiated a few days ago, 
" is going to try his luck at Landfhut, whither we fend 
" him to fee how it will be received there. Michel, un~ 
" der the name of Timon, and Hohenaicher fet off to the 
" attack of Freifinguen. 

" You are but little acquainted with the people of Aich- 
" ftadt. It is enough to fay, that (counfellor) Lang, fur- 
" named Tamerlane, is Director there. His zeal has al- 
u ready gained over to us Odin, Tajfo, Ofiris, Lucullus, 
" Sejo/irisj and Mofes. This is going on pretty well, I 
" think. I forgot to fay, that we have our printer at Mu- 
" nich. We are now making a new edition, and at our 
w own expenfe, of Alphonfus de Vargas on the Jlrata- 
" gems zndfophifms of the Jefuits.* You fhall foon re- 

* This fuppofed Alphonfus de Vargas, vvhofe calumnies a- 
gainft the Jeluifts Weilhaupt renews with fo much eagernefs, 
is no other than Gafpar Sciopius, far better known for the grofs- 
neis and virulence of his tedious difconrfes againft thofe who 
dared differ from him in opinion, than by his erudition. He 
was particularly abufive apainft Scalrçer and Jamss I. King of 
England; the latter had him anfwered in Spain by a fevere 
baftinado. This was alio the man who revenged himfelf in fo 
virulent a manner on Cafaubon and Du Plejjis Montai, his 
beft friends, but who had contradicted him on a point of lite- 
rature; in (hort, the man who has been alternately called the 
yittila, the Cerberus, and even the public executioner of litera- 
ture. See Mertri'% and Feller's Diftwiarhs. 


w ceive a copy of it. If you will fend your contribution 
K in money to Cato, as you promifed, I (hall be obliged to 
" you. He will fend you a receipt foi it. 

" If, through your zeal, and by your means, we^ould 
M obtain a footing in Suabia, it would be a great ftep 
u gained for us. Let me then befeech you to fet to work. 
" — In five years you ivill be ajionijhed to fee what a 
" P ro g ri f vue Jhall have made. Cats is really incompar- 
44 able. The greateft difficulties are over. You will now 
11 fee us advancing with gigantic Jlrides. Do fet to work 
K then. It would be in vain for you to expeel a better ac- 
" cafionfor acquiring power. You are endowed with all 
u the neceflary talents for fuch an undertaking ; and to ne- 
u gleet building in the Elyfian Fields when the occafion 
" offers is to be doubly criminal. There are a vaft num- 
" ber at Aichftadt; and could not your natal foil rival an 
e{ Aichftadt. With refpect to myfelf, the fervices I can 
tc render here can be but of little avail. Anfwer me foon i 
c< make an extract of this letter as ufual, and then fend it 
" back to me, &c." 

The grand object of fuch intimations on the progrefs 
of Illuminifm was not fo much to fàtisfy the curiofity of 
the adept, as to ftimulate his zeal by the example of Cats 
and Tamerlane^ thofe active recruiters for the Sect, the 
former at Munich, the latter at Aichftadt. Though he 
owned that Tiberius had not been altogether unfervice- 
able to him, neverthelefs Weifhaupt did not think that he 
had made a fufficient return for the honor conferred on 
him in being nominated at once fécond Areopagite and 
fécond Apoftle of the Order: It was with much concern 
(to make ufe of Weifhaupt's expreflion) that he faw this 
apoftle had neither Jon nor nephew in the order, that is to 
fay, that he had not founded a Lodge nor recruited a An- 
gle novice.* Wholly abforbed in his pleasures, Wei- 
ftiaupt^ad hitherto made but fruitlefs attempts to ftimu- 
late his zeal, nor had he fucceeded better through Cato's 
means; but this news had the defired effect. Thcfe in- 
timations on the progrefs of Illuminifm fmifhed by re» 
quefting Tiberius to leek out a proper perfon to be lent 
to found new colonies in Suabia. This fired the fluggard 
apoftle with emulation : 'Tiberius undertook the talk him- 
iclfy and in a fhort time we find him reprefentcd in the 

* Letter 3, to Cato. 


annals of the Sect as at the head of a new colony at Ra« 
venfburg in Swabia, and as fulfilling pcrfe&ly the func-» 
tions of his apoftlelhip.* 

But this zeal of Tiberius, as well as that of Jjax, was 
but of an intermittent nature. The latter had robbed the 
tunds of the Order i and Weifhaupt, fpeaicing of him, 
complains that he had done him more mi/chief both in men 
end money than three years could recruit again.\ As to 
'liberius, he had lb thoroughly imbibed the iniquitous 
doctrines which he was to infule into the young adepts, 
and the fcandalous publicity of his character militated fa 
much againft that hypocrify which Weilhaupt judged ne- 
ceiTary for the propagation of his Uluminifm, that we (hall 
fee him hereafter expelled the Order. Notwithstanding 
the feeming impropriety of fuch a choice for the two fe- 
nior apoftles, it was to them neverthelefs that the Sedl 
was indebted for the two colonies of Munich Athens, and 
of Ravenfburg Sparta. As to Aichftadt Erzerum y Wei- 
fhaupt himfelf was the founder. He profited of the firfc 
vacation he had from the fchools to make an excurfion to 
that town, and there employed all that time which the 
generality of profefibrs dedicate to the recruiting of their 
health, after the labors of the paft year, in the propagation 
of his doctrines. An affiduous fcrutator, he fought among 
all ranks of citizens and of all ages thofe he could hope to 
captivate. The firft perfon on whom he call his eyes, 
was one of the principal magiftrates,of the name of Lang. 
But a few days fu&ced for this conqueft, and this is the 
Tamerlane whofe fuccefles are fo much extolled in the 
above-mentioned letter to Tiberius. He next began to 
exercife his talents as Infinuator with all the artifice and 
according to the laws laid down in the code, on men who 
bearing a certain character, and habitually refiding among 
their fellow-citizens, could the more effe&ually influence 
the public opinion. He made au attempt to (educe the 
Chapter of that town, for it was from thence that he writes, 
" I* even think that I mall be able to recruit two others, 
" and what is more two Canons. Can I but execute my 
" defigns on the Chapter, then we fhall have made a g;*eat 
« ftep."$ 

* Original Writings, Vol. Î. Let. to Cafa, *5th Aug. and 
3d Sept. 1778. f Original Writings, L«,i. 3, to Cat&., 
% Let. 3, to Ajax, 


It does not appear that he fucceeded with his two ca- 
nons; but we fee him on the other hand making nume- 
rous conqueirs. He begins by a certain Schleich, with 
whom he is much delighted, and who on his firft admis- 
iion prefented the Order with whatever books Weifliaupt 
chofe to feiect from his library. Then comes a man fur- 
named Lucullus, who, while only in his noviciate, begins 
by Weiihaupt's exprefs command to act the part of Infi- 
nuator to the Baron Eckert, who was fuppofed to be a 
great prize. In fliort there was a number of young men 
whom Weifliaupt perfuaded to come and fmifli their edu- 
cations at his univerfity, that he might be able to com- 
plete their initiation. Such was the fuccefs be met with 
during the few months he remained at Aichiladt; and he 
was fo overjoyed with it, that he writes to ^'a^-MafTen- 
haufen, " I have moll certainly done more during this 
" vacation than all of you have done together*." Though 
obliged to return to his public functions of teacher at the, 
univerfity of Ingolftadt, he left this new Lodge in pos- 
feffion of fuch a fund of illuminized inftruction, that Aich- 
Aadt was foon looked up to as the model of Lodges; and 
the predeliction which Weifliaupt ever after retained for 
it is obfervable. He often propofes it as an example to 
thofe adepts who became lukewarm in the fervice of the 
Sect. It was alio the Lodge which he had the moil grofs- 
]y impofed upon as to the origin of the Seel-, and which 
hemoft ridicules in his confidential letters to Cato-Zwack, 
when he fays, " The greatelt of our myfteries mud be the 
" novelty of the Order. The fewer perfons there are in 
" the fecret, the better wefhall thrive; atprefentyou, and 
" Merz are the only two that know the fecret, nor do I 
" mean to tell it to any one elfe for a long time to come.. 
<c As to our fellows at Aiclfladt, there is not one of them 
<c that knows it y nor is there one who would notfwear on 
cc bis life and death that the Order is older than Methn- 

On his return to Ingolftadt, Weifliaupt applied himfelf 
to the means of combining his functions of Doctor of 
Laws with thofe of Founder of a Secret Society, whofe 
future purpofe was the total fubverfion of every law. He 
fulfilled the former part of his duty with fuch afliduity, 

* To Ajax, Let. 4. 

f Orig. Writ. Let. z, to FhiUp-Strozzi or CWo-Zwack. 


and with fuch an appearance of candor, that he was cho- 
tfen Superior of the univerfity. This new dignity only 
added to his hypocrify. The fame year, fo far was he 
from lofing fight of his tenebrous plots, that he formed a 
fecret fchool, wherein he amply counter-balanced the les- 
fons he was obliged to give in public ; and by means of 
this new fpecies of fcholars he ftored up abundant means 
•for the propagation of his Illuminifm. At once Superior 
and Profeffor of the univerfity, he made ufe of this dou- 
ble title to infpire the parents of his fcholars with new 
confidence. He converted his houfe into one of thofe 
boarding-houfes where young men, perpetually under the 
eyes of their mafters, are fuppofed to be better preferved 
from the dangers which threaten them at that age. Se- 
veral letters demonftrate the intention of this monftrous 
pedagogue to offer his houfe and table to the young ftu- 
dents of the univerfity as a means of attaining his baleful 
ends. He folicited fathers and mothers to entruft their 
children to his care; and overjoyed at having obtained fo 
precious a depofit, he exultingly writes to his adepts,, 
" that the young Baron Gf Schroeckenberg, and the young 
<( Hoheneicher, are to be boarded with him." He then 
adds, " And the je gentlemen aljo mujl jwallow the bait 
that is thrown to them." When he had obferved the 
great facility that this fecret fchool gave him of feducing 
his difciples, he writes, " Next year alio I will take board- 
« ers at my houfe, always with a view to forward the 
" grand objetl"* Should it come to pafs that he could 
not perfuade the parents to intruft any of his young audi- 
tors to his care, efpecially when he had caft his views on 
them, he then had houfes near him and in his intereft, to 
which he would entice the young pupils, left he mould lofe 
fight of them. It is on a fimilar occafion that he writes 
to Ajax, " I fee no other lodging for you in our neigh- 
** borhood but at my mother's, I mould be exceffively 
" happy if that would do for you ; and more particularly 
** fo, as fhe would make no difficulty in allowing you the 
" key of the houfe-door. I do not wifh to force you to 
ct go there if you can find a better; but the great advan- 
u tagv of this would he, that I Jhould always have a pre" 
u tence far going to your chamber* and there we csul4 


9 Orig. Writ, Vol. i, Let, u to Ajax, Let. 30, to Cats» 


<c more eafîly than at my boufe difcourfe together without 
"anyone's knowing a word of the matter. Our union 
li would be more fecrei."* 

Let not the reader be furprized at feeingme defcend to 
all thefe particulars. I am defcribing the infant ftateof a 
Secf, and the founder forming his firft difciples. Such 
.means might be defpifed by fome; but this was not the 
cafe with our prototype of rebellion; he lcarcely ap- 
pears to venture beyond the porch of his own habitation. 
Let the wolf alone; in the thickets of the foreft fhe fuc- 
kles her young ; they grow in ftrength, and we foon be- 
hold them carrying the palpitating remnants of flocks to 
gorge the ravenous maw of her who taught them to de- 
vour. Scarcely had Weifhaupt dedicated his fecret fchool 
for the fpace of two years to his Hluminifm, when his 
adepts, worthy of luch difaftrous plans, fallied forth to 
fpread the baneful poifons. Let the reader judge of the 
importance of his means by the fucceiles attending on 
them ; let him reflect on them while Weifluupt (hall be 
his own hiilorian in the following letter: 

" In future," fays he to his two famous AreopagiteS 
Cato and Marivs, u you will aflume a different tone with 
11 'Limon and Hoheneicher, as I have let them into the 
tc whole fecret; I have even difclofed myfelf to them as 
" founder of our Order; and I have done it for many rea- 
« fons. 

" Firft, Becaufe they are to be themfelves founders of 
u a new colony at Freyjinguen^ their native, country, and 
*' on that account irano in need of more particular inftruo 
*' tions as to the whole tendency of the Order, which 
" were much too long to have been given by letter. I 
11 pi oiit of every iuitant while they remain with me to 
" prepare them for every thing. 

a Secondly, Becaufe they muft in the meantime inn- 
u nuate the Baron D'E • • • anâ fowe other Jludents. 

" Thirdly, Becaufe H " (this H is evident- 
ly the above-mentioned Hoheneicher, the very perfon of 
whom Weifhaupt fays, when enticing him to board with 
him, He Jhall [wallow the bait) " is too well acquaint- 
" ed with my iryle of writing and of thinking, not to have 
f* foon found out that the whole was of my own invc;i» 
" tion. 

* Orig. Writ. Let. 5, to dja*. 


" Fourthly, Becaufe of all my boa) ders oflaft year he 
« was the only one who had not been made acquainted 
<* luith the whole bufmefs. 

" Fifthly, Becaufe he has offered to contribute to our 
" fecret library at Munich, and will furnijb us withfeve- 
** ral important articles belonging to the chapter of Frey- 
" Jinguen. 

" And, Laftly, Becaufe after three months more in- 
<c ftruction, which I have to give them, they will both be 
41 enabled to render us the moil important fervices."* 

From this letter we may evidently infer, fir ft, that of 
all the young men who boarded with Weifhaupt during 
the firft year of his confpiracy not a tingle one efcaped 
his dark defigns: Secondly, that they were not only ini- 
tiated in the myfteries, but even in the moft profound 
myfteries, that, for inftance, in which he reveals himfelf 
to be the founder of his Iliuminifm, which is pointed out 
in the Code as the laft fecret, and only to be imparted to 
the moft confummate adepts. f Thirdly, that before he 
had initiated his boarders into all his fecrets, he ufed them 
as tools for the fedu&ion of other itudents of the universi- 
ty, whom he had not been able to entice to his table. — 
Fourthly, that at the very period when \V eifhaupt reftores 
his pupils to their parents, their feduclion is complete; 
and that when thefe young men quit the univedity, as 
having accompliihed the ftudy of the laws of their coun- 
try, they depart for their natal foil imbued with the prin- 
ciples and initiated in all the means by which they are to 
overturn thofe very laws which they are fuppofed to have 
been ftudying, and annihilate all religion, fociety, and pro- 
perty. — Fifthly, the reader is not to forget the important 
articles which the young Hohencicher promifes to fteal 
from the library of the Chapter of Freyitnguen, and with 
which he is to enrich the fecret library of the Sect. Such 
an action could only be a çonfequence of Weifhaupt's 
grand principle of morality, that a ufeful theft could not be 
criminal^ or that thoie famé means which the wicked em- 
ploy for an evil end are juftifiable when, employed for the 
attainment of a good end. It is the fame principle which 
begins by plundering the libraries of the clergy, as the firft 

* Original Writings, Vol. r. Let- i?,, to Cato and Mariut. 
f See the Code, Vol. 3. Chap a- 00 the Gra..d Myfteries, 
Page 288. 


f!ep towards the plundering of their eftates ; which form» 
under the pretence of general utility and necefîity for the 
fupport of the premeditated revolution, will invade the 
property of the Nobles and of the Rich, of the Merchant, 
the Hufbandman, and the Mechanic, pillaging all, and 
blading the molt diftant hope they may have conceived of 
preferving the fmalieft remnant of their fhattered fortune 
from the general wreck. When the hiftorian (hall come 
to treat of thefe great revolutionary fpoliations, reverting 
to the prime fource, he will find himfelf in the midft of a 
Seel: calling itfelf Illuminées, a fchool of methodized rob- 
bers thieving by principle, whence Weifliaupt fends his 
apoitles of depredation, and brigand adepts, Soon we (hall 
behold them boafting of other fpoliations. The leflbns of 
the fecret cavern (hall fpread around, and the adept, anni- 
hilating all property as well as blafpheming all govern- 
ment and all religion, l'hall do homage to their matter pre- 
siding over his fecret fchool. 

The two new adepts, formed with fo much care to the 
arts of fcduclion, at length received their million, and the 
town of Freyfinguen, under the appellation of Thebes^ be- 
comes the fourth colony. About the fame time the adepts 
of the two Lodges at Âlunich mowed fo much zeal for 
the propagation of the myfteries, that Weiihaupt after 
having calculated on their and his own fuccefs,did nothe- 
fitate at writing to them, " If you do but continue with 
" the fame zeal, we (hall in a little time be mailers of our 
* c whole country* ;" that is to fay, of all Bavaria. 

The reader mud not, however, think that his views 
were circumfcribed to this Electorate; he foon writes to 
his Areopagites, dehring them to make choice, from 
among the foreigners who were then at Munich, of per- 
fons who might be inflrucled, initiated, andfent to found 
new colonies at Augfcourg, Ratifbon^ Saltzbourg, Land- 
Jhut-i and in different parts of Francania.f At the time 
he wrote thefe inftrudîions he had already lent his million* 
aries to the 'iyrol and into ltaly.% The part, or rather 
the multiplicity of parts, which he acted at Ingolftadt to 
enfure the fuccefs of his undertaking are as inconceivable 

* Orig. Writ. Vol. t. Let. %(■>, 14th of November, 1778. 
Wennfiefo fortfabren, tuitjèit àniger zeitfogebort in k&rzcF 
bat unjer vater land uns. 

T ibid. Let. 39, X Ibid. Let. 36. 


as they were real. He gives us a fmall fketch of his acti- 
vity when he writes to Cato, propofmg himiclf as a model : 
" Do as I do, avoid large companies. But do not think 
lc of remaining idle if you wifh to acquire any influence 
" in this world. Wait a while; the hour is coming, and 
u it will come foon, when you will have a great deal to do. 
•* Remember Sejanus, who lb well aflumed the charter 
" of an idle man, and who tranfacted fo much bufmefs 
" without appearing to tranfact any; erat autcm Sejanus 
11 otiofo fimillïmuî-tnlhil agendo mulia ogens ;"* neverhad 
a confpirator better laid down the precept or given the ex- 
ample than Weifhaupt. 

Apparently tranquil at Ingolflradt, Weifhaupt had a 
far better cloak for his confpiracies than Sejanus's idle— 
nefs. A fecming affiduity in his duty, a great fhow of 
zeal and erudition in his expounding of the laws, eafily 
mifled people to believe that his whole time and talents 
were engrailed with the itudy of them; and, if we are to 
credit his own account, Ingolltadt had never witnefled a 
profeflor fo well calculated to add new luftre to its uni- 
verfity. The public functions of profeflor of the laws, 
and the fecret arts of feducer in private, had not made him 
forget that he was alfo the founder of Illuminifrn, and that 
in this latter quality he had to form a code of laws, which 
were at once to annihilate every other law, all religion, 
and all property, At the time when he initiated his fuir; 
adepts, he was far from having perfected that code of ini- 
quity; and perhaps in the ltrict ienfe of the word Wei- 
fhaupt had deviated from the common rules of prudence, 
in giving way to fuch ardor for the propagation of the Or- 
der, fending his apoitles and initiating his difciples before 
he had completed the code of laws which was to regulate 
their conduct. But fuch an impetuoiity cannot be conli- 
dered in this prototype of rébellion as a want of forefight, 
or as an excefs 01 confidence. He knew that years and 
experience were neceiTary to perfect: that gradual fyitem 
of initiations and of trials which his Novices were to un- 
dergo ; and artfully to prepare thole impious and fophifri- 
cated difcouries to be pronounced by his Hierophants; in 
a word, to complete that concatenation of artifice which 
was to regulate the conduct of his Regents, Directors, and 
Areopagitps, He could not endure the idea of Sacrificing 

* Let. i, to Cato. 


fd many years to mere theoretic projets. He would, in 
his firit efTays, make conquefb that were to enfure him 
ftill greater ones on a future day, which he had already 
calculated. He knew his own talents too well to enter- 
tain the leaft doubt-of fuccefs ; he forefaw how far he could 
perfect thofe fyftems which he had as yet only conceived, 
and he wifhed to have ready at hand a numerous clan of 
diiciples difpofed to receive his new gofpel, and apoftles 
who mould need only to be initiated in his laft myfteries, 
when his code, completed, was to be fent to the tenebrous 
recefles of his different colonies. 

Such were his views, and fuch the confidence he had in 
the tranfcendency of his own genius for wickednefs, when 
he wrote at different times to his firft adepts, " Do not 
" trouble yourfelf about future degrees. The day will 
*' come when you mall view with aitonifhment what I 
*' have done on that fcore. In the mean time, be it your 
" care to enlijl men for ?ne, prepare knights for me, iujtrucl 
u then:-, difpofe them, arnufe them, and leave the reji to ms. 
" The whole of your bufinefs conflits in adding to the 
*' numbers. Allow yourfelves to be directed, and obey 
" for a year or two longer, and give me time to lay my 
" foundations, for that is the efj'ential point; and nobody 
u under Jlands that part better than 1 do. If thefe foun- 
" dations are once laid, you may then do what you pleafej 
u and though you were to try, I would defy you to over- 
" tbroiv ?ny edifice."* 

This defperate method of proceeding mult have given 
rife to many difficulties ; but Weiîhaupt overcame them 
all. By provisional regulations and private instructions 
he Supplied the deficiency of this incomplete code, and he 
was equal to the tafk. The greatell obltacles he met with 
came from thefe very Areopagites from whom he had ex- 
pected the greateft Support. Villains will difagree even 
in their viilainy; and, impatient of the laws of the State, 
they become impatient of the laws of their own leaders'. 
Weifhaupt wifhed to take advantage of their views, but 
had no intention of imparting his to them; he knew his 
own fuperiority in the black arts too well, he wiflied for 
agents and not counfdlors and co-icgiilators. Jealoufies 
and interline broils rofe to fuch a height, that any other 

* Extras from Let. 8, to Ajax, from Letters to Cato, and 
to the Artopagues particularly from Let. 59, Vol. 1. 


but Weifhaupt would have thought that his infant aflb- 
ciation muft have been crufhed in its very cradle ; but he 
found means of weathering the ftorm; now negociating, 
then defpotically commanding; fuppliant like, he enters 
into agreements, and ends by dictating conditions; pray- 
ers, excufes, all are means with him to command fubmis- 
fion; he even fhowed himfelf difpofed to facrince all the 
fruits of his paft labors; he threatened to abandon bis re- 
bellious brethren to themfelves, and to undertake the di- 
rection of a new fociety more powerful and ftronger full, 
in as much as he would render it more fubmilîive.* In 
the midfl of all thefe broils, he alone «ontinued and per- 
fected that code which would have required the talents of 
twenty Alachiavels. Storms indeed appeared only to fti- 
mulate his ardor and activity; and he fays himfelf, when 
writing to his dear Cato, " I am once more at open war 
" with all our people ; that does no harm, it enlivens the 
*' machine % but if I underftand the part I have to a£t, I 
" can neither praife nor wink at faults committed. Mean 
" while our affairs go on very well; and provided they 
" follow my directions the general fyftem will have loft 
*' nothing."^ Night and day, in the midit of thefe broils, 
as h& fays, meditating, writings and co?nbining, all that 
could perfect, ltrengthen, or propagate his Illuminifm ei- 
ther in the whole or part, he neverthelcfs held his profefs- 
orfnip with appiaufe, he ovei looked his fecret fchool, he 
formed new adepts, and from his fanctuary washed and 
overlooked his miffionaries in their provinces and new co- 
lonies. By means of the £hdbus Licet' s he would defcend 
into the minuteit particulars of their conduct, direct them 
in their undertakings, point out to them what might be 
done, and reprimand them for what they had not done to 
promote his views. Voltaire's correfpondence under this 
head is immenfe ; but it is not to be compared to Wei- 
fhaupt's; not a letter of all thofe feized by the arm of the 
law but bears the itamp of the comfummate confpirator; 
not a letter that does not allude to the myfteries or to fome 
new artifice; that does not point out the candidates to be 
enticed, the adepts to be advanced, animated, reprciTed, or 
reprimanded; in fhort, the enemies who are to be guard- 
ed againit and the protectors to be courted. His apoitlçs 

* Vol. r, Let. a.?, 37, <te; Vol. a, Let. u, 19, ai> Sec. Sec. 
t Vol, 2, Lut. 19. 


are on the fpot in their different millions, while he, from 
his head-quarters, appears to be better acquainted with 
thofe who ilirrounded thetn than they are themfelves. He 
goes fo far as to inform them of the rank, political or ci- 
vil ftation, and even of the private characters of thofe 
whom they are to recruit j he gives them the means, men- 
tions the peifons who are to fécond them, and what com- 
panies they ought to frequent, in order to fucceed in their 
undertakings ; in fine, he animates, threatens, and repri- 
mands his adepts, juft as if they wereftill boarding with 
him, though perhaps at many hundred miles diftance.— 
Scarcely have they made any new conqueft when he di- 
rects them in the fame manner, and at once governs the 
main fpring and every fubfervient power throughout the 
whole Order. His correfpondence will fhow him on the 
fame day writing of the laws necefTary for the further 
erhblifhment of his Order, of treaties to be made,of plans 
of commerce, and of the moft impious commerce, to en- 
rich his Iliuminifm. At length, with all the hypocrify of 
a man who aflumes the character of an idler, or at leaft of 
one only fulfilling that which his public duty exa&s from 
him, he aims at the fupremacy over every confpiring Sect. 
He gets himfelf received a Free-mafon, he dives into the 
fecrets of the occult lodges of the Roficrucians, and blends 
their confpiring arts with his own.* He next forms an 
alliance, and from the bottom of Bavaria correfponds with 
thofe federations which the free-mafons of Poland were 
preparing; and left any of thefe revolutionary arts mould 
be loft, he makes large collections, which might be called 
the grand arfenal for the feduction of nations; and thefe 
are to become the foundations of fecret libraries for the 
ufe of the adepts. He never lofes fight of thofe profits 
which accrue from the fecret prefles, which were perpe- 
tually difgorging poifon into the minds of the people.— 
For the further replenifhment of his coffers, he fets all 
the talents of his adepts to work ; fome are to contribute 
pamphlets, profe or verfe, or journals, while others are to 
col i eel all the impious doctrines and calumnies of anti-^ 
quity, or to compofe libels on fubjecls which he gives 
them; and, for his own part, he undertakes to burleique 
the Prophets and the Lamentations, and to convert the 
hiftory of the church into a romance replete with calum- 

* Let. 6, to JjaXf and Let. $i» to Cat«. 


ny.* The facred writings mention a Devil that was na- 
med Légion^ from the innumerable evils he brought upon 
mankind; were we to confider the fatal activity of Wei- 
ihaupt in every impious and rebellious art, we mould be 
tempted to believe that he had been polTefled by this evil 
fpirit, and that it was to that devil he owed all his fuccefs. 
As yet the very exiftence of the Order had not been 
fufpe&ed at Ingolftadt, though there were already in Ba- 
varia alone, five Lodges at Munich ; other Lodges and 
Colonies at Freynnguen, at Lanfberg, at Burghaufen, and 
at Straubing. Weifhaupt was on the eve of founding 
others at Ratifbon and Vienna; many had been eftabliih- 
ed in Suabia, Franconia, and Tyrol. His apoftles were 
working at the fame time in Holland and at Milan. His 
Illuminifm had not been founded three years, when he 
writes to Cato that he has more than a thoufand adepts, -p 
He was much indebted to his own zeal and activity for 
fuch a rapid progrefs. I cannot flatter the hiftorian with 
the hopes of an accurate account of the whole Legion; 
but I can falisfy his curiofity, I think, with refpeft to thofe 
who the moft actively feconded Weifhaupt, and who af- 
ter their founder appear the moft confpicuous on the re- 
cords of the Seel. 

* Vol. i, Let. 6,to djax, to Cato, 36, &c. To Philip-Stroz» 
Stf, Let. %, fr paflim» Vol. a, Let. %i, et paffim. 

f Orig. Writ. Vol. 1, fee Let. * 5, to Cato, 13th Abenraeh^ 
x .148, that ia to fay, 13th Nov. 1778. 



Of the 'principal Adepts during the firfl Epoch of IUu- 


Ci./y-Hà' f~\F tms kg 1 ' 011 °f ConfpiratOrs, which, as early as the 
verius V_y third year of Illuminifm, Weifhaupt computes at 
Zwack. more than a tbcufand,* Xaverius Zwack is certain- 
ly the moft confpicuous among the adepts. He is ftiled 
the incomparable ; and the greater part of the letters print- 
ed in the Original JVritlngs are written to him, particu- 
larly thofe which comprehend the cleareft account of the 
myfteries; in fliorr, his favor was fuch, that the founder 
cf the Sect apoiîropdiifes him faying, " Now you are in a 
" poll where nobody can be above you butyourfelf; you 
ft are exalted above all the Brethren; an irnmenfe field 
" opens itfelf for you to exert your power and your influ- 
" ence, fhould we fucceed m propagating our fyftetns."f 
Such a diftin&ion and fuch favor naturally fuppofe great 
merit. Happily, ah incontrovertible monument exifts 
which will direct the Hiftorian in his judgment, and ren- 
der unneceflary any further refearch. It is to be found at 
the end of the firft Volume of the Original Writing?, under 
the title of Tablets relating to Danaus, written by Ajax y 
^iji December, IJj6. Danaus is the flirt characteriftie 
name that was given to Zwack when only a candidate. 
The fadfc is evident, as in the firft column of the Tablets 
we find the brother Danaus defcribed by his own name: 
Ajax, that is, Maflenhaufen, acls the part of Scrutator. 
■ — Should this ftate nient not be very flattering, we may 
at leaft conclude that the failings and vices of the adept 
are not exaggerated, fince the Scrutator declares, that it 
is by the extreme intimacy and friendfhip in which he liv- 
ed with the Candidate that he has been enabled to make 
this conqueft, and terminates the tablet by ftating the 
Candidate to be one of thofe Sages who has all the ne- 
celfary qualifications to be admitted into the Order.— 

* Original Writings, Let. 25, to Cat$ x 
<[• Ibid. Vol. 1, Let. 37. 


Thefe tablets are alfo a lafting monument of the rapid 
progrefs Weifhaupt had made, even in thofe early days of 
Jlluminiun, in the fcrutinizing arts; nor will they prove 
an unfaithful ftandard by which the Hiftorian may judge 
of the merits of thofe confpirators, whom the founder fe- 
le£ts as worthy of his moft intimate correfpondence. Let 
us begin by fuppreffing that difguft which naturally drives 
the honeft heart from dwelling on fuch defpicable en- 
gines of rebellion, remarkable only for their vices, and 
proceed from thefe tablets to depict the features which 
are in future to ftand as the model for all thpfe who are 
to recruit Candidates for the Seel. Let nations and the 
people at large learn what a miferable banditti of thieves 
and libertines pretend to regenerate them, and how bafe- 
ly they are duped by them who ftirred up the Revolu- 
tion. , 

The Tablets, whence Weifhaupt is to learn the me- ~ ç ., , 
rits and demerits of the future Cato of his Order, are di- j n t!ie t£ ^. 
vided into feventeen columns, each relating to a different Jets of his 
head. The name, the age, the civil dignity, the defcrip- Infinuator. 
tion of his perfon, the civil and moral character of the 
candidate, are all treated of feparately. Then follow the 
ftudies he is addidted to, the fervices the Order may ex- 
pect from him, the progrefs he has made, the decrees con- 
ferred on him, the fecret manuscripts or books left to him, 
the contributions he has paid; his friends, his protectors, 
his enemies, and the perlons with whom he correippnds, 
are each feparately treated ol". 

Under thefe columns is to be found a frcond table alfo 
fubdivided, and containing obfervations on the family, and 
particularly of the father and mother of the candidat \ 
made by the fame Scrutator. Combining thefe two ta- , 
bles we find, « That Francis Xaverius Zwack was fori Coluran - 
* c of Philip Zwack, commiflary of the Chamber des Cornp~ 
u tes, and was born at Ratifbon: That at the time of his 
" initiation (29th May, 1776) he was twenty years of 
" age, and had rinifhed his college education." 

" The description of his pel Jon. He was then about H. 
I£ five feet high. His perfon emaciated by debauchery; his Column. 
" conftitutioa bordering on melancholy;* his eyes of a 
" dirty grey, weak and languijhincr\ — his complexion pale 

* Der ganze bau feines durch débauche mager gewordene» 
korper inclioiert nun zum melancoliichen temperament. 


" and fallow;— Wis health weak, and much hurt by fre- 
" queiat diforders; — his nofe long, crooked, and hooked, 
" — Hair light brown; — gait precipitate; — bis eyes al- 
<c ways cajl towards the gro un d;— under the nofe and on 
<{ each fide of the mouth a mole. 
jjj " The moral characler, religion, confcicnce. His heart 

Column. " tender, and mod extraordinarily philanthropic, but ftoic 
" when in a melancholy mood; otherwife a true friend^ 
" circumipccl > rcferved,ejr/r^;//« , /)'y^cr^/) — often fpeaking 
u advantageoufly of himfelf, — envious of other people's 
u perfections — voluptuous, endeavoring to improve him- 
" felf — little calculated for numerous aflèmblies — choleric 
tl and violent, but eafily appeafed — willingly giving his 
" private opinions, when one has the precaution to praife 
" him, though contradiSling him — a lover of novelties—- 
** on religion and confcience widely differing from the re- 
" ceived ideas; and thinking precifely as he ought, to be- 
" come a good member of the Order* 

K His favorite Jludies, and the fervices he can render 
1 " to the Order. Moft particularly addicted to philofophy 

" — having fome knowledge ofthe laws— fpeaking French 
« and Italian very correctly — at prefent attempting to get 
" himfelf placed in the foreign department — a perfeft 
" majler in the arts of diffmulaîion; a proper pcrfon ta 
" be received into the Order, as applying himfelf particu- 
u larly to the fludy ofthe human heart." 

Friends, correfpondence, company. — Here the Infinua- 

_ , tor names five or fix perlons, friends to the candidate. — - 

Among them we find a certain Sauer and a Berger, both 
of whom loon after appear on the registers of the Seel. 

vr. vn. Thefe three columns contain the name of Ajax as In- 
VHI. fmuator — The day when the candidate was infinuated — - 

Columns. an( j u Jien received. 

TV " Ofthe means of gaining and leading the Candidate, 

Column. " an ^ whether he is acquainted with any other fee ret fo- 
" dettes. — Here it appears that Zwack was already con- 
" nected with other iecret focieties, which made the con- 
a quell rather more difficult.— The intimacy of our friend- 
" Jhip, (fays the Infinuator) and particularly the care which 
u i took to allume a myfterious tone and appearance, lev - 
" elled many difficulties. — At prefent he exprtffes a great 
" ardor and zeal for the Order. 
X. " Predominant paj/ions — Pride, love of glory, probity, 

Column. " eafily provoked— -an extraordinary propenlity for mys- 


** teries — a perpetual cuftom of fpeaking of himfelf and 
*' of his own perfections." 

In the eleventh column vie are informed, that the can- XÏ, 
didate had received a penfum to fill up, or a difcourfe to Column, 
make, and that it was to be finilhed on the 29th April, 

The twelfth mentions the fortune and revenue of the XII. 
candidate; but the Editor has left the figures in blank. Column. 

The two next mow, that the day on which Z wack en- XIII. 
gaged to pay his contribution for J 777 was the 29th of X{ V. 
May, but for 1778 was the lit of April. That on the Columns. 
19th July 1776, he fent a Dutch Ducat, and fome time 
after two books on Chymiftry. 

The column in which the Infinuator notes the progrefs XV, 
of his candidate (hows, that the fecret books which had Column, 
been given him to read were thole numbered 1, 2, 4, and 
9 — the orders which he had received are only numbered, 
as alfo the leave given to recruit other Brethren. As this 
column is made ufe of to note the fuccefiive progrefs of 
the candidate, the Brother Infinuator at length arrives at 
that period when Zwack has received all the information 
neceifary to his ad million into the Order. He then de- 
clares, that it is time to impart more eflêntial fecrets to 
him and to promote him to higher degrees. ' 

The fixteenth column enumerates his enemies, and the XVT. 
reafon of their enmities. In the lafl we find the names of XV if. 
his friends and proteclors. Columns. 

I fhould not have infilled fo much on thefe Tablets, 
had I not thought it neceifary to give one fpecimen at 
iealf. of thefe inquifitorial inllrumentsj in which Illumi- 
nifn grounds the choice of its adepts, and the future fuc- 
cefs of its confpiracies.* 

* Many readers may he curious to know what is contained 
in the fécond table, fubjoined to that which defcrihes the can- 
didate, it is in ten columns, comprehending the names and 
rank of Zwack's relations, an account of their children, their 
fortune, their alliances, friends, and enemies; the company 
they keep, pariiculariv the education they have received, and 
their moral character, which is called their Jlrong or their ineak 
fide. The Editor has thought proper to omit fome articles in 
uns table— The two which appear to be the mod perfect are 
on the jlrong 'and nveak Ji 'de of Zwack's parents, who, accord- 
ing to the Indinuator, have received an antiquated education ndt 
•worth much. The father is défcribed as " jealous of his honoi , 
44 honeft, zealous in the dhcharge of his duty — apparently 


When we re fled on the leading features of thefe ta- 
blets, what idea are we to form of Zwack's chara&er? 
Inordinate debauchery, extreme fatuity, jealoufy, diflimu- 
lation, and a fullen melancholy. — Such features are more 
than fufficient to banifh him from all good company. — < 
He alfo thinks on matters relating to religion and confci-. 
encc as the adepts do; or, m other words, is a downright 
Atheift. With an infatiable thirft after novelties, he has 
all that admiration for fecrecy which the revolutionift can 
oeifiré. He, moreover, profeffes univerfal philanthropy for 
all mankind, that he may the better fucceed in his plots 
againff. every focial law ; and this could fufnce to oblite- 
rate all other failings in Xavcrius Zwack, and conftitute 
him the favorite adept. 

Meanwhile the leflbns of the Infinuator, together with 
that black melancholy which reigned in his heart, had 
nearly deprived Illuminifm of the important amftance of 
this beloved adept. To defpife death was one of the im- 
portant leifons that we have feen given to the novices; 
and to die by their own hands rather than difclofe the fe- 
Crets of their teachers, was particularly inftilled into them. 
Weiflïâupt had conceived this maxim in two words, Pa- 
tet Ex'itus (the exit is free) or dejtroy himfelf ivbo willy 
particularly if he finds himfelf unhappy in this life. It is 
apart of that convenient maxim after wards decreed by 
the Jacobins, That death was only an eternal jleep. Full 
of this principle, and weary of his exiftence, our new 
candidate had permaded himfelf, that mould he die by his 
own hand he would die the death of a fage. He compos- 
ed his work 3 entitled, Thoughts on Suicide. They are tire 

'■ bar fh to his inferiors, but really loving them to excefs— - 
" fpeaking to every body with a tone of authority and inape- 
" dântic ftyle — In his habits and fpeech impoliticly frank — fe- 
" cret, and lparing even to the want of necerTanes when he can 
" fe.rve his Prince, zealoufly ferving him without diftinclion of 
" pcrfons, to the rifk even of Jofing all iiis employments — 
4< feeling, humane, myfterious, officious, and proud of his ex- 
" pesiencfc — carefully attentive to the whole of his affairs." 
As to the mother, " /he is a good boujekeeper— abforbed in her 

" dear child Xaveriiu Ztvack, and fo forth." Many other 

things have been fuppreffed in this latter table. But there ifili 
remains h.iore than iuiucierit to give all relations of illuminées 
an idea of the methods ufed by the fcrutinizins Brethren to 
pry into their moft fecret conduclj and to deicrioe their moit 
private ioterefts to t^e Order, 


fentiments of an Atheift worn out with debauchery, and 
almoft mad with impiety.* He made his will, and Wirote 
the following letter to Brother Ajax. 

" Munich, the 30th Oct. 1777. — Friend, I am on my 
" departure. It is the beft ftep 1 can take, Fare thee well; 
" doubt not of my probity, and let it not be doubted of by 
"others. Confirm the Sages in the judgment they are 
u going to form on my death, and look on thole who blame 
" it with pity. Be thou an honeit man; think fometimes 
" on me, and do not let me be forgotten by the fmall num- 
" ber of our friends. Beware of pitying me, 


In a poftfeript he bequeaths a ring as a kéepfaké to 
Brother Ajax, and begs him to forward a fécond letter to 
the whole brotherhood of Illuminifm; it is as follows: 

« And you alio, Brethren, I falute you for the laft time; 
« I thank you for your good intentions towards me. I de- 
» clare to you, that I was worthy of them — I declare it 
" upon my honor, which is my only worth, andvihicb 
" alone I held/acred. Let my alhes be honored by your 
" remembrance; bhjs tbem, while fuperjlition JJo<all cm ft 
" me. Enlighten yourfelves mutually, labor to render 
ct mankind happy, efteem virtue and reward it; punifh. 
" crime, and behold with pity the failings of human na- 
" ture. On the brink of his grave, defending into it de- 
" liberately, and making choice of death through convie- 
" tion, through demonjiration, choofing it for bis happi- 
" nefs; it is thus that he makes his adieu, who ever 're- 
" mains your friend and Brother,! 


Illuminifm mud have loft its favorite adept, had ife 
proved as confiant in his refolution as he was ferions 
when he took it. No reafon is given why he condefcend-r 
ed to live; but in like manner as Weilhaupt has found 
a protector in the perfon of the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, fo 
has he been created a Privy Ccunfellor to the Prince of 
Salm-Kirbourg, and is his ordinary agent at the Imperial 
Chamber of Wetzlar. At this prefent moment he is de* 
puty for the Houfe of Salm-Kirbourg at P,aftadt, at the 
General Congrefs of the Germanic Empire, treating of 
peace with the triumphant Illuminées of the French Re- 
public. He is accompanied by a Sieur. Ambmann, a citizen 

* Bee Original Writings, Vol. t. Seel. a<j. f Ibid. 


of Darmftadt, and an Illuminée like himfeif. Hiftory,I fup~ 
pofe, will at fome future time explain how he contrived to 
combine the intercfts of the Seâ: with thofe of the Pow- 
ers which he had fworn to annihilate. But let us return 
to Zwack at a time when he little expected to be carried 
by the Brethren to that exalted ftation where he was to 
decide on the. fate of Sovereigns, 

His Thoughts on Suicide^ however, were not loft on 
his iifter-in-law, for (lie really fought death, and, throw- 
ing herfelf from the top of a tower, daftied her brain* 
out.* Eut he, who had chofen to live, took umbrage at 
the great length of his noviciate, and at the many trials 
Ajax made him undergo. He writes directly to Wei- 
Oiaupt, who, taking him under his direction, begins by 
telling him that yf/'<?.vhad impofed upon him by not for- 
warding the letter he had written to the brethren; but 
fince he has impofed upon you., fays the inftructor, trick 
him in your turn; and the following was the method a- 
dopted on Weimaupt's propofal. Zwack is eftablifhtd 
Inspector over his own Infinuator;f and he then gave 
the moiî evident proofs that his character had been well 
drawn, when it was faid that he was a perfect majier of 
the arts of diffimulation; for although he now became the 
confident and bofom friend of Spartacus, and was con- 
sequently initiated in all the myfteries of the Sect, he ne- 
vertheless continued to acTt the part of a Novice with his 
Inflnuaton He was not only at that time a member of 
the College of Areopagites, but alfo the fuperior of it, 
and in a perpetual and direct correfpondence with Wei- 
fhaupt. He acted his part fo well, that Ajax, ftill coniid- 
eiing him as his fchclar, thought to do him a great fa- 
vor in fliowing him a few of Weifhaupts's letters; but 
they had already pafled through the fcholars' hands, as did 
every writing coming from Spartacus to Ajax. 

This part which Zwack acted, of infpeéting him who 
thought himfeif his infpector, explains that apparent con- 
tradiction between the tablets written by Ajax and the 
lift of the firft adepts, which is to be (sen in the Original 
Writings.;}: In the former Ajax looks upon Xavcrius 
Zwack as a mere candidate till the 29th May, 1778, and 
in the latter he is ftyled an Areopagite on the 22d Feb. 

* Ibid in the Note. 
f Let. 1, to Philip Strozzi. % Vol. I. Ssct, IV. 


1778, under the characterise of Cato-, and a few months 
after he appears to be the next in command after the Spar- 
tacus of the Order.* Never was an Infmuator better un- 
dermined by his novice. 

The different names under which this adept appears 
in the Original Writings has been a matter of fome dif- 
ficulty to many readers; but on paying attention to that 
predilection, always increafing, which Weifhaupt had con- 
ceived for this adept, the difficulty vanifhes. At fïrft 
Zwack had received the infignificant name of Danaus, 
but no fooner was Spartacus made acquainted with his 
hatred for Icings, than he fumâmes him philip Strozziy 
after that famous Florentine Confpirator, who, having 
murthered Alexander de Medicis, was afterwards taken 
in open rebellion againft his fovereiçn, and plunged a 
dagger into his own breaft, reciting that verie dictated by 
all the fury of vengeance: 

Exoriare aliquis noflris ex offibus ultor. 

The fuicide, though it did not take place, was equally 
iperitorious in Weifhaupt's eyesj and hence Zwack is 
created the Cato of Illuminiiin. It is under that name 
that he becomes the principal agent and beloved difciple 
of the founder at iviunich; and their mutual fympathyin 
■yvickednefs has perpetuated their intimacy. 

Though he had not all the genius of Weifhaupt him- 
felf, he was as much prone to the commiihon of crime. — : 
Scarcely had he entered the Order when, for his firft es- 
fay, he declares himfelf a downright Atheiftjf he, at the 
fame time, makes known his hatred for kings, and his ad- 
miration of the people in rebellion againft their pretended 
tyrarits.| We may obferve fome of the firft adepts afto- 
nifhed at the immenfity of the crimes and difafters which 
Weifhaupt was preparing for the univerfe; and it re- 
quires fome management to prepare them for fuch horrid 
plots. But his Cato is always ready for every thino;. The 
incomparable Cato was arrived at the height of his mys- 


* Letter 47, to Philip Strozzi. 

f See his Difcourfe on Societies, Original Writings, Vol. I, 

X See his Thoughts on Suicide. 


terteS) and Weifhaupt hid but to enroll his code of ini- 
quity, for his fcholar could onl^t-be furpaffed by the crimi- 
nality of invention. 

This fympathy for impiety and wickednefe, however, 
could not fuflice for Weifhaupt's policy. His views re- 
quired a fenate of Confpirators; buta fenate of agents, 
and not of equals. The better to be obeyed by the Areo- 
pagites, he commands them to meet at a diftance from 
him j for he well underftood the nature of fecret focieties, 
and knew that his orders would be the better obeyed the 
more he enveloped hinfelf in myftery, and hid himfelf from 
public view. If, in fpite of his inviiibility,jealoufy fliould 
arife on the part of the Areopagites, he will have an a- 
gent at their head, that Cato, who holds the exalted Na- 
tion of president from him, and is therefore moft intcreft- 
ed to fupport the authority of the founder, his protedtor. 
And it is to preferve this prefident in his inter.efts that we 
fee Weifhaupt ufing every artifice, and even Amplica- 
tion; " flip-port me then" he fays; " do difpofe things fo, 
" and prepare their minds, that my dilpoiitions may be 
<* received."--" 

Weifhauut had no reafon to regret his choice; for dur- 
ing all thole inteftine broils which arofe between him and 
his Areopagites on account of his defpotifm, Zwack al- 
ways took the part of his benefactor, was the pacificator, 
and, {Simulating their zeal for his plots and confpiracies, 
brought them back to that refpedt due to the Spartacus 
of the Order. It is to him alio that Illuminifm is indebt- 
ed for the progrefs it made in Munich. Cato was fo zea- 
lous a Recruiter, that Weifhaupt was obliged feveral 
times to reprefs his ardor. He wanted his aiTiftance for 
the digefting of his code, and for the government of the 
Order. In (hort, the refult of their correfpondence proves, 
that no Areopagite either entered fo completely into his 
views, or fojuftlydeferved his confidence as Ctfta-Zwack.f 
And it may be faid with truth, that no confpirator ever 
acled the part of a zealous fervant of his prince with fo 
much fuceefs as this man. In the midft of his plots of Il- 
luminifm, Xaverius Zwack found means of getting him- 
felf named Cotoifellor to the Court-, and Çounfeller to the 
Regency, with a falary oj twenty thoujand florins. Wei* 

* Original Writings, Vol. I. particularly Letter si- 
f See the Original Writings, Letters to Cat*. 


Inaupt, overjoyed at his promotion, compliments him, 
faying, " Accept my felicitations on the new appoint- 
K ment. I could wifti that all my Arecpagites were privy 
w counfellors with falaries of twenty thouland florins; but 
*' I could alfo more ardently wifh, that their employments 
w required but little time and labor, as they could then 
•* apply more clolUy to the grand objedt."* The very 
letter in which Weifhaupt compliments his prefldent is 
one of thofe to his Areopagites in which he enters into 
the particulars, and boafts of the progrefs of his confpi- 

The fécond of thefe Areopagites was a prieft of the N. 
name of Hertel, furnamed Marius by the Illuminées. Marins 
ït is of this perfon that Weifhaupt writes to C?/<?-Zwack, ™ }*]? 
<* Our Marius is fuperlatively referved. On moft occa- u'e^tel 
" fions he advances with the greateft cirawifpeation-, and 
" with refpedl to religious mat ter s let us flatter bit weak- 
Cl fiefs-. His jlomach is notjlrong enough as yet to digejl 
c ' the tougher morfels. On all other fubjeéts you may re- 
*' ly on him. Do not give him too much work until he 
c< has acquired the habit of bufinefs, and taken a liking 
w to the affair. If he be once brought in properly, he can 
M render the greatelr. fervices."f 

Notwithftanding all his drcumfpeclinn^ Hertel foon fuf- 
fered himfelf to be carried away into all the clangers of fe- 
cret focieties, and fell a prey to their machinations. Since 
he had lbme confeience left, Weifhaupt thought that he 
could not turn it to a better account than by making him 
treaibrer to the Order, that he might by his economy and 
honefty repair the numerous breaches that had been made 
in its funds by the thefts of Jjax. The illuminized Ma- 
rius acquitted himfelf of his oirice much to the fatisfac- 
tion of the founder. In recorripence for his fervices, the 
brethren get him nominated canonicate at Munich; and 
he was ib much amufed with this intrigue, that he wifli- 
cs to divert Cato with a recital of it, but does not dare 
commit it to paper.J At the period when he came to 
take poffeflion of his canonicate, all thofe cirtumfpefl: ideas 
of religion had vanilhed. He delcribes himfelf as going 
from the altar to the dens of Illumimfm, as publicly in- 

* Ibid. Vol. IH. Letter ». 

f Ibid. Vol. I. Letter 7, to Cato, 17th March 1778. 

% Ibid. Letter from Marius to Cato, 3d Nov. i?Sj. 


vetting himfelf with an ecclefiaftical benefice, while îh 
fecret he extols the great fervices he has rendered to the 
brood confpiring againff. the Jchurch ; but thefe alfo art 
fervices, he fays, too important to be committed to paper.* 
They are fervices, however, which, I arn lure, no reader 
can miftake, when he fees him partaking with Zwack of 
Weifhaupt's intimacy. In the correfpondence of the laN 
ter there are a multitude of letters to be found directed 
in common to Zwack and Hertel; there are alfo many 
inftruclions, both abfolute and provifional, directed to the 
Areopagites; and in thefe, it is no longer the confeienti*» 
ous but the apoflate Hertel, who, after Zwack is to oc- 
cupy the next place, and act the principal part.f It is 
this unfortunate pricft who appears to have been more 
particularly charged with the care or ftealing or buying 
tor the ufe of the fecret libraries all thofe miferable pro- 
ductions which might form an arfenal of impiety and re- 
bellion for the corruption of all morals. J In fhort, it is 
he whom Spartacus feiecb from among the brethren as 
the moft proper confidant when premeditating that horrid 
infanticide mentioned at the beginning of the Third Vo- 
lume of thefe Memoirs; and he behaves himfelf in fuch 
a manner as to deferve the thanks of the inceituous pa* 
- ni We find a flill ftronger proof of what horrid monfters 

aarfer were feated in this fenate of rebellion in the perfon of Cel- 
/us-Haader. Even before be is admitted into this afto- 
ciation, we fee him offering the depraved fecrets of his 
art to murder the innocent offspring of inceft uous pa- 
rents j for he is that Celfus who had promifed Weifhaupt 
two years before to ufe all the powers of his art to pre- 
ferve his honor for him at the expenfe of the moft horrid 
of crimes. Without doubt it is in return for thefe offers 
of his fervices, that Weifhaupt is fo eager to number him 
among the adepts, and to grant him thofe difpenfations of 
which he fpeaks when writing to Zwack : " If I could 
" but fucceed in enrolling the Phyiician Baader, tell me 
" beforehand what difpenfations and privileges we could 

* Letter from Marim to Cafo t 3d Nov. 1783. 

f Ibid. Vol. 1. Sed. IX. fee the Inftruflions for Cato, Ma' 
rius, and Scipio. 

i Ibid. Vol. I. Letter 46, and Vol. II. Letter 3, &c. 

§ Ibid. Vol. 11. Letter 3 and 4. 



te grant him among the Areopagites; forunlefs fomedis* 
* c penfations were granted to him, we could not employ 
*< him i'o actively as I could wifh."* This letter was fooa 
followed by a fécond, in which he expreffes in ftill clear- 
er terms the high value he places on this conqueft, and 
idelcribes the intrigues played off to enfure luccefs.— 
*« In order (he writes to his Athenians) to carry my plan 
t{ into execution in Athens (Munich) I ftand in need of 
*' two men — -The one a Nobleman , the other a Phyfician. 
*' Cato's unremitting zeal will foon acquire the means, and 
•* he will loon make a conqueft of what is wanting to us. 
" The Count S . . . . (Savioli, whom Cato had juft in- 
c< fjnuated) fhail allume the charaéteriftic of Brutus, and 
* he is one of the moft important conquefts we could have 
C£ made in Athens. The following fhall be your method 
* c of proceeding with him. Let Cato continue to ac^l 
fi with him as ufual, and particularly attend to his fecre- 
M cy. After that, let him read our reformed ftatutes to 
" the new candidate, and queftion him whether he thinks 
<c them ufeful and proper. Should Brutus anfwer in the 
•* affirmative, Cato will affc the Count whether he is ready 
** to fécond us in our labors; he will then tell him, that in 
li confederation of the important fervices he has it in his 
a power to render to the Order, by permitting us to make 
cc ufe of his name, we (hall be much lefs fevere with re- 
cc gard to him, in the ufual trials, and that he fhall be 
tc immediately initiated into the higher myfteries. But 
t£ as a preliminary ftep he will be required either to de- 
ct liver Baader over to us, or fome other perfon. That 
u we are very well apprized that he is not to be overloaded 
<c with work, and that it is on that account he is difpenfed 
" from the ufual tafks prefcribed by our ftatutes; that he 
" will comply with them only as far as he pleafes ; and 
K that we have made a particular choice of him to help us 
" in the Government of the Order. Should he deliver 
" Baader over to us, he Ihould alio be entitled to the fame 
" difpenfations, which are to be granted to no other per- 
«* fon in Athens. You will read the Degree of Minerval # 

" to the Count with every thing that precedes ; if he i'hows 
tc a liking and zeal for the caufe, you will alfo read the 
" Degree of Illuminée \ and when you fhall have acquired 
K evident proofs of his zeal, and that he Jhall have made 

* Ibid. Vol. i.Let- 39, of the 36th Dec. 1778. 


€< common caufe with us by recruiting for us, you may 
" let him into the whole fecret. — Hold a fimilar conduce 
" with Baader."* 

Whether the Brethren at Munich had already adopted 
this mode of ailing, or whether they had followed fomc 
other of a fimilar nature, is not known; but in a very 
(hort time after we find Weifhaupt's views on Baader ac- 
complifhed; for on the 13th of December 1778, only 
three days after the foregoing letter, we find him infcribed 
on the lift of Areopagites. Ever after we find his name 
mentioned in the correfpondence as one of the moll a£tivo 
adepts, and as one of thofe who had the raoft deeply imbi- 
bed the horrid myfteries.f 

Another reafon which made Weifliaupt more eager 
for this conqueft, was> that Baader read public le&ures 
on medicine at Munich, and therefore had an opportuni- 
ty of feducing his young pupils, after the example of his 
mafter, who had i'o efficaciouily and fatally made ufe of 
his influence to feduce the young (ludents of the law at 
the Univerfity of ïngolftadt. 
IV # A fimilar reafon had made him ardently wifh to initi- 

Scipio- ate Berger who alfo read public lectures at Munich, 
Berger. though I do not find on what fcience* His characteriitic 
is Scipioy and he was infcribed on the lift of Areopagites 
on the 28th July 1778. A Freemafon before he became 
an Illuminée, he was fome time before he could overcome 
his predilection for his former lodges, in fo much even 
that he afked for his difmiflal. Spartacui was furious at 
fuch a preference. Without mowing his defire of retain- 
ing the difcontented Brother, and not having him fufH- 
ciently in his power to make ufeof threats, he commands 
Zwaclc to declare to the Candidate in the name of the 
Order, that he was at full liberty to follow his predilec- 
tion; but the fame letter contains all that is to be hinted 
underhand to the discontented adept, all that was to be 
thrown out on the pre-eminence and advantages of Illu- 
minifm over Mafonry. The Profcffor Berger was {o per- 
fectly convinced of this pre-eminence, that Weifhaupt, t* 
give him the preference over all the ether AreopagitiS % 
onlv required of him a Utile more aclivity.% 

* Ibid. Vol.1. Let 33, nth Dec. 1778. 

f Vol. II. Let. 13, from Spart acus to Ce ; fiit. 

X Vol. I. Let. 46 and 58. 


The want of activity was not a fault with which Illu- V. 
fninifm could ever upbraid its adept Corialanus. He was Cortolanut 
a merchant of the name of Troponero retired from p 
Hamburgh to Munich. At the time of his initiation he 
did not employ his talents in that line which Weifhaupt 
îudged to be lb ufeful for the propagation of his hireling 
doctrines. Zwack bethought himfeif of letting up this 
Troponero for a public lecturer on finance, and made 
the propofition to Spartacus-> who immediately anfwered, 
u It is a very good plan both for him and for us, to make 
u Coriolanus read lectures on finance; only, do you fpare 
* c no pains to get him fcholars. It is a hue occafton for re- 
* c cruiting young men\ nor would it be a bad plan if you 
** became one of his pupils yourfelf, in order to entice 
il others."* It does not appear whether Zwack relifhed 
defcending from the bench of the Areopagites to attend 
the fchools of the new lecturer; but certain it is that the 
Archives of Illuminifm bear teftimony of the sreat fervi- 
ces rendered by this Coriolanus ; and Weifhaupt frequent- 
ly extols his merits. He was particularly ufeful at all the 
receptions, alfuming that air of ceremonious gravity fo be- 
coming in the Grand Matter of a Lodge; and fo well 
did he impofe on the young adepts, that they had not the 
leaft fufpicion of the Occult Myfteries of the Roiicrucians, 
much lefs of thole of Illuminifm. 

About the fame time we meet with the names of the „ , , 
two firft Illuminized Noblemen whom Weifhaupt had ^ B' ar J n 
initiated into his laft mytteries-— the one Hanibal, the Ba- BafTus. 
ron Bassus ; the other Diomedcs, the Marquis of Con- VIII. 
stanza. Illuminized Barons and .Vlarquifies, certainly, Diaviedes % 
are a fort of phenomena not eafily to be conceived. That • ^ r " 
men who are never called by their names without being Conftanza» 
reminded of the great ftake they have to lofe, fhould pro- 
perty and the focial order be overthrown, that fuch men 
Ihould plunge themfelves into the moft horrid confpiracy 
ever framed againff. both, can only be believed by thofe 
who have attended to theamazitig, cunning of Weifhaupt's 

Code and the artifice with which it is put in execution » 

In fhort the Archives of Illuminifm, the letters, nav the 
apologies of thefe titled Illuminées, bear too ftrong proofs 
of the fact, and mutt quafh all objections. The Baron 
Battus, in his pretended j unification, owns that he was the 

* Ibid. Let. j, to Cat», 


perfon known under the chara&eriftic of Hanibal\* and 
the letters of this Hanlbal not only ihovv that he was an 
Illuminée himfelf, but alfo an apoftle of Illuminization, 
giving an account to the Brethren, of his fuccefTes atBoU 
zen in Tyrol, and boaftingof the important conqueftshe 
had made in that town, having en 1 ited and imbued the 
Prejident, the Vice-Prefidcnt, the principal Counfellort 
of the Government, and the Grand Àlajîer of the Pojh; 
with the moft enthuuaftic admiration for Uluminifm. j— •. 
A little farther, the letters of this fame Hanlbal bear tes- 
timony of his having gone into Italy, and of his having 
initiateJ at Milan his Excellency the Count W . . Impe- 
rial Mini/ier. Then, meditating new conquefts, he pro- 
ceeds to Pavia, in hopes of eniilting lèverai of the Pro- 
fefiors of that Univeriity, and fmifhes by requcfting that 
Une geography of the Order may be enlarged, that he may 
have a greater fcope for his illuminizing talents.;}; 

With refpeâ to Diomedes, or our illuminized Mar-? 
quis, his letters alfo bear testimony of his enthufiaftic zeal 
in the fervice of Weilhaupt. He held this Arch-Confpi- 
rator in fuch great veneration, that, with the exception of 
tome few infignifcant weaknefjes, he looked upon „Wei- 
ihaupt as the mojl perfeft, the mofl profound, and the mofl 
extraordinary mortal on earth. The hours be had the 
happinefs of fpending in his company were too fhort in 
his opinion, but unhappily long enough to fire him with 
all mat zeal which fends him frantic to Deux Pouts, then 
to Nauplis or Straubingen, and at laft to Munich, replete 
with all that hireling cunning with which the young can- 
didates are to hj io completely duped, that they are not 
even tofurmife that their credulity is to le impofed upon. 
So deeply are the true principles of the Se£r. rooted in his 
breaft, that to revenge the Order on fome Brother who, 
probably difç^ufted with the abominable tendency of thele 
myfteries, had made fome difcovery of them to the Ma- 
gistrates, he writes to one of the brethren, " Oh the ras- 
ct cal ! might not a perfon, or to be more correct:, would 
" it be a crime to fend fuch a Devil as this into the other 
World?" % 

* Page 6. f Original Writings, Vol. I. Sedt. XLV. 

X Ibid. Vol. II. Sed. IV. Let. t and a. 

§ Oder Schuikl! Konnte man nicht, oder urn befier zu fa- 
gen, w'àie es nicht erlaubt, io einen Teufel in die andere wel A 


Neither do the Original Writings nor my private cor- IX. 
refpondence inform me of the real tides of the Areopagite ~î.7 
So/on-MiCHT. He does not appear to have a&ed any c * 
very confpicuous part in the hiftory of the Order. He is 
only flated to have worn the ecclefiaftical habit at Freyfin- 
guen; happy for him if it is to this drefs that he is indebt- 
ed for his apparent nullity in Weifiiaupt's plots. 

Next appears Hoheniecher under the title of Aki- X. 
Hades, who, though i'eated in the confpirins; l'enate of the dlcibiader 
Illuminées, does not blulli to hold a feat in the i'enate of ™ onensi - 
Freyfinguen as counfellor. 

The Eleventh of the Areopagites is Mahomet the Ba- -.?'" 

ron ScRoCKENSTfilN. We mail foon behold him prefi- „ ab ' jV: J 
i- 11 • i r \ • r, tu • -r -Karon tie 

ding over whole provinces that are iubject to illuminum. Scrocken- 

A few days after his initiation we meet with another Are- ftein. 
opagite characterized Gennanicus. Not having been able ^j T 
to difcover his real name, I will not give way to conjee- Germain ' 
ture.* At this fame period we find a numerous lift of eus* 
perfons of confequence initiated in the lower degrees. — 
Such, for example, were the magi Urate of Aichifcadt, 
Tamerlane-LAUG, and the private fecretary Geiser.— 
The characleriitic of this adept docs not appear ; but 
Weifiiaupt's letter on the great acquisition he had made 
in this adept fufficiently demonilrates the importance he 
attached to conquefts of this nature, and how far he could 
turn them to the advantage of his Order, 

This letter is of the 'iotb Chardad, 1148 (luth June, 
1778) ; and it is worthy of remark, that it is the firft let- 
ter which we find in the Original Writings dated accord- 
ing to the Perfian ./Era. It is to his dear Lata that Wei? 
fhaupt writes: — « The acqwifition we have made of the 


ZB fchicken— Original Writings, Vol. I. Sèff. XLIV. Letters t 
and z. 

* In order to difcover the real name of an adept, it will often 
fufrke to combine their letters, ami particularly thole in which 
Weilhanpt declares the characleriftics to be given to candi- 
dates, with what is afterwards faid of them under their new 
names. '1 he German Journais, and divers other writings in 
that language, my own private with, and me- 
morials that J hnve received from men who, living on the fpor, 
have been enabled to procure more accurate documents with 
relbect to thefe different perfonages, have furniihed me with 
the means of difcovering many omers oa whom no Ihadow or 
doubt can beeûtwtainea. 


« private fecretary (fecretaire intime) Geifef is an event 
« of fuclj conference to us, that our affairs will foon as- 
£c fume quite a different afpect. It obliterates that ap- 
* pearance {much too confpieuous) of novelty. It is for 
* ; this reafon that we ought to mutually congratulate each 
*' other and the whole Order. We may now expect to do 
K fotnething great. By enticing men among us of his itamp 
u and or" his confequence, we add great weight to our ob- 
v :zti, and they are ui'eful in keeping our young Iters with- 
<c in bounds. Do not forget to thank and maice my moi* 
" fmoere compliments to the private fecretary. A4en of 
" his importance mult have a right to choofe their own 
u charaéxerifl'ics, their employments, and the (pedes of ia- 
" bor that they would prefer. You will remember to in- 
*' form me of it, that Ï may take the proper iteps in con- 
" îêquence."* 

In this clafs of Brethren of confequence» we mull not 
forget Brutus Count Saviola, Sylla the Baron Mag- 
genhoff, and Alexander Count PapP£NHeï,M. Mean- 
while, till we come to treat of minifters and princes drawn 
into this vortex of feditioft, let us hear Weifhaupt deve- 
lop his views, and obferve him marlhalling his troops; 
particularly when he takes meafures to eufnare thofe no- 
blemen whom he wifhes to make the prime agents and 
the propagators of the very confpiracies to which they are 
to fell the fiyrft victims. On the \oth Pharavardin^ 1 1 49 
(31H March, 1779), he writes to his Athenians of Mu- 
nich, " Have you not in aîl your town of Athens any 
<c ftrangers who may be immediately admitted into the 
« Order, advanced as foon as poflible to the degree of 
*' Minerval and then amply inftrucled in the mytteries of 
" that degree \ Such perfons may, without any further 
" initiation, be fent to found the fyftem in other countries 
w and make recruits; for example, at Augfbourg, atRa- 
« 4ifbonne, at Saltzbourg, at Landihut, and other towns. 
" To meet with fuch perfons it would be proper for you 
" to go into company, and to frequent aflemblies and pla- 
tc ces of public refort. Since you have done lo many other 
" things you may very well do this. At Erzerum (Aich- 
u ftadt) and throughout all Franconia I could ?nake a ra- 
** pid progrefs if I could hut initiate two gentlemen of that 
^ country whom I am well acquainted withy and who are 

* Orig. Writ. Vol. I. Let. 13, to Qat: 

Historical fart, 51 

*' men of great wit and much e /heme d by the nobility there. 
u This acquifition would foon procure us adepts from 
** amons; the nobility, men of wit who would recruit for 
<v us in their own clafs throughout all Franconia. — When 
" we initiated any one at Athens to a new degree, thefe 
" two gentlemen might be called to affift at the ceremo* 
u ny, and would then become candidates for the higher 
'• degiee. The rank they hold, and their nobility, would 
tc alio be of ufe to curb the petulance of your young Bru- 
u tus and other gentry. — Infhort, Tamerlane (or the coun- 
** fellur Lang), who thinks that there are no other adepts 
** at Erzerum but thofe with whom he is acquainted, 
<c would be thunderftruck at finding perfons in a higher 
* degree than himfelf, though he had nut the leaif. idea 
*' they belonged to the Order, and men alfo of whom he 
" has the higheft opinion. Do reflect and deliberate on 
« this."* 

In the following letters it appears that Brutus no long- 
er needed any curb; for he becomes an apoflle of the Secf, 
znà fets off on an expedition from which Weifhaupt au- 
gurs great fuccefs. He is even fo zealous^ that Sparta- 
<us, on the eve of difmiffing feveral other adepts, mentions 
him as an ufefnl member who is to be preferved,f and 
defires that he may as loon as poffible be advanced to the 
degree of Maj or llluminee.% To enable the reader to 
judge how far he was difpoled to ferve the Cider, it will 
iuffice to record the terms in which he expreiîès his gra- 
titude for favors received, and the promifes be makes in 
hopes of obtaining new ones. His letter to the Mojl Ex- 
cellent Superiors of ' llluminijm is couched in the following 
terms : 

u Most Excellent Superiors' 
K Receive my moft grateful acknowledgments for the 
H third degree with which you have juft honored me. — ■ 
u Every part of it is noble, grand, and beautiful; it has 
" perfectly anfwered the expectations 1 had formed of it 
** from the fécond. I fha'l moft undoubtedly do every 
K thing that lies in my power to deierve you: confidence. 
" In future rely on mine, and believe me to be perfectly 
K devoted to your fervice. Nothing in the world (hall 

* Ibid. Vol. I. Let,. 39. 
1 Ori«. Writ. Vol. I. Let. 58. t Ibid. Vol. II. Let. ï 3 . 


" ever withdraw me from my allegiance to your laws, of 
" make me ceafe to be guided by you. 

" You wrote to me fome time fmce, defiring me to fef Ic 
f ' for no further advancement at Court, as I could not 
" expect any. I obeyed that order; but as the minifteis 
<c of the regency have lately paid me fome marks of atten* 
" tion, my affairs have aflumed a different afpe£!:. The 
" ferious llineis of the Emperor having given rile to the 
u idea of a vicarage of the Empire, Brother Pericles and 
<c myfelf have been mentioned* as counfellors in that court; 
" and I have great hopes of being made a privy counfel- 
" lor (ccnfeiller intime). S . . . , has taken my caufe in 
" hand, and I am indebted to the Brothers Ce If us and Al- 
u fred for it. If ever I get into power, the moj.1 excellent 
w Order will foon fee how much I am devoted to it, and 
V how entirely I belong to it. In the mean time \ can but 
tl exprefs my fincereft"* 

Though the advancement which had infpired the Count 
'Brutus with fo much zeal for the Order left him ftill at a 
great di fiance from the higher myfleries, he neverthelefs 
had a brother who could not flatter himfelf that he mould 
arrive at even this third degree. 7'he Iniinuator had made 
a diflinction between them. The letter in which he an- 
nounces their initiation to Spartacus will fhow the reader 
what other fervices the Order had to expect from fuch 
kinds of adepts. 

Cato writes to Spartacus ; K Here are my new hopes 
<c for the Order. After a long perfeverance I have at 
a length engaged the young S— — — (Savioli). He will 
" deliver his brother over to us, who may fet our aflairs 
" agoing at Augfbourg. They are both rich. The firft 
" I recruited as a Sta bene, that is to fay, one who is ne- 
" ver to pals the lower ranks. I alfo engage him becaufe 
<l on certain occafions he will lend us his houle which is 
" very convenient for our" meetings -, and more particular-» 
l - \y becaufe, being rich, he can help us with his purfc.f 

The fame letter mentions a fimilar^fl bene; " The 
** Brother Livius (Rudorger) is in future to be looked 
" on as belonging to the fame clafs. He frankly owned 
tl to me, thai he had neither the time nor inclination to 
u give himfelf up to our labors. But that he was willing 

*\ Orig. Writ. Vol. II. Qulbtu Licet from Brutus, 
f Dathit cr an geld beytraget» 


c to contribute towards the progrefs of the Order with 
* c his purfe, and that he would even furnifh us with books 
<c for our libraries, and inftruments for experiments. — I 
tc gave him to underftand, that certainly he might remain. 
t( a member of the Order j but that he could only be clafs- 
" ed in future with thofe who feconded its views with 
u their money/'* Thus did Weifhaupt turn the ftupidity 
and ignorance, the impiety and money of his MarquilFes, 
Barons, Knights, and'Magiftrates, to the advantage and. 
propagation of his difaffrous plots. — He had already made 
converts of this nature in the imperial chamber of \Vetz- 
lar; for, as early as the 29th of Auguft, 1778, we find 
that Minos, the Affeflbr Dittfurth, inferibed on the 
lift of Illuminées, the fame perfon whom we have already 
i'een (o zealous for the foundation of an illuminijSed fis-r 
tgrhood.f At firft we find him under a j ufpenfion, as not 
to be trufted by the Brethren jj but very loon his zeal 
makes him at once the admiration and laughing-flock of 
Spartacus. The reader mull: have already obferved the 
art with which Weifhaupt obliges every candidate to give 
the hiftory of his life, with an exicf. defcription of his pas- 
sons and prejudices. The Affeffor Minos complied with 
this regulation in-fo fcrupulous a manner, that Weifhaupt 
could not refrain from writing to the Areopagites in the 
following terms : " Alinos, that man who bears (o high a 
*' character, is at prefent writing the hiilory of his life.- — - 
'* He is as yet only arrived at his Jeveniecnth year, and 
" has rvritten ninety-three facets of paper. He is now for- 
" ty-five years of age. This will be foniething more than 
<c a general confeflion. You fee what may be done with 
" men if one does but know how to gain their confidence^ 
** and to convince them of the excellency of the obje". ,, i } 
So completely did the imperial Afleflbr imbibe this prin- 
ciple and learn to convince others of it, that we fliall here- 
after fee him railed to the dignity of Provincial. 

However much Weifnaupt may have wilhed to make 
profelytes among the great, wc neverthelefs fee him re- 
commending to his inlinuators to recruit more particu- 

* Orig. Writ, Vol. I. Seel, xxxii. Letter from CatçioSpar* 

lacus . 

t Vol. III. of thefe Memoirs, Page 41. 
Ï Orig. Writ. Seel. iv. See the Lift. 
§ Orig, Writ. Vol. II. Let. 7 and 10. 


ïarly amon^: the profeffirf and fcboolmafîers, as a Cure 
means of gaining over to his views the youth of all clafTes. 
Hence it is that Hermes Trifmcgiftes, whofe real name 
was Socher, and who was fuperior of the college at 
Land&erg, receives the foecial commiilion to watch and 
£Urird againil the Jefuits, as fwom enemies to the educa- 
tion he is to give to his pupils.* For the fame reafon 
does Weifhaupt ftrain every ne t to fill his univerfityof 
Ingolftadt with profeffors and prefects belonging to his 
SecL He entreats the adepts at Munich to befet the mi- 
nifters, and obtain the expulnon of all Jefuits, becaufe 
thefe fathers had retrieved the four profeifors ocholli- 


from Illuminiftnj and becaufe he had but 'three profes- 
sors left in the univerfity to refift Jefuitifm.f The Lift 
of Profeifors foon fwells to an alarming height in all towns 
where Iiluminifm makes any progrefs. On this black lift 
we find Jrménius-lLREUNERi Co rtuz-L Ell mer ; Py*- 
ihagoras-\N essenreider; this latter foon abandoned 
the Order when his characleriffcic was given to the Pneft 
and Librarian Drexlj but as profellor we find three to 
replace him,KuNDLER,LoLLiNG,and aboveall Baïer- 
AMMJlR, at firft called Zoroajhr, but aftewards Confu- 
cius. It is this adept that Weifhaupt brings at length to 
Ingolftadt, that he might have for his colleague in the fe- 
duetion of youth, a man that he himfelf had initiated in 
the black arts of his Iltuminifm.i This ferves to account 
for that zeal with which he fends his adepts into all hou- 
fes of education- and that folicitude with which he entreats 
Ccdo and Marîus to feck out fome brethren well drilled 
to the arts of Infinuators, who might be iènt to the uni- 
versities of Saltzboiirg) of b:fpruck,of Frihourg, and 
of other floces. *§ 

To fclect the following will fufRce to fhow to what ex- 
tent thefe miffionary profeiTors fucceeded, according to 
the views of the Order ; Saladtn-EKEL-, Tkales-lL-\?~ 
finger; Timo n - M I c H L ; Euclid - il i e d l ; all from 
eighteen to twenty years of age: Sauer, furnamed At- 
tila\ and the Lmperor Claudius, ox Simon Zwack, 
coulin to the incomparable Cato> v/e-re of the lame age ; 
an age fought after by Weifhaupt, as he could the more 

* Vol. I. Let. 28. . f Vol. I. Let. 3a, 30th Jan. 1778. 
Î See particularly L°t. 24, Vol. I. § Ibid. Let. 40. 


eafiîy twine the young adept to vice. This docility was 
far from being the leading feature of his other adepts j they 
were not all enthunalUcally wedded to his plots at this 
dawn of Uiuminifm; nor could he make them the paifive — 
inftruments of his confpiracy. He defcribes the profelytes 
he had made among the ariftocracy u as rich, therefore 
u given to all the vices of their ftate ; ai ignorant, proud t 
" cowardly, arid lazy in the fuperlative degree ; as only 
K feeking their advancement in the myfteries, in order to 
*' gratify their curiolity, or even to feoff at the ceremonial 
*' of the different degrees ;"* and we wifhed to find men 
who would be ilruck with awe, and be fired with enthû- 
fiafm at the fight of thefe ceremonies. The ftyie of re-. 
proach in which he writes to many other of the adepts 
clearly depicts a let of men deftitute of all morals, and hav- 
ing no other views in the Order than to gratify their pas- 
lions and their avarice; feeking none but their own inté- 
rêts, and often, through their diffolute and immoral con- 
duct, expofing the founder of the Order to be looked up- 
on as a corrupter of youth. f He was willing to have none 
but followers that could, like himfelf, gratify the moft in- 
famous pallions in private, and who, under the mail: of 
virtue, moderation, and wiidom, impofing on the public, 
would accredit his Uluminifm. With reipect to the foun- 
der, we have feen him already defcribing the turpitude of 
his morals, and the atrocious means to which he had re- 
farted to preferve the mafk of his pretended virtue ; let us 
now hear him upbraiding his firft adepts with the public 
depravity of their morals as being prejudicial to his Illu- 
miniiin: w I have received," fays he, "the moll fatal in» 
** telligence from Thebes (Freylinguen). They have giv- 
* en a public fcandal to the whole town, -by admitting 
« ( into the Lodges that vile Propertius, a libertine loaded 
«* with i debts, and a mofi detejiable being. In that fame 

*' town is to be found the Brother D , who is nothing 

tc more than a wicked fellow; our Socrates, who could be 
" of the greateft ufe to us is always drunk ; our Augujlus 
il has acquired the worft of reputations ; the Brother AU 
" cibiades is perpetually lighing and pining away at the 
* 4 feet of his landlady; Tiberius attempted to lay violent 
41 hands on Diomedes's lifter, and Fuffered himfelf to be 
li caught by the hufband ; heavens ! what men have I 

* Vol. II. Let, i. f ibid. Let. 1 1. 

56 ANTISOCIAL conspiracy; 

lt theft for Areopagltes! What ! we facrinceour health, 
« our fortune, our reputation, to the good of the Order; 
" and tbefe gently give themfelves up entirely to their 
<l pleafurcs and eafe, proftitute themfelves, give public 
« fcandals, and ft 111 with to he acquainted with all our fe* 
«' crets : From this inftant I fhall look upon 'Tiberius 
u (Merz) as erafed from our lift, O Areopagites, Are- 
" opagites ! I would much rather have none at all, than 
ct not have men more? à,ftive and more fu&mtjjive."* 

This is not the only letter in which Weifhaupt plainly 
fhows what opinion he had himfelf of bis horde cf adepts. 
The following gives a clearer infight into the caufe of the 
alarm he had taken from their public fcandals, and their 
• evil tendency for the general good aï' the Seel. After hav~ 

ing told them, ÏVith regard to politics and morals, yon 
are as yet far behind indeed, he fays, " Judge yourielves 
" what would be the confequence, if a man fuch as our 
« Marcus Aurelius (he was a profefTor of Gottinguen, 
« and his real name was Feder) were once to know 
" what a [el of men àejïitute of morals, what a Jet of de~ 
« bauchées, liars, fpendthrifts, braggadochios, and fools 
" replete with vanity and pride, you have among you; 
fi if fuch a man, I fay, were to fee this, what opinion mult 
" he form of us 1 Would he not be alhamed to belong to 
« c a fociaty whofe chiefs promife fuch great things, andex- 
« ecute fo ill the mojl beautiful plan \ and all from obfti- 
* c nacy, and becaufe they will not fufter one tittle of their 
u pleafures; now frankly declare,' am i not in the right? 
« Do you not think that, in order toprefervea man, fuch 
« as Marcus Aarelius-Ftder, whofe name alone is worth 
« the belt part of Germany, I ought to facriftce and re- 
" (bind all your whole province of Greece (Bavaria) the 
« innocent as well as the guilty ? And fhould I take fuch. 
« a ftep, who would be to blame? Is it not better to cut 
ff off the gangrened members, than to lofe the whole bo-* 
< c dy ? Can you be fo void of all feeling, as to fee a ftlccfc 
* c fociety of men diffolve, and abandon the reformation of 
« the world, and that on account of the vices you have 
< c plunged yourielves into, and the fcandal you give? — . 
f* That would be ftill worfe than an Heroftratus, worfe 
^ than all the wicked men of all times and of all ages. — . 
* Thoie of you, gentlemen, therefore, who do not ap~ 

* Ibid. Vol. II. Let, 9, 


** prove of this plan, who will not facrifice your eafe and 
« miserable partions; thofe, in fhort, who are indifferent 
tl to the praifes of the beft of men, and who will not la- 
^ bor with us at making all mankind but one and the fame 
"family ; thofe, I not only pray, but conj ure, at leaft not 
" to impede our labors, and not to entail on the Order 
" the infamy and ihame of their public fcandals. Such 
" eonducl would be worfetban that of real affaffins,worfe 
" than the pla'gue."* 

However well-founded Weifhaupt may have been in 
making ufe of fuch reproaches, the rapid progrefs made 
by his Illuminifm fhould have convinced him, that his a- 
depts, in the midft of their debaucheries, never loll light 
of the grand object of his myfteries. The reader may 
judge of their progrefs by the following note; which, at 
the fame time that it denotes their fuccefTes, will (how in 
what manner they reported them to each other. This do- 
cument may alio begin to explain various mylleries of* 
the revolution. 

Note, on the progrefs of 'Illuminifm, found among the 
papers of <£à.lo~Zivack, written in his own hand, and 
contained in the frfi volume of the Original f Writ- 

« We havef at Athens ( Munich), ift, a regular Lodge 
** of Major Illuminées; 2dly, a leiter meeting of Illumi- 
** nees, very well adapted to our purpolés; 3dlv, a very 
" large and remarkable Mafonic Lodge; 4-thly, two con- 
" iidcrable Churches, or Muierval Academies. 

" At Thebes (Freyfinguen) alfo there is a Minerval 
<c Lodge, as well as at Megara (Landfberg), at Brug- 
t* haufen, at Straubing, at Ephefus (IngoHfadc), and in a 
" lhort time we fhall have one at Corinth (Ratifbonne), 

" We have bought a houfe (at Munich) for ourlelves; 
" and we have taken our precautions fo well, that the in-r 
" habitants not only do not cry out againft us, but fpeak 


* Original Letters, Vol. », Let. 10. 

f This note begins with thefe words: The number in Greece 
confijts of- — Whether Cato did mark the number or not, J know 
not ; but the editor has left it in blank, and the fentence is in- 
complete. Mr. Robifon has inferted the tiumber 600; butas 
he does not give his authority, I fhall content myfelf with trans- 
lating, and fliall continue with Zwack. 


« of us with efteern, when they fee us going publicly to 
" that houfe, or to the Lodge. Certainly that is a great 
" deal for this tovjn. 

" We have in this houfe a Cabinet of natural hiftory, 
" iriftruments for experimental philofophy, and a library; 
" and all this is daily augmented by the gifts of the Breth- 
" ren. The garden is to be turned into a botanical one. 

" All the fcientific journals are procured for thebreth- 
" ren at the expenfe of the Order. 

" By means of different pamphlets we have awakened 
" the attention of the princes and citizens to certain re- 
" markable abufes; we oppofe religious Orders with all 
" our might; and we have good reafon to be plealed with 
" the fuccefs ot our endeavors. 

" We have entirely new modelled the Lodge on our 
" plan, and have broke off all communication with Berlin. 

" We have not only repreffed all the enrollments of the 
" R C. (Roficrucians), but we haye fucceeded incafting 
" fufpicions on them. 

" We are in treaty for a ftri£l and effective alliance 
fi with the Lodge of—, and with the national 
u Lodge of Poland." 

Another Note, written by the fame band, on the politi- 
cal progrefs of the Order. 

l: Through the intrigues of the Brethren the Jefuits 
" have been dilmiiTed from all the Profefforfhips; we have 
" entirely cleared the univerfity of Ingolftadt of them.* 

u The Dowager Dutchefs has modelled her Inflitute 
"for the Cadets entirely on the plan prepared by the Or- 
" der. That houfe is under our itifpeftion; all its Profes- 
<c fors belong to our Order; fve of its members have been 
" ivell provided for, and all the pupils will be ours. 

" On the recommendation of the Brethren Pylades is 
u made the ecclcfiajlical ffcal counfellor. By procuring 
" this place for him, we have put the church monies at 
" the difpofal of the Order: and by means of thefe monies 
" we have already repaired the mal-adminiftration of our 

" and of , and have delivered them from 

" the hands of the ufurers» 

* Durch die verwendung der Br. Br. (Briidern) wurden die 
Jefuiten von alien profeflbr ftellen entfernt, die Univerfitat In- 
golftadt ganz von ihnen gereinigt. 


lt With thefe monies alfo we fupport new Brethren. 
" The Brethren who are in orders have all been pro- 
" vided with, livings and curacies^ or with preceptor's 
" places. 

" Through our means too, the Brothers rfrmenius and 
" Cortez have been made Profeffors in the Univerjtty of 
€; Ingolfladt. We have alfo got purfes for all our young 
" candidates in the fame univerilty. 

" On the recommendation alfo of our Order, two young 
" men are travelling at the expenfe of the Court. They 
" are at prefent at Rome. 

" The Germanic fchools are all under the inspection 
" of the Order, and have no other prefects than our 
" Brethren. 

" The Benevolent Society is alfo under our direction. 
" The Order has obtained an augmentation of pay and 
" falaries for a great number of Brethren who are em- 
" ployed in the Dicajleres (that is to fay, at the boards of 
*' Adminiftration). 

" JVe have obtained Jour ecdefiajlical chairs for as 
" many of our Brethren. 

" We fhall ihortly be majlers oj the Bartholomew In- 
" jhtution for the education of young ecclejiajlics. AH 
w our meafures arereadyfor that purpofe. The bufinefs 
" has taken a very favorable turn; by this means vue may 
" flock all Bavaria with prie/h both clever and proper" 
(for our object). 

" We have limilar hopes and views on another houfe 
w of priefts. 

" Through incefTant application, indefatigable efforts, 

" and the intrigues of different by — -, we have at 

" length fucceeded in not only maintaining the Eceleft- 
" aftical Council, which the Jefuits wifhed todeitrov; 
" but alfo in adigning over to this council, to the colleges 
" and univerfities, all thofe goods which had ftill remain- 
" ed under the adminiftration of the Jefuits in Bavaria; 
" fuch as the inftitution for the minion, the golden aim?, 
" the houfe of retreat, and the funds for the newly con- 
« verted. Our Major Illuminées, to effectual ,//7v 

" meetings ; feiural of them remained there whole nig J 
u and — — ." 

This latter article is alio mutilated by the editor of the 
Original Writings. The Court of Bavaria did not think 
pioper to publiih the names oï thoi 


ftifbrs and others) who fo well feconded Weifliaupt and 
his adepts on this occafion. The Jefuits at leaft ftronaJy 
fufpected the Count of Senseim to be one of the differ- 
ent , and thole of the Engliih collège of Liege 1 , 

in particular, had reafon to believe that he was one or 
thole to whom they were indebted for the lofs of a pen- 
fion often thoufand florins, which had always been paid 
to them by the Court of Bavaria. How far thefe fufpi- 
cions are grounded I do not pretend to fay; but certain 
it is, that this Count Senfeim appears on the lift of adepts 
under the characteristic of King Alfred. But without our 
entering into any difcuflion, the two notes I have juft 
tranllated clearly evince, that the adepts did not defervé 
to be (o frequently reprimanded for inactivity as Wei- 
ihaupt feems to have thought. 

What a ftrong light is thrown on the feCret hiftory of 
the Revolution by thefe two notes, even in their mutilat- 
ed ftare! A large portion of the clergy, it is true, have 
been faithful to their duty; but Europe has been afto- 
nifhed at feeing fo many of them plunged into the moll: 
horrid fcencs of impiety. We here learn from Gatà- 
Zwaclc who thole falfe paftors were. Thefe atrocious 
hypocrites are felected by the Sect., imbued with all the 
venom of its principles, and then ufhered into the bofom 
of the church under its baneful protection. It had laid to 
them, affume the appearance of piety and zeal, and pre- 
tend to believe in the fymbol of the priefthood, and we 
ihall find means of mltalling you in the livings of the 
church, and of making you the rectors and paftors of the 
flock. You (hall publicly preach the doctrine of the Gos- 
pel, and your exterior fhall coincide with the duties of 
thole ftations; butin fecret you fhall fécond our views, 
s:id prepare the way for us. It would be a futile objec- 
tion to afk how it was polîible to find monfters whole de- 
pravity could make them confent to act fuch fcenes of 
hypocrifv even in the Holy of Holies ! We have the au- 
thority of Cato-Zwzckj who tells us that they allumed the 
characters and functions of rectors and curates, of canons, 
profellors, and teachers in the Catholic Church. We fhâil 
foon fee the fame game playtd with refpeci to the Pro- 
ttjra?it Church; and thus were both churches miniltered 
to by wretches who had fworn their deftruction. 

A fimilar mode of proceeding was adopted lor the de 
ftruction of the ftate, and that at the iirli dawn of Illu- 


historical Part. 6î 

rhinifm. It is Cats again who informs us of the intrigues, 
Views, and fuccefles or the Sect, Insinuating its adepts in- 
to the DicaJlercS) the councils, and boards of adminiftra- 
tion, which are paid by the prince and ftate; he points 
them out as having gained accefs into the councils of the 
prince and the irate, carrying with them all the treache- 
rous plots of the mort difallrous confpiracy againft both 
prince and ftate. 

Many readers have been aftonifhed at feeing whole ge- 
nerations rife imbued with the principles of the moft rank 
jacobinifm, and that from fchools founded by princes for 
the inftrudtion of youth; but Cato again folves the diffi- 
culty, when he fpealcs of the Injiiiuticn founded by the 
Dowager Dutchefs. 

In fhort, it will be incumbent on future hiftoriaus to 
tell their readers whence were obtained thofe treafures 
fpent in the propagation of the principles of the Sett, in 
the peregrinations of its apoftles, and in the fupport of its 
pennylefs adepts; thev will find the talk already complet- 
ed by the Sect itfdf, which tells us, that its novices arc 
fupporied at the cxpenje ff the public foundations', that 
its miffionaries are paid and Cent to foreign parts by the 
prince, who has been milled to believe that he was lend- 
ing men in the purfuit of arts and fcienccs. Moreover, 
does not the Sect betray itfclf, when introducing its adepts 
into the admini/lration of the ecdcjlajlical property, and 
with that property paying the debts of its Lodges, fup- 
porting the apoftles of its conspiracies, re-eftabhfhing its 
former clubs, and erecting new ones. Let the hiitorian 
iefieét on the conditions under which fuch a multitude of 
adepts have been ufhered into livings and other employ- 
ments, and he will loon perceive the funds of the Sect 
fwelled to an immenie bulk by thoie (hares which it pre- 
i-rves for its own ufe out of ail the emoluments which it 
has procured for its adepts either in church or ftate. 

But in this fame note an enigma occurs of a quite dif- - 

forent nature, The reader may have obferved Cato- 

Zwack at once exulting in having founded a mafonic 
Lodge at Munich toi- the Illuminées, and in the victories 
gamed by the Illuminées over the Rojicrucian Mafons. 
— What can have given rife to this contraaiction, at the 
lame time to imitate the Free-tnafons, and to declare war 
againft the moft famous adepts or Mafonry. Thefe ques- 
tions naturally lead us to the investigation of the moft 


profound device thaï Weifhaupt ev r er invented for the 
propagation of his plots. They relate to his firft attempt, 
to the diveriity of the means ufed, his fuccefs, and finally 
to his triumphant intruiion into the mafonic Lodges. la 
order to folve them, i ihall, in the following Chapters, lay 
before my reader the mo ft remarkable paflages of the Ar- 
chives of the Sect, or of the letters and avowals of the 
moft celebrated adepts relating to that famous plan, the 
execution of which belongs to the fécond epoch of the 
; ; and unfortunately it maybe too truly cailed the 
epoch of the- illuminization of Free Mafonry. 




Epoch of the Illuminization of Frce-Mafonry. — Wei* 
Jhaupt's attempts on the Mafonic Lodges. — Acquifition 
of Knigge-y and his firfl Services. 

LET us, for a moment, fuppofe every thing that has 
been faid in thefe Memoirs relating to the nature, 
object, origin, and fecret of Mafonry, to be no more than 
a conjectural fyftem; let it ftill further be fuppofed, that 
the cloud which encompafles the origin and hiftory of 
Mafonry is for ever impenetrable; let even the Brethren 
and their Matters exalt ftill higher the merits and glory 
of their anceftry; yet, for the misfortune of our cotem- 
poraries, the day is come when all this glory is fullied — . 
when the Orators of their own Lodges with grief ex- 
claim, — " Brethren and Companions, give free vent to 
" your forrow ; the days of innocent Equality are gone by. 
" However holy our myfteries may have been, the Lodges 
" are now profaned and fullied. — Brethren and Compan- 
ions, let your tears flow; — attired in your mourning 
" robes attend, and let us feal up the gates of our temples, 
" for the profane have found means of penetrating into 
" them. They have converted them into retreats for their 
44 impiety, into dens of confpirators. Within the facred 
*' walls they have planned their horrid deeds, and the ruin 
" of nations. Let us weep over our logions which they 
" have feduced. Lodges that may ferve as hiding places 
" for thefe confpirators muft remain for ever fhut both to 
" us and to every good citizen."* Thefe complaints,3nd 
awful lamentations are not mine; they proceed from the 
mouth of the venerable M after of a Lodge ; they are con- 
tained in the funeral oration pronounced on Mafonry in 
prefence of the Brethren aflembled for the laft time in a 
Lodge in Germany, and fighing over the forrowful des- 
tiny of their Confraternity. Unfortunately for the honor 
of the Brotherhoodjtheir forrow was but too well-ground- 

* See the difcourfe of the Orator on thç (hutting up of a 


ed; and it is our duty to adduce proofs of it. Whatever 
may have been its myfteries heretofore, Free-masonry 
is novj become criminal. If it be not fo in itfelf, it is be- 
come fo through Weifhaupt's means; it has brought a- 
bout, or he has brought about through its means, the 
mod difaftrous of all revolutions. This awful truth can 
nc longer remain hidden. Hillory muft found its trunv 
pet, and let it adduce its proofs; for never has it yet giv- 
en fo awful a lcflbn to nations on the fatal effects of fe- 
cret focietics. 

From the commencement of his Illuminifm Weifhaupt 
had forefecn the great fupport he could draw from the 
multitude of Free Mafons difperfed throughout Europe, 
fhjui J he ever be fortunate enough to form an alliance 
v/ith them. " Let me tell you a piece of news," he writes 
to Ajax as early as the year 1777 ; " Before the next car- 
" nival I fhall go to Munich, and ihall get myfelf admit- 
" ted a Frec-mafon. Do not let this alarm you; our buf-' 
" ncfs will notfvffer in the lenji; but by thisjhp we become 
* c acquainted with a tie or new fecret, and by that means 
11 Jhall beflronger than the others"'* Weifhaupt accord- 
ingly received the firft degrees of Mafonry at Munich, in 
St. Theodore's Lodge. At firit he could only obferve 
the bagatelle of an innocent fraternity, yet even then he 
perceived that Equality and Liberty were the ground-? 
work of all the amufements of the Brotherhood. He fur- 
mifed further myfteries. In vain they aflured him, that 
all political or religious difcuffions were banifhed from 
the Lodges, and that every true Mafon was ejTentially a 
iraunch friend to his prince and to Christianity. He had 
faid the fame thing to his Novices and to his AH nervals; 
and he knew too well what became of all thefe protdra- 
tions in his Illuminifm, He eahly conceived that a limi- 
lar fate awaited thefe .declarations in the higher degrees of 
Mafonry. Soon his faithful Zwack furnifhed him with 
the means of penetrating into the higher myfteries of 
Mafonry without fubjeéting himjelf to all the necefiary 
trals. This latter adept had made acquaintance at Augl- 
bourg with an Abbé of the name of Marotti. Alone 
pf thefe interviews Marotti had initiated bun into the 
higher degrees, and even into thofe éJ the Scotch Lodges. 
*—He had explained to him all the myfteries of Mafonry } 

* Original Writings, Vol. I. Letter 6, to Jjax, 


\ wil 


àofàîutely founded^ as he faid, on religion and the hifiory 
of the church. Cato-'Zwzck (hews us, by the eagernefs 
with which he announces his difcovery to Spartacus- 
/Vcifhaupt, how much this explication coincided with 
the plots of his impiety.* No fooner has Weilhaupt 
(who on his Tide was making all pofiible enquiries) re- 
ceived the news cf this interview, though no particulars 
were mentioned, than he immediately anfwers, " I doubc 
tc much whether you are acquainted with the real object 
tc of Mafonry; but I have acquired fome information on 
" that fubjedf, which I mean to make ufe of in my plan, 
<c and which I refetye for our higher degrees.^ Cat» 
foon fent a circurhftantial account to his mafter of the ex- 
planation that had been communicated to him, and re- 
ceived for anfwer, " the important difcovery you have 
* c made at Nicodernia (Augfbourg), in your interview 
*' with the Abbé Marotti, gives me extreme pleafure. — « 
U Profit of this occafwn y and get ail you can from bim."% 
In reading fuch pafTages of their mod intimate corres- 
pondence, one is naturally led to ail; what can occafion 
this extreme joy in the two moft monftrous confpirators 
that have ever appeared on earth, at the mere difcovery 
of the myfteries of the occult Lodges of Mafonry, and of 
thofe even of the Scotch Lodges ! — Has Weifhaupt then 
been anticipated by the Mafons in the explanation he had 
given of their fymbols, and which he has actually infert- 
ed in his myfteries ?§ Could there have pre-exifled in thefe 
occult Lodges of Mafonry an impiety and plots ftrangely 
preparatory for that infidelity and thofe plots of Cato and 
Spartacus ?— The confequence is frightful, but is that a 
reaion why nations fhould be blind and deny the tefti- 
mony of truth; are we, for the honor of Mafonry, to be 
filent on the hidden fnares laid for them, and which will 
continue to be laid not only for them but for all nations 
in general. |J 

Weil fatisfied with the difcovery he had made, Weir 

* See Carfs Journal, Diarium des Cato, Original Writ? 
jngs, Vol. I. 

f Ibid. Letter 31, 2d Dec. 1778. » 

% Original Writings, Letter of the 6th Jan. 1779. 

§ See Vol. HI. of thefe Memoirs, Degree ofEpopt. 

H Ibid. Letter 31, 

66 antisocial conspiracy; 

faaupt begins to prefs the eftablifhment of a Malêniç 
Lodge for his pupils of Munich. He immediately order- 
ed all his Areopagites to get themfelves made Mafons; 
he hid his plansfor fimilar initiations at Aichftadt; and in 
all the other colonies of the Order.* Notwithftanding 
all his effort's, fuccefs declared but ilovvly in his favor. — 
He was in poïïefïion of the ', fçcrets of the Mafor.s, but 
they were not initiated in his.— -The Rohcrucians faw 
with regret another fecret fociety rifing, which drew it$ 
members from their Lodges, which already began to 
bring their meetings into difrepute^by bragging that it a- 
• was in pofTeflion of the reai'fecrets- of Maionry.— 
Notwithftanding the impiety of the fecrets of the Roii- 
crucians, and though their iyftems all had a fimilar ten- 
dency with refpecf. to the annihilation of Chriffianity, Hill 
the path they had chofon was quite different from that 
_ which Weifoaupt had adopted. He defpifed all the non- 
fenfe of their Alcbymy; above all he detelted their The- 
bfophy. He taughed at the double principle, at the good 
and evil genii, and at all thofe daemons on which the Ro- 
Çcmcian rounds his Magic, Cabal, and Myfieries of A- 
BRACît ïn fbort, notwithftanding all the benefit Wei- 
ihaupt expected to reap from thefe myfteries, fymbols and 
explanations of Mafonry, he treated with the mofl (ove- 

* Let it be always remembered, that we continue to except 
the Mafons who only acknowledge the firtl three degrees ; 
but rvLN these ought never to forget, that it was precisely 
their firjl three degrees which Jèrved oj a cloak to toe grand 
init ujlon of lit uminifm. 

■\ The word Abrac is derived from Abraxas, which is only 
a let of Gietk ittttis pet together hy Basimdk s, a famous 
tfophifter of Alexandria, and an herefiarch of the fécond cen- 
tury, exprefiing the number of z^" Intelligences or fpirits, 
which conflnuted his God. St. Jerome fays, that Abraxas was 
the fîcîitio'us God of J3af tides, expreifed in Greek numerals, 

*j.tiGo.r.66.i.«oo. Bafijides grounded all his magic on the 
number of his genii; and hence the term Science of Abrac is 
t:itd lor the fcience of Magic ( Vide Hicronimus adverfus Lu- 
y.v; — 'Auguftinm liber de harejiis — Tèrtuliian de Bafilidc.) 
— Man Es adopted many of his errors from this Bafilides, and 
paiticularly bis Eons vac his magic. Thefe myf cries of Abrac 
are mentioned in the Mafonic manufcript; of Oxford, which 
v s teftîmbny that (orne Brethren were as much addicted to 

thefe viyjieria of Abrac thiee hundred years ago, as many o* 
our;r.c.d,in ^.oiiciucians. 


vtreign contempt every thing that is purely cabaliftjc fol- 
ly and reverie in the Roficruiians. He adopted all their 
means of impiety and laughed at their fooleries, It was 
the contention of impiety, fallen on the one fide into the' 
mod: abfurd Atheifm, and on the other into the moil mi- 
finable fuperitition. Hence arofe thofe diUèntions and jea- 
îoufîes mentioned by Czrtf-Zwack when tracing the pro- 
gress of Hiuminifrnj and it was for a long time doubtful 
which of the two competitors was to be crowned with 
fuccefs. During the conflict we fee Weifhaupt daily in- 
Venting new means of triumph; but he was undecided as 
to the ufe he mould make of his victory. — " In the firib 
** place, he writes to Zwack, " I mould have wifhed to 
** lend to Lomion for a çonftitution for our Brethren ; and 
M I mould ittll be of that opinion if we could make our- 
" felves matters of the Chapter [the Mafonic) of Munich. 
** You will do well to try. I can come to no determination 
c< on that fubjec-fc I have feert what turn our affairs 
•* take. Perhaps Î mall only adopt a reform; or if maybe 
" becter to create a new fyftem of Mafonry for Ourfi Lves ; 
K or, may it not be tho't convenient to incorporate Mà- 
" i'onry into our Order, and thus to make but one body 
K of them both. Time alone can decide this."* 

To relieve the founder from this ftate of indecifion, it 
was necefTary that he fhould become acquainted with a 
man who laid lefs ftrefs on difficulties, and who knew how £.~ a 
to cut them mort. The demon who wields the fiery fword Km £8 e » 
of revolutions throws a Hanoverian Baron in his way, of 
the name of Knigge. At this name every honeft Ger- 
man Mafon will liart back, as at the man who corrupted 
rUentht fraternal bagatelles of they? -y? degrees of Mafonry, 
and confummated the depravity of their impious Roflcru- 
cians. The honeft Brethren, in their indignation, would; 
al molt forget Weifhaupt to overpower Knigge with the 
whole weight of their hatred; and to heap on him alone 
all the opprobrium of the Lodges now become the great 
feminaries of Illuminifm. The truth obliges us to fay, 
that PAiVo-Kniggc was no other than the worthy tool of 
Spartacus- Weifhaupt in this grand intrufjon. That which 
was executed by the one had long fince been conceived 
by the other; and, in all probability, had it not | 
the profound combinations of the one, the wicked aclivi* 

* Original Wiitings, Letter 57 to Cafe, March 178a. 

65 antisocial conspiracy; 

ty of the other would have proved fruitlefs in its attempt^ 
-—Unfortunately in the re union of their baneful talents 
were to be found all the requifites for the moft confum- 
mate confpirators; in the one, for the directing of the 
moft difaftrous of all Se&s; in the other, for the propaga- 
tion of its myfteries and the recruiting of its confpiring 

Weifliaupt, like Satan, profoundly meditated the de- 
ftrudtion of mankind, while Knigge may be compared to 
thofe Genii winged like the plague, ever hovering and im- 
patient to receive the Orders of the King of Hell to bend 
their courfe wherever he will point out evil to be done. 
Weifliaupt proceeds flowly in his combinations, weighs 
his refources, compares the different effays, and, left he 
fhould miftake, defers and fufpends his choice. Knigge* 
in his levity, has fooner acted than deliberated; he fees 
where evil can be done; he does it, and is ready to found 
a retreat, fhould his hVft attempts fail of fuccefs. The 
one forefees the cbftacles he may have to encounter, and 
ieeks to evade them; the other proceeds boldly in fpite 
of all, and looks on the time fpent in reflection as fo much 
loft from the execution. The former is aware of every 
fault that can impede his progrefs; the latter proceeds 
heedlefs of the falfe fteps he may have taken. 

Enco m paifed with darknefs, how great would have 
been the happinefs of Weifliaupt could he but have been 
gratified with a fight of the world in ruins, and that with-c 
out being himfelf ùcn ! The confeioufnefs of his crimes 
would have been to him that grateful fenfation which vir- 
tue raifes in the honeft heart. The power of doing harm 
is more dear to him, than a celebrity which might have 
proved fatal to toe execution of his plots. Knigge, on the 
contrary, Aiows himfelf every where, meddles with every 
- thing; his utmoft ambition was to appear to have been 
the agent m whatever was done. Both are impious, and 
both have iworn the overthrow of the laws; but Wei- 
'. pt from the very beginning had laid down his prin- 
ciples; he had followed them through all their confe- 
rences; his revolution is to be the accompliftiment of 
them all; and he will think his attempt fruitlefs, fhould 
a 'ingle law, fecial or religious, efcape the general wreck. 
With Knigge, both his impiety and his plans of rebel- 
lion have had their gradual progreflion: he fucceflively 
attended ail the public and occult fchools of the Intideli* 

Historical part. 69 

fy of the ?.£c. He can vary his means and adapt himfelf 
to the different characters he has to deal with. He alfo 
wifhes for a revolution, but he will not lofe the occafion 
of one that offers , in hopes of that particular one which 
he wifhes to operate. Where he cannot form an Atheift, 
he will form a Deift or a Sceptic; as circumftances may 
require, he will aét the part of any fpecies of Sophifter, or 
engage in any degree of rebellion, Weifhaupt wifhes to 
involve in univerfal ruin, religion, magitrrates, fociety, 
and property, that he may inftal his nomade clans, his 
Men KingS) and his Equality and Liberty. Knigge is 
content to deftroy lefs, provided he defpotically fways o- 
ver all that has efcaped deftrucStion. In the filent foades 
of his retreat, the one has more accurately ftudied the 
nature of man, and has laid his plans for new-modelling 
human nature according to his views, The other is bet- 
ter acquainted with them from his habit of intrigue, and 
is eafier pleafed with the afcendancy he can require over 
them. In fhort, the former may be faid to prepare his 
poifons with more art, while the latter retails them bet- 
ter; and between them they wield the mighty power ©f 

When the common enemy of human nature brought 
thefe two fiends of rebellion in contact with each other s 
they had already acquired ail thofe habits and means which 
muff, render their union fatal to mankind. The Hanove- 
rian Baron had been caft upon the earth nearly at the 
"fame time that the Bavarian monfcer had been engender- 
ed. His whole life appears to have been but one continu- 
ed preparation for the part he was to acf in fécond ing 
Weifhaupt, and particularly to open the gates of the 
Lodges from the North to the South, and from the Eafi 
to the weft, to receive the founder of Iliuminifm, and de- 
liver over to him all thofe adepts who, trained by the 
higher myfteries of Mafonry, had long fmce been pre- 
pared to receive thofe of the modern Spartacm, 

Knigge informs us, that from his youth he had always 
had an invincible propenfity towards fecret focieties ; and 
that while a boy he had founded one of thofe little focie- 
ties fo common in the Proteftant Univeiûties, and of 
which we have before fpoken. He had acquired this turn 
from his father, whom he had obferved fpending his time 
in the ftudy of the Mafonic Myfteries, and his money in 
the vain purfuit of the Philofop'her's Stone. The father's 


gold had vaniflied in the crucible, and the fon reaped 
nothing but the drofs. No fooner had he attained the 
neceffary age, than he got himfelf made a Freemafon in 
one of thoïe Lodges called of the Striai Observance. He 
rofe to the degree of Terr.plar, that is to fay, of thofeMa- 
fon'S Who, ftill flattering themfelves with the hopes of re- 
covering the polTeiuons of that once celebrated Order, 
diihibute in the mean time the different titles formerly 
borne by thofe Knights. Knigge became one of thefe 
Brother Commanders under the title of Eques a Cygno 
{Knight of the Sivan). Contrary to his expectations, 
lie found this to be but an empty title without any emo- 
lument. Wiming to make up for this deficiency, and 
ftili more actuated with the defire of acquiring that im- 
portance in the Lodges at leafr, which he could not ac- 
quire elfewhere, he made himfelf the difcrple of the fa- 
mous Mountebank Schroeder at Marbourg. When 
in company with this Schroeder, or the Caglioftro of Ger- 
many, What man, as he fays himfelf. Would not have 
b'eeft fired with zeal for Theofophy, Magic, and Alchymy ? 
Thefe were the myiteries of the Mafons of the Stricl Ob- 

fervance. Violent, faniajlical^ and rejllefs^ as he defcribes 
himfelf, he at the age of five and twenty was a firm be- 
liever in all thefe myferies -, he even practifed all the 
evocations of spirits, and other follies of ancient and 
modern Cabal. Soon he began to doubt whether he real- 
ly bètieved or ought to believe in all this fluff. He flat- 
tered himfelf with the hopes that, in the midfr. of thefe 
enchantments and magic fpells,ffo chaos of his ideas would 

fiibftde. To gain knowledge, and put his mind at eale, 
he would willingly have gained admiffion iiito every Ma- 
fonic Lodge, tie foutnd means of getting admitted into 
the higher degrees, procured the rerejl and mofl fiiyfteri-* 
vies manufcripts-y and even ftudied all their different Se&s.* 
Then, as if he wifhed to convert himfelf into a vaft em- 
porium of every error, he applied to the doctrines of the 
modern Sophifters, and thus plied hi? unfortunate brain 
on the one fide with all the delirious conceits of Cabaliftic 
Maforiry, and on the other with the impious doctrines of 
the felf-'creal fophers. His attempts at fortune 

rfiiar to thofe h de for the acquiurion of 

nor was he more fuc'cefsful. — 'A courtier without 

ee his Lafb Obfenv.'ionSj P, 24. 


favor, he dcferts his Piince to take the direction of a Play- 
houle ; thence he accepts a commiiuion in the fervice of 
the Prince of Hefl'e Çaflêl ; but is-foon difmifTed, in con- 
fequence of the violence and refllcfineis of his temper. — ■ 
He then turns author, and writes violent declamations 
againfr. the Roman Catholics; then, in confequence of 
fame hope of preferment (I know not what), he makes 
a public profeffion of their faith; but, not fucceeding as- 
he hoped, he deierts them, abufes them more icurriloufly 
than ever, takes part with the Proteftants, but writes in 
favor of Deifm.* Such had been the reftlefs education 
of the man who was to prove the moft worthy fupporter 
and the moil active co-operator that Weiihaupt yet had 

By a ftrange coincidence, juft at the very time that 
thefe Cçnfpi razors met, Knigge had been projecting a 
conqueft of Mafonry, and had formed luch pleins for an 
yniverial confpiracy, that he fcarcely leaves the honor of 
invention to Weiihaupt, The account given by Knigge 
will bell explain this coincidence. 

It was in the year of our Lord 1780 ; and a general 
aiTembly of Mafons had been convoked at Willemfbaden 
for the next year, under the protection of the Duke of 
Erunfwick and of the Landgrave of Helîe Caflel. u On 
" the news of this," fays -P/^/Zj-Knigge, " I caft an eye 
« on the iinmenfe multitude of brethren : I obferved it to 
«. be compofed of men of aii itations in life, of noblemen, 
ft of men of great riches, of great power, and ajfoofBre- 
" thren pouefTuig great knowledge and activity, I faw 
u thefe men all actuated by one common fer.timent, tho* 
" I could not very well conceive the object of their union. 
" I faw them all bound by an oath of the moft profound 
" fecrecy, without being able to form any better idea as 
tc to the object of it. I beheld them divided in their opi- 
" nions, nor could I comprehend on which fide the error 
<c lay ; ftill lefs could 1 furmife what had been the grand 
** obftacle that had impeded the advantages which man- 
" kind had reafon to expect from Freemafbnry. — Never- 
* c thelefs how great would thefe advantages have been, if 
" diftinguifhing actions from (peculations, opinions had 
f* been left t© each individual, while a regular fyftem of 
« ; conduct was followed, perpetually tending towards the 

* See his Lafl Obfervations, P. z;* 

73 antisocial conspiracy; 

** advantage of humanity in general, and of the Brethren 
" in particular / Had they agreed on a iyftem of laws 
<{ for the mutual and general fupport of each other; ta 
*' raife deprefTed or obfcure merit ; to fécond with all the 
« power and influence of Mafonry all plans for general 
" utility; 'to favor the advancement of the Brethren; to 
" meafure out the different employments in the State t9 

* the B) ethren, according to their capacities, and in pro- 
11 portion as they foould have profited of the advantages 
tc to be reaped from secret societies in the arts of 
" knowing men and of governing them without con- 

" Meditating and mufing on thefe ideas," continues 
« Knigge, « I had refolved on all my plans of reform, 
« and had fent them to Willemfbaden. I received polite 
« anfwers ; they promifed to take my work into confide- 
« ration at the general meeting, that was about to be held. 
« But I foon had reafon to believe, that the benevolent 
« and difinterefted views of the illultrious chiefs and pro- 
fs teétors of Mafonry would be but very ill feconded ; that 
« partial views and difcordant interelrs would play off 
« every artifice to make the fyftems of particular Sects 
« predominate; and I forefaw how difficult it would be 
« to make one cap fit fo many heads. Meanwhile I com- 
« municated my plans to different Mafons, and repeated- 
« ly exprefTed my fears; when, in July 1780, 1 made ac- 
« quaintance with Diomcdes (the Marquis of Conftan- 
« za) in a Lodge at Frankfort on the Mein, who had 
« been fent from Bavaria by the Illuminées to eftablifh 
« new Colonies in the Protefïant States. I informed him 
w of my views with refpect to a general reform of Free- 
« mafonry; and that, perfectly convinced of the inutility 
« of the meeting at Willemfbaden I had refolved to work 
« at the eftablilhment of my fyftem feconded by a few 
« Mafons my particular friends, and who were fpread 

* throughout Germany. After having heard me explain 
" my intentions, why," faid he, " fhould you give your- 
" felf the trouble to found a new fociety, when there al- 
« ready exifts one which has undertaken all that you wifh 
« to do, which can in every way gratify your thirft for 
K knowledge, and open a wide field for your activity and; 
** defire of being ufeful; a fociety, in fhort, which is \s\ 

• See his Laft Obfervations, P. %l. 


*f poûeflion of all the fciences and all the authority neces- 
*} farw for the accomplimmetit of yourpbjecV* 

The Marquis was correct; for there exifled a moft 
finking coincidence between the plots of his mafter an4 
thofe propofed by Knigge to raife deprefled or obfcure 
merit, and fuccor fufFering virtue; to teach the adepts 
the art of knowing men; to conduce mankind to happi- 
nefs, and to govern t'neni without their perceiving it.— 
Like Knigge, Weifhaupt alfo had invented that invi- 
fible concatenation which, proceeding from the tene- 
brous meeting of his lurking fenate, was to extend its 
ramifications over every clafs of citizens, and, dictating 
Jaws from thefe dark recefTes, the Brotherhood was to 
leave no art untried to caufe them to be promulgated by 
the councils of the Prince. -J- Thus far the two Arch- 
confpirators follow the fame pian; but the truth is, that 
Weimaupt only leeks power to deftrov, and gives laws 
but to annihilate every law; while Pbiio-K>n\gge will 
look upon nations as fufiiciently free, provided he can but 
fubject their magiftrates and rulers to the decrees of the 
Mafonic Lodges ; though the Liberty, therefore, fought 
by the one be the death of fociety, that of the other will 
be its eternal fhame. Two fuch men could not long re- 
main feparate; pride may give rife to temporary difagree- 
ments: but they will co-operate fufiiciently for the mife- 
ry of mankind. 

Knigge could fcarcely exprefs the joy and aftoniih-» 
ment with which he learned that the plans he had con-» 
ceived were already executing. He threw himfelf into 
the arms of the Iliuminizing Apoitle, and immediately 
received the degrees of Candidate, of Novice, and was 
even admitted into the Adinerval Academy. Wei- 
fhaupt foon felt the importance of fuch an acquisition, 
though in P»evolutionary Impiety he found Knigge even 
more advanced than he wifhed. This latter immediately 
fet to work for the Illuminées with as much zeal as if he 
had been prolecuting his own plan, and took upon him- 
Jèlf the million on which Diomcdes had been fent. Ne- 
ver had Illuminifin beheld fo a&ive and fo infinuating 3 

* Sea his Lafl Gbfemtiocs, P. 35. 

f Original Writings, firft Statutes of the lKurr.inee, ar,4 
lolr,ru<5tioii3 for the Regent. 


Recruiter. The lift of Novices and Brethren was fwoî- 
len with amazing ^rapidity, nor did he, like Weifhaupt, 
merely enlift youths coming from the College, but men 
who had attained the age of maturity, and whofe impiety 
was already known to him. — He more particularly fe- 
ii-Cted thofe whom m the Lodges he hadobferved to have 
a greater propenfity for the Occult Myfteries. 

Weifhaupt in his firft furprize couid not help admir- 
ing h.s new Apoftle; and thus extols him to his Areopa- 
gites: " Phils-Knifrge alone does more than all of you 
li put together could even hope to do. . . . Pbilo is the 
" mafter from whom you all fhould take leflbns. . . . 
" Give me only fix fuch men, and I will engage to change 
" the whole ïàcc of the univerfe.' r * The grand point 
which gave Weifhaupt fo much pleafurewas the difcove- 
fy of that generation of men who were already prepared 
for his plots, and which in part difpenfed with the labo- 
rious education he had found necefiary for the preparation 
or youth ; and indeed we foon after fee him inftru£ting 
his recruiters to fbliow Knipge's method of proceeding. f 
Nor was he Ids pleafed to fee the Sect, daily gaining 
ground, and that without any violence, in thofe very 
Ledges which he wifhed ih much to reduce under hi9 
fût jection. This rapid fuccefs, however, gave rife to 
difficulties which mud have difgufted any other man; but 
Knigge was exaétly the perfon to remedy them. 

Tricked by the Apoftolic Marquis, as the latter had 

been before by Weifhaupt, with regard to the antiquity, 

omnifcience, and power of Ilkmlnifm, Knigge had only 

been admitted as yet to the preparatory degrees ; nor had 

he the leaft fufpicion that the remaining degrees had no 

exiftènee but in the brain or portfolio of the modern 

Sfiariacus. He expected grand myiteries; he afked for 

them, both in his own name and in the name of the Old 

ee.ns who were not to be treated like boys from the 

college in their Minerval Academy. — Weifhaupt had 

>Urfe to all thofe fubterfuges by which he had hereto- 

iucceeded in keeping his pupils in fufpenfe with res- 

t to the higher myfteries ; and the more he extolled 

them by afking for new trials the more preffing Knigge 

i iginai Writings, Vol. I. Let. 56, and Lafl Cbfervations> 

r. 49- 

t Original Writings, Vol. II. Let. 7. 


became, who told him that fuch trials might be ncceffary 
in the Catholic countries, but were by no means jo in the 
Proteftant ones, where the fpirit of Philofophy had made 
a much greater progrefs.* — Weifhaupt continued to fnift 
his ground, and Knigge became more prelnng in his de- 
mands. — The old Mafons, famous for deciphering the 
hieroglyphics, afked for fome which might anfwer to the 
enthufiafm with which he had infpired them. They 
threw out hints of abandoning him as an impoftor who 
had deluded them with idle promifes, unlefs he kept his 
word with them; and Illuminifm mull have been irrepa- 
bly undone had fo many Brethren abandoned him under 
that perfuafion. Thefe perpetual folicitations at length 
forced Weifhaupt's fecret from him: u His letters (fays 
*< Knigge) at length informed me, that this Order, pro- 
« feiTedly fo ancient, had no other exiftence than in his 
M own head, and in the preparatory claj/ès he had efta- 
<« blifhed in the Catholic countries; but that he had a 
« large quantity of excellent materials for the higher de- 
" grees. In making this avowal he begged me to pardon 
<c his little finefle; for (faid he) I have fought in vain af- 
" ter worthy co-operators ; no perfon has ever entered fo 
<c deeply into my views as you have ; nor has any perlon 
" feconded me with fo much activity. He told me, that 
" I was a man fent from Heaven to fécond him in his 
K undertaking; that he threw himfelf upon my honor, 
" and was willing to give me up all his papers; and that 
" in future, not looking upon himfelf as my fuperior, he 
* c would be content to work under my direction ; that the 
* c Brethren were expecting me in Bavaria, where ail the 
tc necefiary fieps could be agreed upon, and that they yyere 
€i ready to pay my expenfes there." f 

Had Weifhaupt thought Knigge to be a man lefs to 
be depended upon, this would have been the only error 
we ihould have feen this confpiring genius fall into. He 
muft have been the only man on earth who could have 
looked upon his higher degrees and means of leduetion as 
incomplete. The myfteries and the difcourfe for the de 
gree of Epopt were finifhed ; all that has been laid before 
the reader on this degree was already compofed ; J Knigge 

* Laft Obfervations of Phih, from P. 35 to 15. 
T Lall Obfervations of Philo, from P. 35 to 55. 
I See the original of this difcourie in ih*. Original vViiungs, 
Vol. H, Part II. 


inay have ornamented the impiety and diforganizing prin ï 
ciples; but neither Knigge nor all the powers of hell 
could have added to them. The fame may be faid of the 
means of feduction. All the cunning of the Infinuatort 
and directing Illuminées is to be found either in his firft 
degrees, or in the inflruclion for the Provincials; his ir* 
rcfolution can only be attributed to the immenfity of his 
powers for fedaciion which no other perfon but himfelf 
could conceive. Hence he was led to fuppofe that what 
he had done was incomplete, becaufe he thought he could 
do it ft ill better. In a word, had he fent his code a.6 it was, 
Knigge would have profited of what had been completed, 
and would never even have furmifed that he could have 
perfected it. Elated to a great degree at the idea of ex- 
tricating from a difficulty a man whofe plots and fyftems 
fo perfectly coincided with his own, he haftened to his 
fuccor. He had focn run over all the papers that Wei- 
fhaupt en trufted him with} made his appearance at thé 
Council of the Areopagites ; and in a few days got thé 
better of ail their irrelolution with refpect to the divifiori 
of clafTes and degrees, and of the higher and lower mys- 
teries. The chief point, and which in thefe circumftan- 
ces required an immediate decifion, was to know what 
rank fhould be given to the Freematbns in the Order, as 
a mode of facilitating the general intrufion into the Lodg- 
es. Knigge had already proved that they might entirely 
rely on him as to the number of Mafonic brethren to bé 
gr.ined over to Illunn'nifm ; his vote carried the point, 
pnd the Intermediary Glafs of Mafonvy was irrevocably 

About this time the Deputies of the Lodges flocked 
from ail parts to WilLemfbaden. It was an object of great 
importance for Weifhaupt and his Council, that no fteps 
inimical to their views on Mafonry fhould be taken at 
that afîèrnbiy. — To obtain an acc«unt of all their pro- 
ceedings, Philo had taken care to have Minos named a 
deputy. As to himfelf, he preferred being in the neigh- 
borhood of the congrefs, there to watch its motions, and 
only to aft by his agents. He had received full powers 
from Weifhaupt and the Council of Areopagites to take 
fuch fteps as circumftances might require. 

The article which required the greuteft expedition waSj 
to complete the higher parts of the code, and to decide on 
*what degrees were to be given to the Mafons, who were 

Historical part. 77 

too far advanced inthemyfteries to befubjected to the tri- 
als of the Minerval School ; and Knigge had fpeedily exe- 
cuted this firft part of his miffion. His a&ive pen had foon 
made choice of its materials from Weifhaupt's portfolio. 
According to his agreement with the Areopagites, he left 
all the preparatory degrees, fuch as Novice-, Minerval^ 
and Minor Illuminée, which had already been conferred 
on feveral of the adepts, in their primitive ftate. It had 
alio been agreed, that the firjl three degrees of Mafonry 
( now become thje intermediary degrees of Illuminifm) 
ihouid not be touched. He united the Major Illuminée 
to the Scotch degrees. In the degree of Epopi and Re- 
gent, he condenfed every feditious and impious principle, 
as well as every article that he could find in Weiniaupt's 
works j and hence arofe that aftonilhing code already 
inveitigated in the foregoing volume. 

It was not long before Weiihaupt again gave way to 
his irrefolution; for he was always inventing fame new 
art of feduchon ; but while he was deliberating Knigga 
was acting. The fuccefs of the fécond part o. f his miffion, 
or his views on the Mafons of Wiilemfbaden, entirely 
depending on the final determination of the myfteries for 
the degrees of Epopt and Regent, Weifbaupt was prefs- 
èd once more, and, approving the whole, he ftgned and 
fealed them zvith the grand féal of the Order. 

Knigge now had only to attend to his miffion at Wii- 
lemfbaden. We fhall foon follow him to that Congrcfs of 
Mafonry; but we mud firit explain to our readers of 
what fpecies of men this grand aftembly was compofed } 
and what the great agents were, that had already prepa- 
red the fuccefs and enfured the triumph of the new mys- 
teries over thofe of Freemafonry.* 

* For the whole of this chapter, fee the Laft Obfervations 
of Pkib, from P. $$ to 123 ; alfo his firft Letter to Cato, Ori- 
ginal Writicgs, Vol. 11. and his convention with the Areopa- 
gites, Ibid. 



Congrefs of the Frcemafons at Willemfladcn — Of their 
divers SeSfs, and particularly sj that of the Theofphi- 
phical Illuminées. 

IT was by no means the deputies of an infignifkanC 
fociety that were flocking from all parts of the uni- 
verfe to Willemfbaden. At that period, many mafons 
conceived their numbeis to amount to three militons of 
brethren ; and the Lodge de la Candeur at Pans, in its 
Circular Letter oj the $ifl May, 1782, fuppofes that 
France alone contained one 7nillion. Doclor Stark (one 
of the mort learned writers of the Order) in his work on 
the ancient and modern myfteries, pofitively fays, that at 
the loweft computation the number of mafons at that time 
7nv.fl have amounted to one million.* Let the hiitorian 
abide by this eftimate, let him be ever fo partial, yet at 
the fight of thefe deputies fent by a Secret Society com- 
peted of at ieaft a million of adepts, all flocking to their 
myfterious congrefs, what ferious reflections muft arife, 
and how important the confederation both to nations and 
their rulers ! 

"What inconceivable motive is it then that draws forth, 
thefe agents and deputies from all parts of the globe, from 
Europe, Afia, Africa, and America, agents of men ail 
bound by the oath of" fecrecy, both as to the nature of their 
aflbciation and the object of their myfteries ? What in- 
tentions can actuate, what plans are brought by thefe de- 
puties of fo formidable an aflbciation fecretly fpreading 
its ramifications around us, throughout town and coun- 
try, creeping into our habitations, and encompailing em- 
pires? What do they meditate, what are they going 
to combine either for or again/t nations ? If they thus 
convene for the general good of humanity, and the wel- 
fare of nations, whence do they derive their right of deli- 
berating on our religion, morals, or governments ? Who 
haï entrufted them with our interefts ? Who has fubject- 

* Chap. re. 


ed the world to their decrees and their pretended wifdom ? 
Who has told them that we wiSh to act, to think, or to be 
governed according to their decifions and fubterraneous 
nations; or in their language according to their 
indujhious and jeer et influence. 

Should their plans be conspiracies, arifing in a wiSh to 
change the nature of our worfhip and of our laws, infi- 
dious Brethren, perfidious citizens, by what right do you 
pretend to live among us as children of the fame fociety, 
or fubject to the fame magistrates ? 

But fiiould it neither be for nor againSt nations, mould 
their object be to draw more clofe the bonds of their 
fraternity, to propagate their benevolence, and their gene- 
ral love of mankind, then will I anfwer, Amufe the popu- 
lace with fuch bubbles, ad Pcpnlum Pbaleras ! What! 
you that live on the banks of the Thames or of the Ta- 
gus, in the plains watered by the Tiber or Viftula, are you 
to emigrate to the Rhine or to the Elbe, there in the dark 
abodes oflVlafonry to coalefce and deliberate with men 
whom you have never before (cen nor will ever meet 
again ? There is great occafion for you to go there to 
learn how to love and fuccor thofe with whom you daily 
cohabit ! The Englishman, the Ruffian, or the Ameri- 
canos to go and bury himfelf in a German Lodge to 
learn how to be charitable at home ! — The voice of na- 
ture and of the Gofpel then is only to be heard within 
the Secret recefles of Mafonry? Or are we to be told, 
that men have braved the dangers of the Ocean and crofs- 
ed whole empires to affift at a fraternal banquet, there to 
drink a toaft given in a zig-zag or afquare; or perhaps 
to chant fome hymns facred to innocent Equality; and 
that for thefe harmlefs amufements they Should have cho- 
f'-n a den only worthy of the deepeSt confpirators ! Let 
them find other pretences, or not wonder of being fufpeel- 
ed of confpiring. Such language every citizen, every 
magistrate, every fovereign, was entitled to hold to thefe 
deputies flocking to WillemSbadcn. Happy would it 
have been for Mafonry had fuch language been held ; for 
it, might have faved the Brethren the eternal Shame of hav- 
ing become the vile instruments and accomplices of Wei- 

Had any religious body, had even the BiShops of the 
church, held a general meeting, the civil power, without 
doubt, would have ufed its right of fending its commiila-- 



ftate of 
when the 
at Wil- 
lerr, fta- 
êft\ took 

rfes to fuch a meeting, and they would have been inftr lift- 
ed to watch, left under pretence of debating on ecclefias- 
tica) affairs, the right of the ftate fhould be infringed.-— 
But all governments permitted the mafons peaceably to 
proceed to the congrefs of Willemfbaden. The brethren 
even had paffports from the civil powers. For more than 
fix months did thefe deputies deliberate in their immenfe 
Lodge, without any fovereign harboring the lead fufpi- 
cion as to his own fafety, or that of his people. They 
all relied on thofe princes who were themfelves initiated 
in the myfteries of Mafonry; they were in all probability 
ignorant that Brethren of that rank are but partially ad- 
nutted to the fecrets of the Sell; nor were they aware, 
that great names are only cloaks under which fccret foci-* 
eties often confpire againft their very protectors. They 
had not conceived, that the only means of efcaping the 
vengeance of fuch focieties was to tolerate none, 
not even thofe that are known to be innocent; for the 
Confpirator^ ever watchful, can have no more favorable 
opportunity of afluming the garb of innocence, than in 
thefe fecret recefles, where fooner or later lie will find 
means of involving the undefigning members in his crimi- 
nal plots. 

Sovereigns were equally ignorant of the ftate in which 
Mafonry was at the time of the too famous meeting of 
Willemfbaden; had they but known It, theutmoft feve- 
rity might have become a duty on them. To judge by 
the writings of the Sect, it never had been lefs difpofed 
to a reform, which fome it would feem wifhed to promote, 
and which Sir Andrew Michael Ramfay, a Scotch Baro- 
net, had attempted to bring about forty years before; nor 
is it clear that the reform he had attempted was fa- 
vorable to religion. In order to unite the efforts of the 
Brethren towards fome ufeful object, he had conceived 
the plan of an Encyclopaedia, which was to have been 
executed by all the learned Mafons of the world.* If the 
pofthumous works attributed to Ramfay are really his 
(fuch as The Philofophicai Principles of Natural Reli- 
gion and of Revelation, printed under his rame in 1749, 
fix years after his death) I could not venture to fay, that 
he had not forgotten the greater part of thofe lefions which 
he had received from Fenclon, or that the Malonic En- 

* See Dit' auf gezogene vorhang der Frey Maurery, P. 303. 


Cyclopaedia would have been a better work than that ex- 
ecuted by the Sophifters D'Alembert and Diderot; nei* 
ther would I vouch that any reform was intended at that 
time in the ancient myfteries of the Lodges, other than 
the introduction of many antichriftian errors, together 
with thofe of the IVUcempfichofis. But, whatever may 
have been the reform projected by Ramfay, every thing 
denoted that that which thé Brethren were about to accom- 
plish at Wilhemfbaden would be no other than the con-* 
ïûmmation of the myfteries or plots of the Roficrucians, 
(See Note at the end of the Chapter). In reality, thefe 
myfteries as well as thofe of the Scocch Knights had on- 
ly been new modelled, the better to meet the of the 
Sophifters, and of the Impoftors of the age. In France 
alone, under the mcceffive protection of the Princes of 
Clermont, of Conti, and of the Duke of Orleans, all 
Grand Matters of the Order, the Clermontois Brethren^ 
the African Brethren, the Knights of the Eagle, the A- 
dept, the Sublime Philofopher, were fo many national in- 
ventions added to Mafonry; and all thefe degrees were 
fteps towards our Revolution. In Germany we fee Ro- 
fa combining all thefe French inventions with the ancient 
Scotch myfteries; the Baron Hund and Shtibard fubdi- 
Viding Mafonry into the Stricl Qbfervance and the Lax 
Obfervance. Under the name of 'Çemplar Mafons, it dai- 
ly beheld new degrees invented, more and more threaten- 
ing to Kings and Pontiffs, who had fuppreffed the Tem- 
plars. There alfo appeared the Phyfician Zinnendorf 
and with him were introduced the modern Roficrucians 
from Sweden, and their new myfteries of the Cabal^ 
while the impoftor Jaeger was propagating his at Ratis- 

There was not one of thefe new mafonic Se&s that 
did not revive fome ancient fyftem of impiety or rebellion. 
$ut the worft of the whole clan was a fort of Illuminées 
calling themfelves Theofophs, whom I find continually 
confounded by fome people with thofe of Weifhaupt. — ? 
They are certainly no better; but they are a different 
Seel. The neceflity under which I lie to diftinguifh them, 
Jeft the hiftorian fhould be mifled, obliges me to trace 
them to their origin, and to give a fhort account of their 

All the Theofophical Illuminées of this age in England, The 
France, Sweden, or Germany, have drawn their princi* Theçfb? 


î hxal II- pies from the Baron Emmanuel Swedenborg. This name, 

or^'we- 8 ' t0 Dfc ^ ure ' ^' JCS not [ ^ em to àenole the founder of a Seel. 
denborgi- Swedenborg became oik j , perhaps, without dreaming of 
anMafons. an > / ucil thing, and through one of thofe extraordinary 
. incidents which Providence in an age of impiety permits 
| to humble the pride of our Sophifters. He was fon of the 
Lutheran Biiiiop of Skara, and was born at Upfal in 
1688. After having paiTed the greater part of his life in 
the moil incongruous purfuits, as a Poet, a Philofopher, 
a Metaphyfician, a Mineralogift, a Sailor, a Divine, and 
an Aitionoiner, he was attacked by one of thofe violent 
fevers which leave the organs o^ the human frame in a 
very deranged flaie.* His meditations or rather reve- 
ries, took the form of thofe fpeculations to which he had 
forme/ly been addicted, on the Infinite, the Creation, the 
Spirit, Matter, God, and Nature. All on a fudden he 
thought himleif infpired, and lent by God to reveal new 
truths. The following is the account he gives of his 

" I was one day dining very late at my hotel in Lon- 
" don, and I ate with great appetite, when at the end of 
<c my repair. I perceived a fort of fog which obftructed my 
■■'.', and my floor was covered with hideous reptiles. 
" They difappeared, the darknefs v/as difperfed, and I 
"plainly faw, in the midil of a bright light, aman fitting 
" in the corner of my room, who laid in a terrible voice, 
\ « Do not eat fo much. At thefc words my fight was be- 
" dimmed.; but £ regained it little by lictle, and then 
« found that I was alone. The next night, the fame man, 
<c refplendent with light, flood before me, and laid: I am 
" the Lord, Creator, and Redeemer', I have c h of en you 
" to explain to men the interior and fpiritual fenfe of 
" the Jacred Scriptures. I will dictate what you fball 
" write. This time I was not affrighted; and the light, 
u though very vivid, did not affect my fight. The Lord 
" was clothed in purple, and the viilon continued for a 
M quarter of an hour. This very night the eyes of my 
" interior were opened and enabled to fee into heaven, 
" into the world of Ipirits, into hell, in which places I 

* f do not fee that any of his adepts have mentioned this 
illnefs ; but indeed I am not furprized at it. I quote it on the 
authority of a PhyficiaD, who learned it from feveral other 
Phyiicians of Loudon. 


w found many of my acquaintances, fome who had been 
** long fince dead, others only a fhort time."* 

This viiion would appear more worthy of a man to 
whom one might fay in a lefs terrible voice, Do not eatjc 
much, but rather, indeed, Do not drink fo much. Swe- 
denborg declares it to have been in the year 1745. He 
lived till 1772, perpetually writing new volumes of his 
revelations, travelling every year from England to Swe- 
den, and daily from earth to heaven or to hell. It requires 
exceeding great patience to wade through all thefe works ; 
and when one has iludied them, it is difficult to form an 
idea of their author. In this Theofophical Illuminée fome 
will behold a man in a confiant delirium ; others will trace 
the Sophifter and Infidel ; while others again will take 
him for an importer and hypocrite, is it the madman, 
the vifionary madman in the regions of Folly, that is 
fought? Let the reader follow him in his frequent jour- 
nies to the world of fpirits, or let him have the patience 
to hear him tell what he has feen. On one fide he fhews 
us a paradile perfectly corrci'ponding with the earth, and 
the angels doing every thing in the other world that men 
do in this. On the other, he defcribes heaven and its 
plains, its forefts, its rivers, its towns, and its provinces; 
he then proceeds to the fchools for infant angels ; to the 
univerfities for the learned angels ; to fairs for the com- 
mercial angels, and particularly for the Engliih and Dutch 
angels. The fpirits are male and female; they marry, 
and Swedenborg was prefent at a marriage. This mar- 
riage is celeftial ; " but," fays he, " we are not to infer 
" that the celcftial couples are unacquainted with volup- 
" tuoufnefs. . . . The propenfity to unite, imprinted 
" by the Creator, exiils in the fpiritual bodies^ as it docs 
u in the material bodies. The angels of both fexes are 
u always in the moft peifecl: flate of beauty, youth, and 
" vigor. They enjoy therefore the utnaoft voiuptuou 
" of conjugal love, and that to a much greater degree than 
" it is poffible for mortals." {• 

From this delirium let us proceed to the impoftor 

The whole lifeand writings of 3wedenb0rg depofe againft 
him. To begin with his writings, it is always Cîod or 

* See the Preface to the Abridgement of Swedenborg's Works. 
t Swedenborg on the celeAiai Jerufalem— of the i'piriui-U 
vorld—of the Eogiilh— of the Dutch, ccc— Art. Her/ 


an angel that fpeaks. Every thing that he tells us he has 
feen in heaven himfelf, and he is at liberty to go there as 
often as he pleafes. He has fpirits at his command; and 
they reveal to him the moft fecret tranfaâions. The 
Princefs Ulrica, Queen of Sweden, fends to confult him 
why her brother the Prince of Pruffia had died without 
anfwering a certain letter which (he had written to him. 
Swedenborg promifes to confult the deceafed. The fol- 
lowing day he returns, and addrefles himfelf as follows to 
the Queen : " Your brother appeared to me lad night, 
" and ordered me to inform you, that he had not anfwer- 
Cc ed your letter becaufe he difapproved your conduce, be- 
ct cauf'e your imprudent politics and your ambition were 
" the caufes of the effufion of blood. I command you 
" therefore in his name to meddle no more in ftate af- 
*' fairs, and particularly not any more to excite troubles 
tc to which you would fooner or later fall the vi£"— 
The Queen was aftonifhed ; Swedenborg told her things 
that fhe alone and the deceafed could know; and the ré- 
putation of the prophet was much increafed. For' my 
readers to form their judgment, it will be fufHcient for 
them to know that the letter the Queen had written had 
been intercepted by two fenators, who profited of this 
occafion to give her the above leflbn through the medium 
of Swedenborg.* 

Take another trait of the Impoftor : — The Countefs 
of Mansfield is afraid of having to pay a fum of money a 
fécond time, the receipt being miflaid at her hufband's 
death. She confults Swedenborg, and in the name of the 
deceafed he comes to acquaint her where the receipt was 
to be found: He could very eafily give the information 


* See Mr. Rollig's letter in the Mow't Shrifft of Berlin, Ja- 
nuary, 1788. When the difciples of Swedenborg faw Mr. 
Roilig's letter appear, they gave a new turn to the ftory. It 
was no longer the Qneen queftioning Swedenborg about the 
letter ; fhe fimply afked, Whether he kadfeen her brother ? Swe- 
denborg is faid at the end of a week to return to the Queen, 
and tell her : hings that fhe believed herfdt to be alone conver- 
sant with, after the deceafe of the Prince. 1 his contrivance 
gives a whole week in place of a day to prepare the tiick. I 
now learn a third ; according to De Mainauduc, the letter was 
ic?.rcely written when Swedenborg, without even feeing it, 
divines the object and dilates the anfwer before hand. When 
th s Çcheroe is exploded, it is to be hoped that the brethiett 
will invent another. 


to be fure, for he had found the receipt in a book which 
had been returned him by the Count. It was the Queen 
Ulrica who gave this natural explanation of the faci ; yet 
(he is neverthelèfs quoted by the difcipks as an authority 
to prove the miracle.* Certainly we have mown enough 
of the impcftor; but the important perfon for our conii- 
deration is the Illuminizing law-giver, the Sophifter of 
Impiety; and Swedenborg's character partakes much 
more of this than is generally fuppofcd. His manner 
Would lead us to think that his hypocrify was not inferior 
to his impiety. Never did any man ipeak more of the 
love of God and of the love of his neighbor; neVer did 
any perfon more frequently quote the rrophets and the 
Scriptures j or affect more refpe£l for Chrift and more 
zeal for Chriftianity; never did any one better affume 
the character and tone of a fincere, religious, and upright 
man : Neverthelèfs, I muft fay, never did any man fhow 
more duplicity and impiety; never did any one conceal 
the moft relolute delign of annihilating Chiiirianity and 
every Religion, under the mafk of zeal, more completely . 
than he did. Let all his followers proteft againil this as- 
fertion ; to expofe the two fyjlems of their mailer will am*- 
ply fuffice to juftify the imputation. I fay tzuo fyjhms y 
becaufe as Swedenborg always had tvjofenfes, the one in- 
ternal and allegorical^ the other external or literal^ to 
explain and overthrow the Scriptures; fo he has alio two 
J'yJlemS) the one apparent for fools and dupes; the other 
iecret and hidden, and referved for the adepts; the one 
tending only in appearance to reform Chrifhanity on the 
reveries of Deifm; the other leading to ali the Impiety of 
Atheifm, Spinolifm,Fanaticifm, and Materialifm. 

I lament with my readers, that fuch is the nature of 
our revolutions, that to know and unfold their caufes it is 
neceffary to ftudy manifold Se£ts, and wade through dis. 
gufting fyftems. Few people are aware of the multitude 
of Antichriitian, impious, and tenebrous factions that had 
overrun the earth to prepare the advent of our difafters. 
I myfelf for a long time defpifed thefe 'ïheofophical Illu- 
minées. But I found them at Wilhemfbaden; and the 
part they adted at firft in concurrence with Weiihaupr, 

* Preface to the Abridgment ofSvvedenbnrg's Works — the 
Edition of them by Pernetti — Eflay 'jn the Illuminées written 
by Mirabeau, Note 8. 



and afterward in union with him, obliged me to invefti- 
gate their Seâ: , and my reader mull: have a fhort and pre- 
Sweden- cife idea of each of their two fyftems. The firft, which 
borg s j ca j] a pparent,"\s compiled for men who ftill wifh to 
fvftein. preferve the words God, Religion, Spirit, Heaven, and 
Hell ; but who, fwerving from Chriftianity, are aban- 
doned by the Almighty to all the abfurdities and follies 
of Anthropomorphifm. For fuch perfons Swedenborg has 
on worlds, invented two worlds, the one invifible and fpiritual, the 
other vijîbïe and natural. Each of thefe worlds has the 
form of a man ; together they compound the univerfe, 
which has alfo the form of a man. 

The fpiritual world comprehends Heaven; the World 
of Spirits, and Hell. This Heaven, World of Spirits, 
and Hell, are formed to the Image of Adan, that is to fay 
of Gcd himfelf. 
on God. F° r God is alfo man\ indeed it is only the Lord or God, 

that can be properly called man. — This God man is un- 
created, ; n finite, pre fail every where by his humanity— 
Though God and Man at the fame time, he is but of one 
nature, one efTence, and particularly but one in perfon, — 
It is true, there is a God the Father, a God the Son, and 
a God the Holy Ghoil, but jefus Chrift alone is the Fa- 
ther, the Son, and the Holy Ghoft, according as he man- 
iflils himfelf by the creation, redempti on,or fanctifica- 
tion; and the Trinity of perfons in God, according to 
Swedenborg, is an impiety which has produced many 

This doctrine againft the Trinity is one of thofe arti- 
cles to which the Sophifter and his difciples molt fre- 
quently advert, and particularly infill: upon, even in their 
Oatechifms for children. 
on Mm. Though we are to believe the exiftence of but one na- 
ture and of one perfon in this God-Alan, Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghojh, yet in each man we are to conceive two 
tuiiinc-t men; the: one fpiritual and inUrior^ the other 
exterior and natural. The Alan-fpirit or interior, has 
a heart, lungs, feet and hands, and ail the different parts 
©f the human frame, which belong to the vijible and ex- 
terior man.** 

* Every thing that is faid here of this fyftem is extracted 

ïr nom the Works of Swedenborg» which i have in my 

fiion; fuch asliis Doftrine oj the New ffsrufak/h, his Spi- 


There arc alfo three diftindt things in every man, the 
body, the fou/, and the fpirit. We are all acquainted with 
the body, and Swedenborg makes no change in it; but 
his fpirit is that interior man, who has a hearty lungs\ 
and a fpiritual body entirely modelled on the natural bo- 
dy. But the fou I, that is the man himfelf, children receive 
from their father y the body is the envelope and is of the 

Notwithftanding this body, this fpirit, and this {ou\,eve~ 
ry thing that man thinks or that he wills is infufed into 
him through the influent: e of Heaven or of Hell, " He irji* 
u agines that his thoughts are actually his own, and his 
u volition in himfelf and from himfelf, while ncverthelefs 
" the whole is infufed into him. If he believed the real 
" facl, he would not then appropriate evil actions to him- 
" felf, for he would reje£t them from himfelf to Hell, 
** whence they come. Neither would he appropriate to 
<£ himfelf good actions, and for that reafon would pretend 
" to no merit from them. He would be happy; he would 
" fee according to the Lord, the Good and the Evil;"* 
or, in other words, he will find that he is mailer neither 
of his thoughts nor actions; that he is deprived of free- 
agency, and that he can neither merit nor demerit. 

This poor being who io grofsly miilakes himfelf when 
he believes himfelf to be thinking or acting of himfelf, 
has alfo fallen into a multitude of other religious errors, 
becaufe he does not rightly underfiand the facred fcrip- 
tures. In the Books of Revelation every thing is allego- 
rical, every thing has two fenfes, the one celejli&l, fpirit- 
ual, interior; the other, natural, exterior,, literal. It is 
from not having undcrftood the fpiritual and celeftial 
fenfe that Chriitians have believed in the Son of God 
made Man, and in his death on the Crofs for the Re- 
demption of mankind. Swedenborg, one day prefent in 
Heaven at a great council, heard and repeats thefe words 
of an angel, who was a great divine: " How is it polTible 
" that the Chriftian world can abjure found reafon, and 
" rave to fuch a degree as to eftablifh the fundamental 

ritual World, his Apocalypfe Revealed ; cr from divers abridg- 
ments of his Works io Ficnch and tengliih, made by his difci- 

* Extiaft from the New Jerufalem and from th» Aicanjt, 
drt. Influence, No. «77. 


" principles of their belief on paradoxes of fuch a nature, 
" which evidently militate againft the divine elTence, the 
" divine love, the divine wifdom, the omnipotence, and 
" the univeral prefence of God ? What he is fuppofed 
u to have done, a good mafter would not have done againft 
iC his fervants, nor even a wild beaft againft its young !"* 
The fame angel told him many other things, which over- 
turn all the remaining articles of the Chriftian belief.— 
One point in particular he aflerts, which muft give plea- 
fure to the wicked, when he teaches them to fcofFat Hell, 
particularly when he fays, that it is contrary to the di- 
vide effence to deprive a Jingle man of his mercy ; that the 
whole of tbofe doctrines are contrary to the divine na- 
ture^ which the Chriftian world does natfeem to be aware 

Another part of the doctrine which muft be alfo very 
acceptable to the wicked, is the ftate with which Swe- 
denborg flatters them in the other world, and the time he 
gives them after death to gain Heaven. According to 
bis new Gofpel, the inftant that man believes to be that 
of his death, is the moment of his refurrection ; and no 
other refurrection is allowed of. At that very inftant he 
appears in thejpiritual world under the human form, ex» 
actly as if he was in this world; under this form he be* 
comes an angel, and no other angels exift but thofe who 
become fo at their departure from this world. All thefe 
angels inhabit the world of fpirits, and are received there 
by other angels, who inftrudt them in the fpiritual fenfe 
of the Scriptures. They are allowed till the age of thirty 
to learn this fenfe y and to repent in the world of fpirits.— - 
But left we fhould revert to the delirious Illuminée, let 
us haften to that part of his doctrines which conftitutes 
the grand hopes of his difciples on earth. After having 
expounded all the myfteries of Chriftianity according to 
his fpiritual and allegorical fenfe, that is to fay, after hav- 
ing fubftituted his doctrines to thofe of the Gofpel, Swe- 
denborg informs them, that the day willcome when the 
whole of his doctrine fhall be received in this world. — » 
His New This happy day will be that on which the New Jerufa-* 
Terulalem. l £m ^ ia ^ ' oe re-eftabliftied on earth, This New Jeru- 
falem will be the reign of the new church, of Jefus Chrift 

* See Abridgment of Swedenborg, ifr/. Redemptiok. 
f Ibid. 


feigning alone over the earth, as he formerly did over our 
forefathers before the deluge. It will be the golden age 
of true Chriftianity; and then the revolution foretold by 
Swedenborg will be accomplifhed with his prophecies. 

Such is that which I have denominated the apparent 
fyjlem of the Baron de Swedenborg, My readers may 
eafily obferve, that fuch tools in the hands of the adepts 
muft fuffice to eradicate true Chriftianity from the minds 
of their dupes, and to make their New Jerufalem a plea 
for thofe revolutions which, in order to recall ancient 
times, are, in the name of God and of his prophet, to 
overthrow all the altars and thrones exifting under the v 
prefent Jerufalem, that is to fay, under the prefect church- 
es and governments. 

From the midft of this chaos of delirium, and thefe 
prophecies of rebellion, let us bring forth that other fys- His hid- 
tem, which appears to have beenreferved to the profound den fys» 
adepts. It is that of Materialifm and of the pureft Athe- tem% 
ifm. This fyftem is occult in Swedenborg's works, but 
it is wholly contained in them. Here we ilîould no long- 
er have to deal with the prophet in delirium, but with the 
moil artful Sophifter, were I not aware that fuch hypo- 
Crify is not entirely incompatible with a dilbrdered mind. 
I will explain : it fometimes happens, that the minds of 
men will rave on certain queftions, though perfectly fen r 
fible and reafonable on others. There are alfo madmen 
who will conftantly purfue their object ; their principles 
may be extravagant, but they never lofe fight of their con- 
fequences. They will even reafon on them, and com- 
bine them with all the art of the moft fubtle Sophifter. — i 
I think it is in this clafs that Swedenborg is to be rank- 
ed j I believe it, becaufe not only his writings, but many 
circumftances in his life, ferve to confirm the conjecture. 
For example: at Stockholm, after having made a general 
officer (who came to pay him a vifit from Mr. Euler, the 
Prince of Orange's librarian) wait in his antichamber for 
a confiderable time, he at length came to him and made his 
excufes, by faying, Indeed, General, juft at that moment 
St. Peter and St, Paul were with me j and you eafily ap- 
prehend, that when one receives fuch vilitors one is in no 
hurry to difmifs them. — -My readers muft as eafily con- 
ceive the opinion the General formed of the Baron, and 
the account he gave of him to Euler, 


At another time, on a journey from Stockholm to Ber- 
lin, one of his companions, awakened by a noife which 
Svvedendorg was making, and thinking he was ill, went, 
into his room. He there found him in bed, faft aileep, 
very much agitated, and in agreatheat, repeating in a loud 
voice the queftions and anfwers of a converfation which, 
he dreamt he was holding with the Virgin Mary. The 
next day his fellow-traveller afked the Raron how he had 
flept the night before; he anfwered, "T had yefterday 
" afked a favor of the Virgin Mary in the moft preffing 
" manner; fhe paid me a vifit this night, and I had a long 
" converfation with her." 

The firft of thefe facts will be vouched for by Mr. 
Euler; and with refpecl to the fécond 1 think it is as well 

We will now Ihow how thefe anecdotes are blended. 
with thehiftory of a Sect that has powerfully contributed 
towards our Revolution. 

Swedenborg, anterior to the derangement of his mind, 
had formed a fyfïem leading to Materiulifm; and this con-, 
tinued deeply rooted in his mind after his illnefs. He 
then added his male and female fpirits, and fome extras 
Vagances of the fame nature. With refpedf. to the re- 
mainder of his iyftem, he follows up his principles in a 
confequent manner, and unfortunately the whole tends 
to Materialifm. Sophifters and infidels, no doubt, foon, 
perceived that they could make a tool of this unfortunate 
man ; they let him up as a Prophet, and his reveries were 
oppofed to the truths of Chriftianity. Let us for a mo- 
ment attend to his moft zealous and artful apoftles. It 
is thus that they fpeakof his firft works, in order to cap- 
tivate the reader's mind in favor of his fubfequent wri- 
tings. " According to the difcoveries made by the Baron 
" de Swedenborg, every human body confifts of feveral 
" orders, of forms diftinct among themfelves, according to 
" the apparent degree of purity refpedtively belonging to 
" each ; that is to fay, in the inferior degree is to be found 
*' the bans or receptacle of the fécond degree, which is 
a more pure and more interior than the firft. In the 
u - fiine manner, the fécond ferves as the bafis or recepta- 
" cle for the third, which is more elevated, and is the 
** pu: tft and moft interior of the three. It is in the latter 
* £ that rendes the human fpirits , which is an organized 
w form -Anima, Carre/ponding with the corporal fpirit 


** ANIMUS, and vivifying it, while it derives its own life 
• dire&ly from the fpiritual world."* 

After having feen this famous difcovery of the mafter, 
and on Which the difciples lay fo much ftrefs, let us in- 
quire what are the true lignifications of, or real exprefs- 
ions appropriate to this human fpirit or organized form, 
which Swedenborg calls the foul; or to this corporal fpi- 
rit denominated animus. This foul and this fpirit will 
be found to be no other than organized matter, one of 
thofe bodies which is called the germ, and which are as 
much matter, both in the animal or vegetable reign, as the 
body, the branch, or the fruits they produce. It is eafy 
then to conceive what Swedenborg means by form ox foul, 
ot by that fpirit which has lungs, feet, and all the différ- 
ent parts of the human body. The foul is organized mat- 
ter, and the fpirit is living matter. Terms may be chang- 
ed, but in fact nothing is to be found but matter, and a 
monfter of hypocrify, who, after the example of the foul, 
will reduce his God to matter alio. To prove this aiïer- 
tion, let the following propofition be noticed — God is life, 
becaufe God is love — Love is his effence, wifdom his ex- 
ijlence — The heat of the fpiritual Sun is love, its light is 
wifdom'\ What a deal of twilling and turning to fay, 
that God is no more than the heat and light of a Sun fup- 
pofed to he fpiritual', for if God is love and wifdom, and 
that this love and wijdom are only the heat and light of 
this Sun, is it not evident that God is nothing more than 
the heat and light of that Sun. When, therefore, the 
reader fhall, in Swedenborg's works, meet with exprefs- 
ions fuch as thefe, God is Ufe,becaufe God is love, and lie 
alone is life, he will naturally fubitkute God is life bè- 
caufe he is heat ; he alone is life becaufe life is only 
ported by heat; and he will have Swedenborg"^ real mean- 
ing. This might ftill leave fome idea of a fpirituality, if 
this Sun, whofe light and heat are God, was really fpi- 
ritual ; but for the folution of this queftion let us again 
appeal to S wedenborg, and we mall find that the fpiritua ' 
fun is nothing more than at?n r fpheres, receptacles of 
and of ùght, the extremity of which produces the natural 

* Dialogues on the nature* the object, and evidence of Swe- 
denborg's theological writings, London 1790, page 34 and 25. 
— —Alio the Animal Reign, and the Economy of the Animal 
Iteign, by Swedenborg. 

* See the Abridgment of Swedenborg, Art. Goi». 


fun. This alfo has its atmofpheres,which have produce £ 
by three degrees material fubjiance s . — Thefefame atmos- 
pheres of the. natural fun, decreafng in activity and in ex- 
panjicn, ultimately form maffes whofe parts an brought 
together by the prejfion of weighty fubflances that are fix- 
ed and at refl^ and which we call matter.* In clearer 
and more intelligible language^ here will be the Deity 
and its generations according to Swedenborg. In the 
fir ft place, a Sun, fuppofed fpiritual, forms itfelf in the 
higher regions of the moft ardent and luminous fire : the 
heat and light of this fire is God. This God, in this ftate, 
as well as this Sun, is nothing more than matter in a ftate 
of expanfion, agitation, fire, and incandefcence. As long 
as matter remains in thefe burning regions, Swedenborg 
does not chufe to call it matter, but the fpiritual fun. — 
Particles lefs fubrle, or not (o much heated, are carried 
to the extremity of thefe regions. There they clufter to- 
gether, and the natural fun is formed. They are not 
matter as yet 5 but the grofler particles of this fécond fun 
unite together at the extremity of its atmofpheres ; there 
they cl ump together, cool, thicken, and form heavy mafias, 
and at length acquire the appellation of matter. Thefe 
particles are no longer God, or the fpiritual fun, becaufe 
they are no longer in a ftate of fire* What then is this 
God of Swedenborg, if it is not fire, or all matter in a ftate 
of fire, ceafing only to be God, when it ceafes to be burn- 
ing and luminous ? And what abominable hypocrify is 
this, where, under the cloak of thus changing the termSj 
the moft downright materialifm is preached ? 

Let my reader form what opinion he pleafes as to the 
man who has broached fuch impious abfurdities ; he muft 
never forget that there exift men always ready to adopt 
the moft extravagant errors. Some becaufe they are un- 
able to diftinguifh a fophifm, others again becaufe their 
impiety leads them to rejoice at every new blafp hemy. — . 
Swedenborg has met with difciples of both thefe defcrip* 
lions j and hence arofe two diftinct Seels, the one public, 
the other occult. The firft comprehends thofe men (o 
eafily impofed upon by hypocrify, and by their own cre- 
dulity; they had called themfelves Christians and ado- 
itd Jelus Chrift; but when Swedenborg had called his 
God heat and light; or his fpiritual fun by the name of 

* Ihià.Arî- Creation. 


jefus Chrift, they ftill continued to think themfelves the 
followers of Chriit, though they were only the Specta- 
tors of Swedenborg's reveries. He evidently is the de- 
clared enemy of the principal myfteries of revelation, par- 
ticularly of the Trinity, and of the Redemption of man- 
kind by the Son of God dying on a crofs for the falvation 
of finners ; he uevertheiefs talks a great deal about reve- 
lation j he allumes a devout tone, and with his allegorical 
znd fpirit uc, I fenfe would appear rather to reform than to 
deitroy all; and his followers do not perceive that with 
his allegorical fenfe he is only repeating the arguments of 
the Sopiiifters againft revealed religion, in order to re- 
new all the follies and impieties of the Perfians, Magi, 
and Materiali tts.* They tell thefe poor people of his 
miraculous vifions, of his prophecies, and of his difcour- 
fing with the angels and fpisitsj they are ignorant of the 
firft principles of ciiticifm, and believe in all thefe mar- 
vellous ftories of Swedenborg, jufr. as children do in the 
hinVjry of Raw-head-and-bloody-bones told them by an 
old nurfe. 

The newferufaUrnm particular has gained over ma- 
ny profely tes to Swedenborg. I oblerve in one of the 
molt famous abridgments of his works, that fo early as 
the year 178S, the fmgle tovjn of Manchejitr contained 
SEVEN THOUSAND of thefe illnminized Jerufalernites^ 
andthat there were about TWENTY thousand in Eng- 
land^ Manyof thefe beatified beings may be very well in- 
tentioned j but with this new Jeruiklem they daily expect 
that great revolution which is to fvveep from the earth 
every prince and every king, that the God of Sweden- 
borg may reign uncontroled over the whole globe.:]; And 
that revolution, which they faw btarfting forth in France, 
was nothing more in their eyes than the fire that was to 
purify the earth to prepare the way tor their Jerufalem. 

* Some readers, I know, will be furprifed to fee me charge 
with materialrfm a man who talks fo much of the fpirit, foul, 
God, and religion. But I mail requeft them to weigh the proofs 
adduced before they decide againil me. Had I been writing a- 
mother fort of work I might have prolonged the difcuilion; but 
Ï think I have faid fufficient to prove, that Swedenborg never 
acknowledged any other fpirit but matter, or the elementary 

\ Ibid. Preface to a note, Page Ixviii. 

% See his Apocalypfe Reves!ed, 


Should they ftill remain in thé dark as to the menacing 
tendency of fuch doctrines for every ftate, let them learn 
it from the revolutionary Sophifters. They have public- 
ly declared the hopes they have conceived of thofe Seels 
that are ff ringing up en all fidesi particularly in the 
north of Europe (Sweden) and in America. They even 
in plain terms exprefs their expectations grounded on 
the great number of ■Sivcdcnborg' s feclators and commen~ 
tat ors.* 

And indeed if we do but caft our eyes on thofe that are 
moft admired by the Set* - , we {hall find all the grand 
principles of the revolutionary Equality and Liberty, and 
thofe Jacobinical declamations againft the Great, the No- 
ble, and the Rich, and againft all governments. We (hall 
find, for example, that their Religion, or their new Jeru- 
salem, cannot be welcomed by the Great, becaufe the Great 
are born tranfgreffors of 'its firjl precept. Neither can it 
be approved by the Nobles, becaufe ivhcn mortals afpi- 
red at nobility, they became proud and tvicked. Still lefs 
can it be admired by thofe who do not delight in the 
confufion of ranks, becaufe the pride of ranks produced 
inhumanity and even ferocity j and even long before the 
revolution we fhall fee the adepts inculcating that grand 
principle of anarchy and revolution, that the laiv is the 
exprejjion of the general %vill,znà thus preparing the peo- 
ple to difregard every law that had been made heretofore, 
cither bv their fovereigris, their parliaments, or their Se- 
nates ; encouraging them to found the alarm, to over- 
throw them all, and to fubftitute the decrees and capri- 
cious conceits of the populace in their ftead. 

But all this revolutionary concatenation as vet only 
characlerifes the dupes of the Sect of Iliuminizing Jeru- 
falemites. The profound adepts had taken refuge in the 
dens of thé Rojicrucian mafonry. Thofe were their na- 
tural afylums, the greater part of the tenets perfectly co- 
inciding with thofe of the ancient Roficrucians. After 
the example of their Doctors, Swedenborg tells us, that 
his doélrines are all of the higheft antiquity, and fimilar 
to thofe of the Egyptians, thu Magi, and the Greeks; he 
even aflerts them to be anterior to the d.-lugc. His new 
Jeruiklem has alfo its Jehovah, its loji word, that has 

*' Preface to the Phjfical 0hfervatt9tts a anno 1790, by La 


been at length revealed to Swedenborg. Should any per- 
fon be tempted to leek it elfewhere, he mult go in queft 
of it among thofe clans where Chriftianity and political 
laws are not known.* Swedenborg tells us, that it might 
be found in the north of China, and in Great Tartary, 
that is to fay among that fpccies of men who have prefer- 
ved the molt of that Equality, Liberty, and Independence, 
which the learned Jacobins pretend to have been ante- 
rior to civil fociety, and which mofl certainly is incom- 
patible with it. Here then it appears, that S wedcnborg's 
views coincide with thofe of the occult lodges, aiming at 
the overthrow of every religious and civil law, and at the 
downfall of every throne. His God beat and light, his 
God lire and fpiritual fun, his twofold world and two- 
fold man, are only modifications of the God light and the 
twofold principle of Manes. The Roficrucians mud 
then have found in Swedenborg's fyftems what they lb 
much admired in the Manichaeans. Their Magic, Evo- 
cations, Eons, Cabal, &c, were to be traced in the male 
and female fpirits. In fhort, what numberlefs adepts 
mult not this new Jerufalem, or revolution, carrying man 
back to primitive Equality and -Liberty, have found in 
the occult Lodges ? It was there indeed that Sweden- 
borg's myfteries become connected with thofe of the an- 
cient Brethren. Thefe new or compound adepts ïky\tà 
themfelves Illuminées. Notwithftanding the Atiieifm, 
and Materialifm of their mailer, they, after his example, 
perpetually talked of God and of fpirits ; they even af- 
fected to fpeak much of God, and people were perfuaded 
that they believed in a Deity; hence they received the 
denomination of Theofophical lllmninees. Like the wri- 
tings of their founder, their hiftory is a mere labyrinth of 
impiety and impofture. It will fuffice for our readers, at 

* Swedenborg's exprefilons are, De hoc vrrbovetufto quod 
ante verbum Ifraeliticum in Alia fuerat, referre meretur lioa 
novum; quod ibi adhuc refervatum lit, apud populos qui in 
Magna Tartaria habitant. Locutus fum cum fpiritibus et an- 
gelis qui in mundo fpirituali inde erant, qui dixerunt quod 
poffideant verbum, et quod id ab antiquis temporibus poiTede- 
rint — Qnasrite de eo in China et forte invenietis illud apud 
'.fanaros. ( ' âpocaUpfu Revelata, Chap. x.No. ht.J Is not this 
a continuation of that fame plan, always holding out oations 
piunged in the moftfavage ignorance, and a perpetual prey to 
anarchy, Equality and Liberty, as the models to which we 
ought to look up? 

96 ANTISOCIAL conspiracy; 

this period, to know that their head-quarters was at A- 
Vfgfiorf;* that they had a famous lodge at Lyons; that 
they were fpreading chiefly in Sweden, and were making 
progress in Germany. Their înyfïeries aC that time had 
mingled with thofe of die Martinifts ; or it might be more 
corredt to l'ny y that the Martinifts were only a reform of 
the Swedenborgi ans; and in France the appellations of 
Illuminée and Martfrtift were fynonymous. In Germany 
they began to diftinguifh thetnjelves under the names of 
Peilalctes and Benevolent Knights. But whatever may 
have been their afiumed names, they moi} certainly of 
all the modern MafoflS were the neareff of kin to Wei- 
fhaupt. Syftems and means may have differed (ufficiently 
to excite jeaioufies; but on both fides we find the fame 
determined wifh for a revolution as antisocial as it was 
anti-religious. They were equally ardent in their defire 
of multiplying their adapts, by a general intrufion into 
the Mafonic Lodges. Both Seâs had their deputies at 
Willemfbaden, and 1 will defcribe their mutual conte fh 
and fucccfTes in the following Chapter. 

* In a work under the title of The Red Lodge difecveredto 
Sovereigns, 1 read, that "the Rite of the Theofophical lilumi- 
*' nees appears to have taken its origin at Edinburgh, where 
*' the Red Lodge was formed by a fciiaon from the Blue Lodge; 
4; ihat this Red Lodge (of the Theolbphical Illuminées had 
" immediately eftablimed a fubordinate Lodge at Avignon." 
{ Page 9 and jc.J — I fhould have been very glad to have found 
proof or this origin, as at prefent it lefts on the bare affertion 
of the author. Be that as it may, however, the Illuminées of 
Avignon are fufficiently well known in France. Ever lince the 
year 1783, that Lodge has been looked upon as the parent 
ft'-'ck of all thofe that have fince fp'read over France with their 
abominable myfteries. 

And here J think it right to fay, that this Red Ledge difcov- . 
fredto Sovereigns is by no means the work that I mentioned in 
my iecond volume under the title of Depojitioin made by Klei- 
ner. The extracts made from this latter work, and which are 
in my pofTeffion, give me reafon to think, that it contains de- 
tails of a very different nature. The author there fpeaks as an 
eye-witnefs ; and, among other things, gives the tradition cur- 
rent in his Lodge, and with reipec"t to the leifons that Wei- 
firawpt is fuppofed to have received from a certain Kolmer.-- 
Thefe depofitio.-is would be a valuable document; and it is, 
perhaps, on that very account that the Illuminées have deftroy- 
ed it. At leaif I am obliged to fay, that, notwithstanding the 
numerous inquiries which I have made, I have not bee» able 
to procure it. 


Mte to Chap. IV. vide Page 81. 

Î think it incumbent on me in this place to mention the ob* 
fervations which I have heard, and theftrifluresthaU have re- 
ceived from divers Mafons, on what has been faid of their de- 
grees in the fécond volume of thefe Memoirs. According to 
f>me of the Brethren, I have fiid a great deal too much; ac» 
cording to others, / have not faid enough . The reader will eafi- 
ly conceive, that the former confifts of thofe Brethren in whofe 
favor an exception has been made, as too honeft and upright to 
be admitted to the higher myfteries; and that the latter are 
men who, after having been admitted into the occult Lodges, 
blulh to think that they could ever have deferved fuch an ad- 
miflion. Both are entitled to my thanks; I alfo owe them an 
anfwer; more particularly thofe German obfervers, who have 
been kind enough to fend me fome very important difcuffions 
on Mafonry, and whofè learning can only be equalled by their 
politenefs. They are perfons of too accurate underftandings 
not to perceive that their negative teftimony muft naturally 
vanifh before the pofitive evidence of thofe who confefs the 
whole. A very ancient Mafon, fpeaking of a particular Lodge 
of which he had been a member, told me, " He was perfectly 
*.* aware, that feveral Mafons, refpectable for the purity both 
" of their religious and political principles, and of their gene- 
" ral conduct, had often attended a certain Lodge ; but that he 
" alfo knew what precautions were taken when they were pre- 
f? font; and further he could aflert, that the generality of the 
V Brethren belonging to that Lodge had been the moft ardent 
*' promoters of the Revolution. Some of them had held high 
*' ftations in it, and one of them had become minifter." Thefe 
■precautions taken are more than a fufficient anfwer to thofe who 
have not feen any thing improper, tho* admitted to the Lodges. 
In the fécond place, my German obfervers, though they wifh 
to juftify the inftitution and views of Free-mafonry, candidlv 
confefs, that Mafonry has been corrupted for more than thefe 
three hundred years paji ; and this is more than fufficient to 
prove the intrigues to which it has been fubfervient. 

The principal objection made by thefe gentlemen is, that I 
have confounded Free-mafonry, which has but three degrees» 
with the new and ancient Roficrucians, and other degrees of 
modern creation. My anfwer is, that if all Mafons are not 
Rof crucians, all Rojicrucians are Mafons; that I have made 
the proper exceptions for the firft three degrees ; but that will 
not hinder thefe firft degrees from being, as they really have 
been for this long time, a noviciate for the Roficrucian de- 
grees. I will not difpute upon terms; let any perfon give me 
a name by which I may call this body of apprentices, Fellow- 
era fts, Maflers, and Rojicrucians, and I will with pleafure ad- 
mit it; but till that be done I muft fpeak fuch a language as 
rny readers can underftand. In fhort, I know that Mafonry 
fornurly exifted without Rofkruciar.s ; but I fhoulci be glad \Q 



fee it proved, that thofe occult myfteries now removed to ip** 
Roficrucian degrees did not belong to the firft three degrees. 
1 think I could prove that they did; ?nd the inference would 
be, that Mafonry at no time could have been free from thofe 
dangerous myfteries or real plots. At prefent it fuffices for my 
object, to have proved what the Mafonry of the prefent day is ; 
and that is moft. certainly demonstrated by the very nature and 
the authentic documents of its higher degrees. To the proofs 
already adduced I am now enabled to add (if I chofe it) memo- 
rials, letters, and formal declarations of repenting Mafons, 
certainly not men whofe teftimony could be queftioned. One 
of thefe is a worthy magiftrare, who, admitted a Free-mafon 
«bout the year 1761, had pafi'ed a great part of his life in the 
dark recefTes of Mafonry. The other is a military man, at pre- 
fent as zealous for his religion as he formerly was for the mys- 
teries of Mafonry. Thefirft declares, that what I have faid of 
Mafonry is true, but that I have not faid all. The latter writes 
me word, that I have rather foftcned than exaggerated the oc- 
cult degrees. In fact, the former gives me a clearer infight into 
the three Rojtcrtecian degrees; the firft is entirely Ckrijlian; 
the fécond is denominated t he Founder s , or the Cabal; the 
third is that of the Natural religion. The particular object of 
this third degree was, ift, to avenge the Templars ; 2dly, to 
feizeonthe ifland of Malta, and to make it the firft feat of 'na- 
tural religion. He told me indeed things fcarcely to be credit- 
ed. For example, and thefe are his words, " That about the 
" end of die year 1773, or in the courfe of 1774, the Lodge of 
*' which he was Matter received a letter from the Grand Orient* 
" purporting to be a cony of a letter which it had received 
" from the King of Pruffia. It was onty to be communicated 
" to the Knights of Paiejline, the Knights Kadofi}, and the 
" Scotch Directory. This letter was tranfmitied to us by the 
* : corfefponding Lodge'; and though it had already been read 
" in feveral Lodges, it only contained three fignatures. It ex- 
" horted as, in order to fulfil the oath mjehad taken, to fign an 
*' obligation to march at the fnft requifirion, and to contribute 
" both by our perfons and our imral and ph-yfica I poivers, to the 
" conqueft of the ifland of Malta, and of all the former polTes- 
*' fions, fituated in the two hemifpheres, which had formerly 
■ M belonged to the erncejiorj of the Mafonic Order. The object 
" of our efiablifhment at Malta luar the pofiibility of converting 
" that ifland into the fat of natural religion.^ I objected to the 
author of this memorial, that if I wrote this account nobody 
would believe me. Let people believe or not, as they pleafe, he 
anfwered, I both fa<v* and received the Utter; my Lodge, how- 
ever, refufed to fignit: — I alio fay, let it be believed or not, I 
have the memorial and can atteit, that the author is a mart much 
and defervedly eiteemed by all who know him. 

The fécond Obferver, who is alfo a repenting Msfon, in- 
forms me, 1 ft, That in the hypothec's I had advanced on the 
origin of Mafonry, I had only copied one of the Mafonic Tra- 
ditions, which taught that Manes was the real founder of Ma- 
fonry. adly, That " ia the Lodges of the Knights Kadofi, af- 


" ter all the oaths, ceremonies, and trials, more or lefs terri- 
*' ble, wicked and impious, three Manikins are mown to the 
*' Candidate, reprefenting Clement V. Philippe Le Bel, and 
*' the Grand Majler of Malta, each attired in the attributes of 
* l their dignities. The unhappy fanatic is here to fwear eternal 
" hatred and death to thefe three profcribed perfons, entailing 
" that hatred and death on their-fitccejfors in their default. He 
*' there ftrikes off the three heads, which, as in the degree of 
" Elecl, are real when they can be procured, or filled with 
l( blood if fictitious. He does this, crying out vengeance, ven- 
*' geance! &c." k is evident that I had foftened the barbarity 
of this decree, for I had fpoken but of one head to be {truck off, 
ivhen in reality there are three. I am not at liberty to name 
thefe two Memorialifts ; but two other witnefTes 1 may name. 
— The firft is the Count de Gilliers, who, living on intimate 
terms with great and profound Mafons,had fo well laughed 
them out of their fecrets, that he gained admiilion into the 
Lodges without undergoing any trials; and he makes no dif- 
ficulty in faying, that he has been an eye-wirnefs to three- 
fourths of what I have faid. The other, the Count D'Orfeuilie, 
gives me leave to fay, that though he was for a long time the 
Mafter of a Lodge, he can obferve but very flight differences 
between the Roficrucian degrees which he has given and feen 
given, and thofe which I have defcribed. 

I am at prefent in poffeffion of twenty original Mafonic de- 
grees ; and of four accounts of the Ro'> degrees, two in 
manufcript and two printed. The firit was fent me from Ger- 
many, the fécond from America, the third was primed in 
France, and the fourth in England. They differ confiderably 
from each other: but aH of them coincide in about fifteen lines, 
preciiely the moft impious, thofe which contain the Mafonic 
explanation of INRI. The account which I followed in inv 
fécond volume was that published by the Abbé Le Fran: m his 
Voile Levé, and his Conjuration decohverfe. Several Mafons 
had informed me, that he had accurately delineated the pro- 
ceedings of the Lodges; but I am now able to fay whence he 
had procured thofe Mafonic decrees whole ceremonies he had 
fo well defcribed; and I learned it in the following manner: — 
One of thefe refbeftabJe EccJefiafficn wl'ohave found a rrtrrtr 
in the generofuy of the Engiifh nation from the perfecutions 
of his countrymen, and who to the greatcft fimplicity of man- 
ners joins the knowledge and praclice of his duties, Mi . De La 
Haye, Curate of Fié in the diocefe of Mans, hearing that 1 was 
writing on Free-maionry, was kind en High, before he had feen 
my work, to lend mefome Memoirs that he had written on the 
fame lubjecl. When he came to afk me mv opinion on them. ï 
toM him, " that, allowing for difference of ftyle, his work 
»' long fince been printed, and the Jacobins in return had n 
*' fiicred the Author at the Carmes on tue famous fécond of 
tl September." I then fhowed him the Abbé Le Franc's work, 
who had added but little to his, and both had fallen info the 
là n error in attributing th^ origin of Malbnry to Socinus — 
This worthy eccleiiafcic anfwered me, " That he had bee» 


" perfectly unacquainted with the exiftence of the Abbé Le 
" Franc's work, but that he could eafily account for its coin* 
" cidcnce with his. I had, faid he, feveral Free-mafons in my 
" pariih. In my neighborhood in particular was that unfortu- 
" nate Feffier, a famous Brother of the Lodge at Alençon, fince 
** become luch a terrible Jacobin, and the intruded Bilhop of 
** Séez. Several of thefe Mafons renounced their errors; and, 
" as a proof of their total renunciation of the Lodges, they 
*' gave me up all their papers and Mafonic degrees. I had made 
" a digeft of thefe degrees. Mr. Le Franc, who was at that pe* 
" riod in our diocefe, preffed me to publifh them; but 1 did 
" not dare do that, for fear of the Mafons, and I rather chofe 
. to give a copy of the whole to Mr. Le Franc, requeuing him* 
"' to uie it as he thought fit. Mr. Le Franc went to Paris; the 
" Revolution took place; and he doubtlefs thought it wou d 
"' be ufeful to publifh the work I had given him, having firft 
'* improved it by the polifh of his ftyle; and he certainly has 
*' done it better than I could. If his work has done any good, 
" I am happy that he publifhed it; but 1 am very fori y to re- 
" fleet that it caufed his death." — This latter fentiment, and 
the fear left I fhould fufpeel the Abbé Le Franc of a breach of 
confidence, feemed folely to occupy this worthy man's mind. 
I could not help praifing Mr. Le Franc for having had more 
courage in publifhing the work than he had ha.1; and he had 
befides given it the ftyle of a Man of Letters. The point, how- 
ever, moft interefting for our object is, to find in this anecdote 
a new proof of the authenticity of the degrees publifhed by the 
Abbé Le Franc, which I had quoted with fo much confidence. 
The teftimony of repenting Mafons is far more to be relied on 
than the afTertions ofthofe who continue to be dupes or perfiit 
in their errors. — I addrefs this note to thofe readers who may 
flill entertain any doubt of the authenticity of the degrees as I 
have publifhed them. I alfo declare to theadepts, that nothing 
would give me greater fatisfaction than to fee an anfwer found- 
ed, not on nonfence and fcurrilous abufe, but on good reafon- 
ing. I am perfectly aware, that a very excellent work on Ma* 
fonry might be made. Their Letters and my Anfwers, with o- 
ther materials that I have by me, may, perhaps, at fome future 
tïr.iz, iurnilh the fubject for iuch a work. 




Knigge's Intrigues and Succeffes at the Congrefs. — Offi- 
cial Reports of the Superiors of the Order. — Multi- 
tude of Mafons illuminized at this Period. 

OF all the general afTernblies that had been held by p; r ft 
the Mafons for thefe laft twenty years, whether at means em- 
Brunfwick, Wifbaden, or in any other towns in Germa- P |c -yed by 
ny, none could be compared with that of Wilhemfbaden, ^ kt ?'&8 e tr 
either for the number of the deputies or the variety of [| ie Q on _ 
Seels of which it was compofed. One might fay, that all grefs. 
the incoherent elements of Mafonry had been thrufr. into 
one den. Knigge informs us, that he had had the honor 
of being deputed by his ancient brethren; that he might 
have taken his feat and been prefent at the deliberations ; 
but, forefeeing the ilfue of it, he thought he could more 
ufefully ferve thecaufe of his new Illuminifm by direct- 
ing the part that Mi no s -Dittfurt was to aét in the inte- 
rior of the Meeting, while he himfelf would hover around 
and obferve the exterior. His fuit plan of attack was to 
gain the Templar Mafons of the Strié} Obfervance, with 
vvhofe fecrets he was well acquainted, and he had fre- 
quently attended their Lodges, that he might thro' their 
means enfure a majority of votes. Had he fucceeded in 
this plan, Weifhaupt's code would have been decreed at 
this general congrefs, and would have become at once the 
ftandard law for millions of Mafons fcattered throughout 
the globe, who would thus have been illuminized and 
ready to fally forth from their lurking places at the com- 
mand of their Antifocial Chief- 

When defcribinj this plan of attack, Knigge takes care 

to inform his readers why he abandoned it: " I own 

" (fays he) that I always retained a certain predilection 
" tor my former brethren of the Striât Observance; I 
" had already illuminized fo great a number, that I was 
w in hopes of uniting their fyftem with ours. My inten- 
" tion moft certainly could never be to deliver up to the 
M Congrefs all our papers, and thus to put ourfelves at 
" the mercy of the deputies. I had not received fuch pow- 


« ers from thofe who fent me. And be fide, we, who did 
K not feek after that power that gives grcatnrfs, rank, or 
" riches; zve, who did not feek ta reign in Jplendor and 
" in the eyes of the public; zve, in fort, whofe conflit u- 
** tion was to a£i in filcncc and with fecrecy ; how could 
u we go and make ourfelves dependent on an Order fo 
li deftittlte of unity in its fyftems. 

" I made, however, an offer of my fervices; I made it 
c: both in writing and by word of mouth; and all the an- 
" fwer I received was, that I might fend or prefent my 
* c papers to the Congrefs, and that they would judge of 
K thofe parts that were to be approved or rejected."* 

Stung to the quick at fuch contempt, Kludge conceiv- 
ed himfelf abfolved from all his oaths, and from every cu- 
ty toward his ancient brethren. Abandoning all hopes of 
conquering the whole body, he refohed to attack them 
cne by one, and then to gain over the while body, Lodge 
by Lodge. He agreed with the afTtfTor Alines to direel 
their whole attention in future toward two points; the 
iirft, to hinder the aflembly from pairing any refolutions 
detrimental to the interefts of their IUuminifm; the other, 
to facilitate its intrufion into the Lodges, and that with 
fo much art that no degree, nor any Grand Mailer, could 
be an obstacle to the domination of the Bavarian Breth- 
ren; and that means fhould be found fooner or later to 
unite the code of the Illuminées with that of the Mafons. 
— Such was the object of the million entrufted by Knigge 
to his co-adept Minos, whom he charged to get the fol- 
lowing refolutions palled: " ill, A fort of union of all 
u the Mafonic fyftems in the firft three degrees, fo that a 
u Mafon admitted to thefe three degrees ihould be ao- 
" knrjwledged as a true brother by every Lodge of what- 
« ever c ] a f s or fyfrem it might be. — 2dly, That in com- 
ct mon Mafonry no mention fhould ever be made of the 

" higher degrees or of the unknown Superiors. 3 ily, 

" That all traiifmitting of money to the Mafonic Supe- 

*' riors fhould be forbidden.— 4-thly, 'J'hat a new code 

"jfhould be prepared for the brethren. — 5thly, That eve- 
" rv Lodge fhould choofe its own Superiors and Direc- 
" tory, that is to fay, ihould declare to which Grand 
" Lodge they choie theirs fhould be fubjecV'f 

* I .ail Obfcrvations of Pb//o, Page 8 j. 
f Original Writings, Vol. II. Kludge's Report of Dimeb 
tij j, or Jam!?."- 1783. 


While Minos was thus following his inftru&ions within, 
Knigge was without, acting the part of Infinuator and 
Scrutator. " I fought to know, (fays he in the fame re- 
*' port to the Aréopagites) and I knew what turn things 
K were taking in the afleinbly. I knew all the different 
" fyftems that different parties wifhed to make predomf- 
" natej I then entered into a correfpondence, which I Hill 
" continue, with the Chiefs of Zinnendorf's party.* I 
u alfo founded the Chiefs of other parties by various means. 
41 Several came of themfclves and difcloied themfelves to 
M me, entrusting me with all their fecrets becaufe they 
" knew that I was folely actuated by a wifh for the gen- 
w eral good, and not by perfonai confiderations. Infhort, 
" fome of the deputies learned (J enow not how) that our 
" Illuminifm was in exigence. They ahrtojl all came to 
'* me to entreat me to admit them; — 1 thought it proper 
" to exacl: the reverfal letters (of our candidates) from 
u them, commanding them to keep abfolute filence on the 
" fubjeclj but I took care not to entruft them with the 
« leaft part of our fecrets. I only fpoke to them of our 
u myfteries in general terms, during the whole time that 
u the Congrefs continued. "f 

This method of proceeding, and the art with which 
he infinuated that Mafonry, undoubtedly, was in pofTes- 
fion of myfteries of the higheft importance ; but that the 
profound Malbns, who were in pollcffion of fuch myfte- 
ries, were not to be met with at the congrefs, greatly aug- 
mented the curiofity and ftimulated the ardor of the de- 
puties for his Illuminifm. 1 ne care with which he took 
the reverfal letters^ the character of candidate, the pro- 
mife he exadled at the fame time of all thefe deputies not 
to fécond any proportion detrimental to the new brother- 
hood, were lufficient toenfure himagainft any refolutions 
that might be entered into by the meeting. Befide, the 
difpofitions he obferved in thefe deputies were fufTicient 
to ftrengthen his hopes. " I owe them thejuftice to fay,** 
he continues in his report, "that I found the great eji 
,** part of them in the bejl difpofitions; that if their con- 

* This fyftem of Zinnendorf was an incoherent medley of 
the Scotch and Swedilh degrees, of the Knights Templars, of 
the Confidants of St. John; and at that time was the predomi- 
aant fyitern in Germany. 

f Original Writings, Vol. II. Knigge 's Report cf Dimeh 
jiji, or January 178*. 


« duct was not effective it was for want of having been 

<c nurtured in a better fchool.* It was with plea- 

" fure I obferved, that if the excellent intentions that had 
" brought thefe men together from œil corners of Mafon- 
u ry, were not more efficacious, it was becaufc they could 
" not agree on principles. Mojl of them appeared to be 
*' ready to follow any fyilem that they judged conducive 
* to give to their Order that utiiicy and activity that was 
" the object of all their wifhes/'f 

Whatever may be the partiality of the hiftorian for the 
Mafonic Brotherhood, it will be impofitble for him to 
invalidate this terrible evidence of Knigge a^ainft their 
chofen and privileged members j againft thofe whom the 
Order judged moit worthy of reprefenting it in folemn 
congrefs. No man can mifconceive the fignification of 
left difpofitions or of excellent intentions in the mouth of 
jP/jifVij-Knigge. They evidently demonstrate men who 
needed only to be made acquainted with the means of 
working a revolution of impiety and anarchy, to under- 
take it. This vaft Brotherhood of Mafons muft, at this 
period at leaft, have been forciy affected in its higher mys-. 
teries. It was prepared for confpirators even of Wei- 
(haupt's ftamp. 

Certain of fuccefs, Knigge feems to have left the as- 
fembly to its diforderly deliberations ; and notwithftand-» 
ing the imprudence with which he taxes Minos, the lat- 
ter fucceeded in obtaining the decree of the principal par- 
ticulars agreed between them. It was forbidden that any 
brethren fhould call each other Heretics (Ferketzern). 
It was decided that the firft three degrees alone mould 
be looked upon as effential to Mafonry. CommifTaries 
were named to digeft certain regulations, the plan of which 
had been given by the affembly, as well as of a general 
code. The choice of the higher degrees and of fyftems 
was left to the decifions of each Lodge. The reft of the 
deliberations were as boifterous as might be expected from 
the variety of Sects. I have before me a manufcript ac- 
count of this aifembly written by a very learned Mafori, 
and it contains nearly as much lamentation as it does in- 
struction. Among other things I find, that the Duke 
Ferdinand of Brunfwick was proclaimed Grand Matter 
of all Mafonry, and that few members recognized him as 

* Ibid. | Laft Obfcrvatiom, Page 85. 


fuch. A?ain I fee, that it was wifhed to abrogate the 
fyltem of the Templar Mafons, whofe abominations and 
fecrets had been expofed by fome falfe brother in a woik, 
called 'J he Stone oj Scandal, but that few Lodges would 
obey the abrogation. Moreover an attempt was made to 
quafh all Seels and Schifrns; but they neither could be 
overpowered, and confufton continued to prevail with re- 
doubled force. 

Let us however obferve, that if any fyftem can be faid 
to have gained a preponderance it was that of the Phila- 
ietes, a fort of fpurious offspring of Swedenborg. The 
moft famous Illuminées of thatfet, Wiihermoz, St. Mar- 
tin, and La Chappe de la Henriere,hzd made an attempt 
to connect themlelves with the Hero of Crçvelt andMin- 
den ; it is even afierted, that he was mific-d by their ap- 
puliation of Pkilaletes and of Benevolent Knights. Strong, 
however, in his protection, neither they nor their agents 
fpared any pains to carry the day at Willemfbaden ; they 
were well fupported, and victory muff have infallibly de- 
clared in their favor, had not Knigge already gained over 
fo many of the deputies. Hence the remit of this too fa- 
mous con°;refs was to have been the delivery over of all 
the Mafonic Lodges, and, with them, of all the govern- 
ments of Europe, to two Sects of Illuminées, the moft 
jmpieus and the moft difaftrous in their views, and moft 
unrelenting in their zeal for the overthrow of every reli» 
gion and of every government whatever. 

I know not into which of thefe two fects the Count 
de Virieux had been initiated; but either might have 
fuggefted the manner in which he defcribed the refult of 
this Mafonic Congrefs. On his return to Paris, being 
complimented by the Count de Gilliers on the fublime 
fecrets he had been in queft of at Willemfbaden, and prefs- 
ed a little by the farcafric ftyle with which the Count was 
wont to jeer the Brotherhood, he at length anfwered, " I 
*' will not tell you the fecrets I bring; but what I think I 
" mav tell you is, that it is all much more ferious than 
K you think. 'I he fail is, that a conspiracy is now con- 
*' t riving, and that xuith fo much art and of fo profound 
" a nature, that it will be very difficult jar Religion ar.d 
" Nations not to fink under it." Happily for Mr. de 
Virieux, faid Mr. de Gillieis when he told me this anec- 
dote, the Count had a great fund of probity and upright* 
nefs. What he had learned on his miflion fo difguiied 


him- with the myfteries, that he abandoned them and 1 be- 
came^ a very religious man. It was to this event that his 
great zeal.«igainir. the Jacobins maybe attributed. 

Lîiiui innately for ail nations, thefe plots did not in- 
fpire the other Mafonic Deputies with a fimilar horror. 
The Congrefs being terminated, Pbiic-¥Liv.g<ye haitened 
to reap the benefit of his intrigues; and his harveft was 
much more plentiful than he expected. On the break- 
ing up of -the ailembly, the deputies flocked to him to beg 
ad million to the myfteries. Such candidates needed no 
long noviciate, or tedious trials in the minerval fchools-j 
they were to be Conducted quickly to the mylteries ; and 
Knigge admitted them to the degrees of Epopt and Re- 
gent, ichicb they all received (he tells us) with cnthufi- 
cjtn.* " All of them were enraptured with our degrees 
" of Epopt and of Regent ; all were enchanted with theie 
" mcjur-picces, for lb they ftyled thefe degrees. Two 
<c ©nly made fume llight obfervations on certain expres- 
" (ions, that may be eahly changed according to local cir- 
'• cumuancct, and particularly in Catholic countries."! , 

Were it not that all honeit Mafons would link under 
grief and aitonifhment, I fhould conjure them to weigh 
tor a moment theie words, all vuere enraptured, all re- 
errjed them with enlbujiafm ; all Elect, Roiicrucians, 
Templars, Brethren of Zinnendorf, Brethren of St. John, 
Knights of the Sun, Knights Kadofh, Perfect Phiiofo- 
phers; all hearken, and receive with enthuiiafm thole or- 
acles of the Hierophant which call: fuch light on their an- 
tique myfteric.*:, and, expounding the meaning of their, 
Hiram, their Mac Benac, and their Polijhed Stone, fliow 
that they contain nothing more than that primitive Equa- 
lity and Liberty, as well as that Morality, which entirely 
conflit in the art of annihilating princes, governments, 
religion, and property ! When thefe Deputies fhall re- 
turn to their Orients, and fpread thetnfelves throughout 
the Mafonic Directories and Provinces, will not thefe 
original plots be intruded on your Lodges under the pre- 
tence of mylteiies I Ely then fuch dens of fedition ; and 

* Die ho'jeren graden wurden mit enthufiafmus au fgenom- 

f Jeder mann war znfrieden — Meine Leutewaren eniziickt 
uber cliefe mei.Uer ftiicke. Lujt Qhftrvatiens, Pages us and 
%1%—and Original Writings, Let. i, efPhilo to Caio. 


'learn once for all, that thofe men in whom you place fuch 
confidence are profound confpirators abufmg your confi- 
dence, juft as they will that of princes at a future day. — 
View then this pretended Brotherhood as a hoard of con- 
spirators, who have long waited only for the baleful ge- 
mius of a Weifliaupt to launch out into all the crimes of 

From the period when thefe Mafonic Deputies were 
illuminjzed, the Bavarian Seel: alTumed a menacing as- 
pect; and its progrefs is fo rapid, that the univerfe will 
(bon be overrun with Confpirators. The center of ac- 
tion may be faid to have been at Frankfort, where Knigg'e 
'refided; and he computes the number of perfons he had 
illuminized, and nearly all of whom were Mafons, at five 
hundred.* There is fcarcely a town in his neighborhood, 
bat has its Epopts and Minerval Schools; Franconia, 
Swabia, the Circles of the Higher and Lower Rhine, 
Weftphalia, Sec. fwarm with then. 

The towns of Vienna and Berlin almoft immediately 
fhowed that Auftria and Prulîia were falling a prey tu 
Illuminifm. Tyrol had been already infected, and the 
fame apoltle had proceeded to carry it into Italy. In the 
north adepts were making their attacks on the Lodges of 
Bruxelles and of Holland, while others' were preparing 
to introduce Weifhaivpt 's my ft cries into England. In Li- 
vonia they had gained footing; and treaties were making 
in Poland, to throw the whole power of the Confedera- 
tions into the hands of the Illuminées. Ifthe day off ranee 
was not yet come, it was becaufè they entertained deeper 
views on her; but the day was to come, and aii Europe 
ihall now know why it has been deferred. 

It would be of little avail for me to have produced 
Weifliaupt's code, were I not alio to produce demonftra- 
tive evidence of its proarefs and continuation. MitW/ 
will demand that I prove the exiltence fcfthis Se6t, 
myfteries, and confpitacies, ranging from the noun to die 
fouth, and from the eaft to the weir, enlifting under its 
banners that multitude of hands which it needed to • 
revolutions. To effectuate this, I ihall again appeal to 
their own annals ; they are mutilated, it is true; but v :'>t- 
withftanding that, they are menacing, and they are de- 

* Original Writings, Vol. II. Let. from VhJi to Cait* 



In the very year after the conrçrefs of Willemfbadeft 

we find five provinces completely organized according 

to the Laws of the modern Spartacus, under the general 

direction or Philo- Knigge, and in full correfpondence 

with the iiluminizing Areopagites.f Even during the 

time of the congrefs we find in the Original Writings 

not only ample letters on the progreis made by a few 

candidates, but official reports, and ftatements made by 

the Provincials of their provinces, relating to the progrefs 

of their novices, of their initiated, and of their emiflaries» 

Official Let us call our eyes onthefe documents, for none can be 

Reports, better authenticated. Perhaps I might have done well 

to have tranfiated the whole of them ; but tho* I abridge 

them, they will ftill retain the whole force of evidence. 

j 4 The firft of thele reports is from Mahomet. \ This 

Of the Provincial of a new fpecies was the Baron Schroeck* 

Province enstein, the fame whom Weifhauptfo early as the firft 

°u aD0 " y ear or ^is llbaminifm, enlifted at Aichftadt, and whom 

he ciaffed among thole fooiifh Aristocrats who were to 

fwallow the baii. The Baron fo completely fwallowed 

the bait, that in fix years we find him one of the Chiefs 

of the Confpiracy. The Province he prefided over in the 

Illuminized Geography was denominated Pannonia y 

comprehending t\\c^\ih\€i^,oi Morea and Latium, which 

com p rife the Lodges of Olympia, Damietta, libur, His- 

palis, Damajcu^ 6iche??i, Nicomsdia, and Surention. I 

find that his reiidence is at Aichitadtj and he informs the 

Areopagites, that he has given the name of Surentum to 

the new colony of Mompelgard, which he looks upon as 

belonging to the Duchy of Wurtemberg, and therefore 

fhould be comprifed within the diftrict of Latiiun. I al- 

fo find that Niccmcdia is Augfbourg; hence I conclude, 

that the Lodges under the infpeCfion of this adept were 

fo many conquers made by Illuminifm, partly in Bava» 

ria, and partly in Swabia. 

f Original Writings, Vol. II. Let. 3, from Philo to Wei» 

t This report is of the month of Char dad «151, that is to 
fay June 1782, coniequently anterior to the breaking up of the 
Mafonic Conpreis. Mahomet is nererthelefs in direel corres- 
pondence with Pw/s- Knigge ; for we may obferve the latter 
pointing out to the former novices to be initiated. Original 
Writings, Pbilo'l Report. 


The report contains ftrong proofs of this Provincial's 
teal for the propagation of the Order. We may obferve 
him threatening two adepts with their immediate difmis- 
fion unlefs they lhow more activity, and promoting two 
others becaufe they excelled in the arts of inlinuation — • 
As a proof of the care with which he describes his infe- 
riors, and of the precautions he takes according to their 
characters, let the reader perufe the account he gives of 
the Brotherhood at Olympia, which he has juft been in- 
specting : " {have learned, (he writes), to know the Bro- 
" ther [Zeno. I did not find him to be a thinker, and much 
K lefs afcrutator. . . . He does not like to meddle with 
" things that are above the human under/landing; and he 
tt contents himfelf with the degree of Minerval, but^>/-<?- 
" mifes toenlijl us feme good novices. . . . Grantor has more 
11 araor j I initiated him mylelfinto the Minerval degree. 
« You may eafily conceive how much he is difpleafed 
" with all his fcience, and how much his wit difconcerts 
u him, when I tell how that he is furious at his father for 
" having had him taught to write. . . . Spevfppus. was 

" ill; the others though young are full of ardor 

* The colony is weak as yet Be guarded in your 

ct letters to Zeno. He told me, that he would not lodge in 
" the fame houfe with a ?nan who doubted of the immor- 
<c mortality of the Soul. .... All thefe Brethren hold 
" their regular meetings, but don't dare enliit their novi- 
" ces under the name of Maionry. They prefer doing it 
" under the pretence of a Literary Society, and I made 
" no difficulty in permitting them to continue their prac- 
« tice." 

In that town of Latium, or of the Dutchy of Wur- 
temberg, which Mahomet calls Damietta, there is an 
academy and a college ; and one of the profeflbrs is the 
adrpt PhirrOf whofe honejly and activity could not be 
iuflicieritly praifed by the Provincial. The following 
inilituttoii may ferve as a fpecimen of this man's hones- 
ty : " By means of this Brother, fays Mahomet, the whole 
« academy of this town has become a real nurfery for us 
" (eine pfanxfchule fur uns). Pythagoras-ÛREXL is 
u the unknown fuperior of this affembly, which is entirely 
" compofed of young pupils of not le birth. He has under 
" him an apparent fuperior to conduct and form them, c ho- # 
" I e n f rom among the young men. No reverfal letters are 
" required of them ; they are only flattered with the hopes 



u fhould they prove faithful to the leflbns inftilled into 
" them) of being hereafter admitted into an Order com-' 
u tbofed of the bej} of men" 

Left fuch lèflbns fhould be loft to thofe who were edu- 
cated at Court, the adept Epimenides-Y ALK-, auliccoun- 
iellor and burgo-mafter of Hanover, has taken care to il- 
iuminize the f -b-preceptor of a young Prince defigned 
by the initials T. H. . . . After having told all this news 
to the Areopagites, Mahomet at length informs them that 
ALu.hiavel, one of his emiffaries, has fent in a lift of the 
hoiieJi men with whom he has made an acquaintance iti 
Switzerland; and that things would take a good turn 
there, provided Phiio+K-nigge would ftimulate a little the 
steal of the Helvetian apoftie. 
11. The next official report is from M/nos-DiTTrum 

OfDacia the Afleflor. This man was alfo a Baron. As a recom- 
and Ly- penle for the pains he had taken at W-dlemfbaden, Knig-ge 
had made him the Provincial or fuperior of Veteravia, 
probably of part of Weftphalia. His command compl- 
ied two diftricts, Dacia and Lydia. Overburthened with 
bufinefs, and more attentive to that of Illuminifrn than 
to the affairs of the Empire, he gives but a brief account 
for the prefent. He names about a dozen Brethren a- 
mong whom are four novices. the Bro- 
ther Mentha rit h in particular, whom he means to entruft 
with the eftablifliment of a Minerval School at Bcnfabe. 
Meanwhile, till he can report further progrefs, he propo- 
fes his plan for an illuminized fflerhood, which he pro- 
mifes to place under the direction of another Baron, who, 
like himielf is an Afleflor at the Imperial Chamber. A- 
bout the fame time (Merdemeh 1152, Auguft 1782), 
Knigge 's report ftates, that Minos was in correfpondence 
with Doctor Stark, in hopes of making a conqueft of the 
Landgrave of Heile Darmftadt by means of his grand 
Almoner. The Illuminizing Afleflor does not report 
the progrefs of this négociation; but Knigge appears to 
have forefeen the fuccefs it would have, when he writes 
to the Areopagites, " I am much pleafed to fee that Bro- 
*' ther Minos has entered into a correfpondence with 
<c Doctor Stark; it will teach him, that to be able to 
w treat with a man of wit one muft have fome one's felf." 
9 ' Though it feems that Knigge did not allow any great 
fhare to this Provincial, yet he founded great hopes on 
his ferviceSj efpecially if bis too great zeal could ie re 


The third report is from the adept Epic7etus-Mi.EC., HT- 
Provincial of Albania, the fame Brother whom we (hall P' Ai ba- 
find mentioned by Knigge as founding the Lodge at Man- 
hejm furnamed Surina/ri, and at Erankenthal that called 
Parmariho, within the prefecture of Paphlagonia, or of 
the Palatinate. It would - feem, that at that period Albania 
had p ailed under the infpeclion of fome other Provin- 
cial : This Epicietus-hheg was acounfellor and Protes- 
tant Miniiter of Heidelberg, his habitual réfidence, and 
bad been milructed in the arts of Infinuator by Wei- 
fhaupt himfeif. 

The reader may judge of this man's merits from the 
following bulogium that Weifhaupt makes on hini when 
writing to Ce /fus : "Do not forget, when at Munich, to 
" do every thing in your power for our EpiEietus. He 
t; is nearly the bell of the adepts. He has a little too 
" much ardjr, but in all other points he is incomparable. 
" He has already made a conqueji for the Order of nearly 
" the whole Palatinate. Not a country town but con- 
" taijis one or two adepts at leaft."* This letter being 
of the fame year as the report, it would be ufelefs to 
particularize. Some, however, of the Brethren, mention- 
ed by Epicletus deferve our attention : fuch, for example, 
as a certain Brother defcribed by the initials B. E. under 
the direction of Diodorus, who in a Catholic Univerfity 
and of the Catholic Religion himfeif until that period, 
thought he could not give a better proof of his zeal for 
Illuminifm, than by attempting to defend a Proteftant the- 
iis, and that under a pretence that denotes neither a Ca- 
tholic nor a Proteftant, but a man who views Religion 
only as a political invention. He gives for reafon, that 
the College of the Counts of JVeJlphaiia mufl be a Pro- 
tejiant College. Next the Brother Erajlus, of the fame 
degree, who afks advice as to the belt means to fucceed 
in Illumiuizing the Preceptor of the Pri?icc of Dupont's 
Jen, and by that means to educate the young Prince ac- 
cording to the views of the Order. And laftly the Bro- 
ther Pic de la Mirandole, or BRUNNER,a Prielt at Tief- 
enback, in the biiliopric of Spire. " This man, (fays the 
Provincial,) is as yet a novice, but full of zeal for the 

* Hat fchjer die ganze pfahz unter das commando des O's 
(ordens ) g bracht. In jedem landft'àdtchen find einodei zwie 
•^-Original Writings, Vol. IL Let. i.3> «ntta 178a. 


" Order. The tenth of September he defended his The- 

" lis in fpite of the Jefuits. In his Quibus Licet be begs 

" the Order to take precautions leji the fortrefs of Phi- 

" lipfoourgy which the Auftriana had abandoned, fljould 

" fall into the hands of a bigoted officer ^ who was petition^ 

u ing for the government of it-, ?nd to have it given to 

l < another officer (more worthy of it, I fuppofe) who as- 

" pired to it." — This lîluminized Novice, who already 

pays fo much attention to fortreiles, wiil appear on the 

liage again with the Brethren of Mentz, confpiring and 

delivering up that town to the French Jacobins. 

ÏV. The fourth official report is made by the adept rfgis- 

Report Krober. He docs not take the title of Provincial ; he 

by w- on j^ a( ^ s ç ov ^/^ r/ , ;z /.|3 Lr r UBKTRaH) originally a Jew, 

and who afterward made himfelf a Chrilfcian to become 
Aulic Counfellor to the Prince of Neuwied, and a Pro- 
vincial of the Illuminées. Agis was governor to the 
Count S toi berg's children, and the memoirs I have before 
me declare him to have been afterwards charged with 
the education of the young Prince of Neuwied, to have 
gained the good graces of the Princefs, fowing difcord in court, and deftroying the internal happi nefs of that 
family; in fhort, he was known to all Germany by a 
name that could not reflect honor on his protccttrix. As 
news, he informs tne Areopagites that the Baron de Witte, 
at Aix-la-Chapelle, is much more zealous than was ex- 
pected; that he has undertaken to illuminize his Mafonic 
Lodge there; and that from his letters they may hope to 
fee that of Bruxelles fhare a fimilar fate. . . . The Bro- 
ther Jgis enquires whether they think it proper that he 
ihould enter into a correfpondence with thofe fools of the 
Hermetic CabeL Before he initiates them in the fecrets 
of the Order, he wifhes to preien: himfelf at their Lodges 
as one acquainted with thcir's. He owns that he is not 
fufHciemly mafter of all their fyftenris. He afjes for lome 
inftruction, that he may perfect himfelf in them, kit he 
fhould be uifcovered by thofe Mafons lor whom he has a 
ibvereign contempt, but wirli whofe jargon it is neceflary 
that he ihould be acquainted, to make a conqucfl of them 
for the Order. Thefe inftructions are the more necell'a- 
ry, as a Brother of the diftricl: has juit applied to him for 
leave to (how fome of his letters to the Venerable of the 
Mafonic Lodge at /r/V, to enable him to make but one 
draught of the whole Lodge, Venerable and all. 


In the fame report the Brother Agis recommends to 
the Areopagites the adept Jrchelaus-B arres, hereto- 
fore a major in the French fervice, at prefent throwing 
himfelf on the protection of the Order to obtain a place 
in fome court of Germany, and the Crofs of Merit from 
that of France, with a brevet of Major à la fuite : " I had 
" taken it into my head (fays he) that the Ambaflador 
" Ch. . . . was one of ours; that he had great influence 
" with .... (the court or minifters), therefore I did not 
" refufe our protection, If we fucceed in this buhnefs, the 
"fame of our poiver will be greatly extended. Scarcely 
" a week pafïes without fomebody coming to folicit our 
*' protection at the courts of Verfailles, of Vienna, or of 
<c Berlin. It is enough to make one die of laughing. We 
<c take great care, however, not to difmifs thofe people 
<l without hopes; we only fay, that we do not like to im- 
*' portune thofe courts every day." 

A marginal note is found oppofite to this article in 
Knigge's own hand-writing, faying, JVho the devil has 
■put into their heads this fable of our omnipotence? The 
man who wrote the queftion might alfo have written the 
anfwer; for we may obierve him long before this period 
(training every nerve to give the Brethren a high opinion 
of the power of the Order, and even flattering himfelf, 
that through the exertions of his agents he had obtained 
for the adepts honorable fituations, livings, and dignities, 
which he dijlributcd in the names of the unknown fupe- 
riorSj who were not even in exijlence at that time ; and 
when thefe fuperiors do exift, we fee him acting preci fely 
as the Brother Agis had done, procuring from an adept 
Count the place of Chancellor Direclor, with a falary of 
twelve hundred florins, fending the nomination to his can- 
didate Wundt, ecclepajlical counfellor at Heidelberg; and, 
to (how the candidate the great power of the Brethren, 
informing him, that the Order had got him named to this 

The very article on which Knigge had made this notç 
js followed by another, which will fufficiently demonftrate 
the credit they had acquired in certain courts, and the ufs 
•they could turn it to for the propagation of their myfte-t 


*' See lad Obferrations of Philo, Page 45.— Original Wri- 
tings, Vol, II. Page *o*. 

114 antisocial conspiracy; 

ries. " This week (continues Agis) we (hall receive a 
« Lutheran minifter, who by flight of hand has collecled 
IC about nine thoufand florins for the community (the 
" Lodge) of this place. As foon as peace is made, he is 
" TO stT OFF FOR LONDON, with a multitude oj letters 

cc of recommendation. The Pr F O. B. uncle to 

" the reigning Duke, has promifed to fécond him with all 
" his might.* It is our intention alfo to employ him in 
" that country for the Order. He must slily illu- 
" MiNizjE the English. ... A large Dutch wig, a 
" fallow and meagre complexion, large eyes widely open- 
''• ed, a fertile imagination, a perfect knowledge of men, 
•• acquired by roving about the world for the fpace of two 
% - vears under the difguife of a beggar. . . . Do not you 
li think that with fuch qualifications this man will do won- 
rs? — During this winter we will drill him, as the 
" Hernuti ufed to do their apoftles." 

The adept fo well defcribed by ^/V-Krober, and on 
whom he grounds his hopes of the Illuminization of Eng~> 
iland, is not mentioned even by his characteriftic; but a 
manufcript marginal note informs me, that his real name 
Rontgen, a Dutch proteflant of Petkam, in Eaft 
Y The fifth report is mutilated, and is without the name 

Of Pici- of any 'Provincial. Such as it is, however, it forcibly 
bam. evinces the progrefs of the Sect during the laft three 

months of 1782 in the Electorates of Cologn and of 
Treves, called Picinurn. At this epoch the Provincial 
is much elated at the high repute Mafbnry has acqui- 
red in thofe parts fince it has been ilium inized. " Here 
" (fays he) a Mafon was formerly a laughing-flock, 
" whereas now a man who does not belong to a Lodge is 
"pitied. Everybody flocks tous; and the prophane 
" third after our myftcries. — Every body comes to cravs 
" the protection of an Order that is fo powerful." 

A very unexpected proof of their power is to be found 
in their Archives; it is the difgrace and exile of the Ab- 
be Beck, whom the Prince Clement of Saxony and Elect - 

* To my copy of the Original Writings I find a manufcript 
note in the margin, by a man who is very converiant on thefe 
matters; it irate? , that thefe initials ftand for the Prince Fer- 
dinand of Bruiipwick. Pr F ~ V. B kat ihm 

«tie unterjtutzang verfprochen. 


©r of Treves had till then favored with his confidence. 
I had not the honor of being acquainted with this vene- 
rable eccleliaftic ; but 1 remembered to have feen fome 
of his friends at Paris, who augured ill from this difgrace. 
I little expected at that time to find his apology in fo com- 
plete a ftyle in the report made by the Provincial to his 
Superiors : " The famous executioner of the Electors con- 
" fcience, the Abbé B. has at length received his dis- 
<c million, and an order to leave the country. Ever fines 
" the Elector has had this Jefuit* in his fervice he has 
tc been a declared enemy to Free-mafonry, and generally 
{* fpealcing, to every thing that tends to enlighten man- 
'■ kind. Nov/ that this Jefuit is out of the way, we have 
" the greateft hopes of making a glorious harveft in Treves 
" and the Electorate." How indignant muft his Electo- 
ral Plighnefs haye been when he discovered in his official 
report the true origin of all thofe infinuations to which 
one of his moll faithful fervants had fallen a victim; and 
particularly when he obferved the advantages that his 
real enemies and enemies of all governments, promifed 
themfelves in confequence of an illulion originating, in 
all probability, entirely with themfelves. 

We fhall here give another proof of the omnipotence 
that the Order was acquiring in the different courts of 
Germany. The Provincial, under the head of the Lodge 
of Pinna, that is to fay Hachenburg, gives an account hi 
the inauguration of Doctor Vogler, phyfician to the 
Count of Kirchenberg, and then continues, " Here the 
" affairs of the Order prulper amazingly well; the Count 
(i is entirely furrounded by Illuminées. His private je- 
il cretary, his pbyfuian, his pa/lor, his counsellors-, are 
"■all ours. — The Prince's favorites are our mcii zee 
* c adepts; and we have taken our precautions for the fu~ 
." ture. Let the Order ejiablijh itfelfas v. t I where, 
" and the world is our's." 

This wifh of the illuminizing Provincial wo. 
have been accomplifhed, had the adepts been ev. 
as zealous as thofe whom he mentions of the provinces of 
Picinum and Dacia. One adept in particular had : 

* The appellation Jefuit is here ufed by the Iltamir.' 1 
a term of fcurrilous reproach, as it frequently is a gain ft am 
perfon inimical to their principles, for the Abb : i 
was a Jefuit. 

IIÔ ANTISOCIAL conspiracy; 

thirteen novices in three months ; and it is not unworthy 
of remark, that eleven were already Free-mafons and two 
Lutheran minifters, who were charatlerizcd in the Or- 
der by the names of Avcrvûës and Theognis. The firft 
fhowed fo much zeal, activity, and intelligence, and the 
principles of the Order appeared to have taken iuch deep 
root in his heart, that the fuperiors haftened his initiation 
into the higher degrees, that they might admit him to the 
council,*and eafe themfelves of fome part of their labors on 
him. The other Tbeognis-FiscHER) became curate of 
Wolfbriicff. in Auftria, near Lintz, by means of the in- 
trigues of the adept Paufanias. In Knigge's report to 
the Areopagites, I find the following note on this adept : 
" Theognis, at the time of his promotion to his curacy, 

" received a letter from the bifhop ofK , the princi- 

" pics of which appear to have been copied from our 
" code. The prelate mentions a fecret project, of reform, 
u and begs Theognis not to (how his letter to any body. 
" The Brethren of this colony are firmly perfuaded that 
tc the Bifhop is one of our adepts; and to that circum- 
" flancs they attribute his having given a benifice to The- 
" ognis-y and in confequence of it they labor with redou- 
" bled zeal." 

What can have induced the editor of the Original 
Writings to give only the initial letter of this Bifhop's 
e ? Have not the Evangelifts named Judas Ifcariot 
at full length? Why not then name the prelate H as- 
lein, vice-prefident of the fpi ritual council at Munich, 
afterwards Lord Bifhop of Kherson for the church, 
and Brother Philo of Byblos for Weiihaupt ? With a 
little leis refpect for pcrfons, miftruft would fall on thofè 
who deferye it, and who fo little refpeâ their own dignr- 
tv ; and the world would know the man who was fore- 
molt, in the confpiracy agatnft God, though he might 
wear a mitre. 
Reports !0rc I undertake to prefent a lift to my readers, I 

by will mention the laft official reports recorded in the an- 

Knigge. na j s f th e Seer. They are made by Knigge himfelf, and 
are dated Thirmeh, Mcrdcdmeh, Dim,;h, u 52, that is to 
foy July and Augult 17^2, and the January following» 
We there find, th"a .non at Willcmfbaden did not 

hinder him from overlooking the provincial fuperiors, 
whole reports I have juft iiattd. It was to him that their 
reports were firft lent; he tranfmitted them to the Areo- 


pâgïtes, after making fuch remarks as his zeal for the pro- 
pagation of the Se£t might fuggeft. What he particu- 
larly blames in his inferiors was, a want of method. That 
want of regularity in their proceedings appeared to him 
to impede their fuccefs, and to render it lefs certain than 
he could wifh. And he writes to his fenate, " I cannot 
" fufficiently repeat it; when we mall have organized 
u the whole body, when every province (hall have its 
« Provincial, and every Infpeâor ihall have three Provin- 
« cials under his inflection j when our National Direcl- 
« ory (hall he eilablifhed at Rome (that is to fay Vienna) ; 
" when our Areopagites mall be freed from all the tire- 
K fome detail, (and by that means certain of remaining 
tv unknown) and mail only have to infpect the whole, to 
« perfect the fyllem, and to direct the propagation of it in 
K other countries; when the Order can give proper help 
" to the directing Brethren, then, and not before, ihall we 
'« be able to do fomething." 

Soon after thefe leiTons, and under the head of France, 
we read, " With refpect to that country, I would not 
cc advife you to undertake any thing until I {hall have 
" difpofed of the multiplicity of bufmefs that overpowers 
u mo at prefent. I have even laid afide for the prelent my 
" projects on Alface and Lorraine." Meanwhile, till 
that day comes, Knigge takes a view of the reports re- 
turned to him by the Provincials, and fubjoins to the 
number of their Novices thofe whom he had made him- 
felf. But the grand object that abforbs all his attention 
is the means of confummating the intrufion into the Ma- 
fonic Lodge?, which is at once to en! ill millions of men 
under the . of his Aréopage, and to eiFcct his Ulu- 

minizing revolution. 

the period of this laft report, that is, January 1783, 
this intrufion had made great progrefs; and it was to that 
circu m trance that Wcifhaupt was indebted for the mul- 
titude of adepts who already had fpread his confpiracy 
throughout Germany. Let the reader caft an eye on tiie 
map of Germany, and on the Lodges already ilium inized. 
It is true, that many towns are at prefent unintelligible, 
in confequence of the geographical nomenclature adopt- 
ed by the Sect; but every one of thefe names denotes an 
Iiluminized Lodge, a town where the copfpiratorS had 
gained a hold; and hence we may obferve, that (carcely 
a canton is to be found where this baleful Sect has not 


penetrated. Let us attend only to thofe towns that, in 
fpite of all their precautions., have been difcovered either 
by the writings or habitual refidence of the great adepts; 
i — what a formidable alliance have they already formed ! 
The fu-ft of the Provincials immediately under the direc- 
tion of Weiftiaupt has under him alone the Lodges of 
A'iunich, of Ratifbon, of Landfberg, of Burghaufen, of 
Straubingen, and of Freyfingen. — In the Circles of Fran- 
conia and Swabia, the Baron Mahomet prelides, at leaft 
over thofe at Aichftadt, his habitual refidence, at Bamberg, 
at Nuremberg, at Augfb'ôurg, at Mompelgard, and over 
tbofe of the Dutchy of Wurtemberg. — In the Circles of 
the Upper Rhine and of the Palatinate of the Lower 
! bine thi .' £t has eftabl i flied i tfel f, at Deuxponts, Man- 
heim, Frankenthal, Heidelberg, Spire, Worms, Wetz- 
lar, and Franckfort on the Mein. — The Electorates of 
Mayencç, of Treves and Cologne, have, with their capi- 
tals, mated a fimilar fate. — In Weftphalia, this diltemper 
rages at Aix-La-Chapelle, at Neuwied, and at Hachen- 
burg. — In Higher and Lower Saxony, at Kiel, at Bre- 
men, at Brunfwick, at Hanover, at Gottinguen, at Go- 
tha, at Jena. — The great adepts Nicolai and Lechfering, 
eftablifh Illuminifm at Berlin, and the adept Brutus re- 
ports that the Minerva! Schools are in as full activity at 
Vienna, in Auftria, as they were at Lintz. Hannibal^ot 
.Weifhaupt's grand commiflioner the Baron Baiius, had 
ellabiifiied it at lnfpruck and Botzen, and at many other 
towns in the Tyrol. From the bottom of his den, at In- 
golciltadt, Weifhaupt prefides over his confpiring crew; 
and through their means he commands, as it were, Ger- 
many and its confines, and might be called its Emperor 
of Darknefs. He has more town? in his confpiracy than 
the Chief of the Empire has in his dominions. 

At this period a great revolution took place in the code 
of the Illuminées, which only contributed to augment the 
ftrength of the Sect, and which I hope the hiltorian will 
not overlook, as it will fumiflî him with an nnfwer 
to thofe who may repeat an objection that has often been 
made to me. " Weifhaupt's Illuminifm only began in 
Bavaria about the middle of the year 1776; the Sect chief- 
ly attached itfelf to youth. It required a long noviciate, 
and many years for its Mincrval fchools to form the 
>ts and prepare them for the degrees where the con- 
ey is entered upon. It muft have required therefore 


generation after generation to form that multitude of con- 
spirators whofe marftialled cohorts rife triumphant at a 
time when Illuminifm is ftill in its cradle." 

This objection may have appeared forcible; but at the 
period where we now fland it folveS itfelf, Knigge has 
anfwered it when he enumerates that multitude of Mafons 
who have already attained the years or diicreticn, and did 
not ftand in need of thofe long trials, and who, in the pro- 
teftant countries particularly difdained the Minerval fchools 
only the more to Jhow their ardor to be admitted to the 
higher degrees of the conipiracy.* Weifhaupt (bon un- 
derftood the reafon of this rapid progrefs ; and it was on 
that account that he difpenfed with the feverity of the 
code and the trials of the Minerval fchool, and that he 
exhorted his Infinuators to enroll, after Knigge's exam- 
ple, men who could be quickly advanced to the higher 
myiteries: Such was the new method of recruiting that 
was adopted at this period. When the Provincials men- 
tion the ages of their Novices, we find few that have not 
attained the age of manhood, generally or twenty-five, 
thirty, forty, and even fifty years of age, and whofe occu- 
pations in life denote years of difcretion. Thus then does 
the Seel enlift multitudes of hands that do not wait for 

* Knigge fays, that in the Catholic countries the Philofo- 
phical writings, the light of the age, (the impiety of the day) 
had not made near fo much progrefs as in Proteflant coun- 
tries. This was true with refpect to Bavaria; would to God 
that the fame thing could have been faid of France ! Be that as 
it may, " The Minerval fchools, fays Knigge, did not take at 
" all in the Proteftant countries; and in fair, fays he, fuch in- 
*' ftitutions could only be of ufe in Catholic countries buried 
" yi darknefs, and for indifferent old-fa(hioned beings. But 
*' the greater the averfion fhewn by the Brethren for thefe as- 
" iemblies of Novices, the more earneftly they folicited to be. 
44 admitted to the higher degrees — Mit der Minerval clajfe 
* l nuollte es in protejïantiybben larder durçhaus Hicht forty una 
" nvurklich nvar aucb diefe an]} alt vorziiglich nur inferjînjîerten 
** catholifcben provinxen, und auf inittetmàJRgealtags tnenjch m 
" awviendbar — "Je iveniger absr die mietglieder geneigt tuareH 
*' verfammlungen der Pjlanz-fchule anzukgen, urn dejto eifriger 
" drangenjie in micb, thnen endlich die habere grade mitzuthei~ 
*' lex/' Phih endlicbc erhjdrungy P. 52, 53, et pajim. The 
reader will not forget that Knigge fpeaks particularly of thofe 
jfjphifticated Mafons among whom he was making recruits, and 
who were better prepared tor the myfteriea than the others, 
becaufe they were mure accuftomed to thefecrets of the Lodge, 



age to enable them to prepare for, or even to a£t when the 
day of revolution fhall be come. 

Another confideration that fhould not efcape the his- 
torian is, the avowal (frequently repeated by the Adepts 
in the Original Writings) " that the great progrefs they 
made was in confequence of the facility with which they 
introduced themfelves into the Mafonic Lodges, and of 
the preponderance that the myfteries of Illuruinifm da'ly 
acquired in the Lodges," One of the Illuminées, Lu/lus, 
tells us, that fince feveral Mafons and fome even of the 
rnoft zealous Roiicrucians,have been initiated in our mys- 
teries, one would think that the Order had acquired new 
life, and a much increafed force of expanfton or of propa- 
gation.* The Areopagite Hannibal attributes the fuc- 
cefs of his miifion to the fame caufe. In the report he 
makes of his proceedings, he begins by congratulating 
himfelf on having found Mafonic Lodges already efta- 
blifhed in the Tyrol. It was in them that he made his 
great conquerls. that he recruited Counfellors of the Re- 
gency, PaofeiTors of Colleges, Counts, Excellencies, Mi-< 
nifters of the Emperor, PiefidentP, Vice-Prefidents, Mas- 
ters of the Port-Office, Counfellors of the Government, 
all enthufiaits for the new myfteries of lHurmnifnv At 
the fight of fuch unexpected fuccefs, he openly confeffes 
that they are all due to the new method introduced by 
Philo-Kriigge. He then informs the Areopagites " that 
" the experienced Mafons are turning themfelves on all 
«fides in que/1 of light, that fcaicely had he given the 
« flighted: indication of it, before their hearts were infla- 
" med, and their entreaties to be initiated were moil 
" preffing. That it was juft the moment for making 
" o;ieat conquefts at Vienna, where there mufl he more 
« than four hundred Mafons," If at Milan he has not 
{o good a profpedt, it is becaufe no Mafonic Lodges have 
been eftablifhed there; but he will find fome at Cremo- 
na, Pavia, and other parts of Italy; and he ends by re- 
queuing that the other towns he means to vifit may ba 
comprehended in the new Geography of the Se&.f 

In fhort, how does Knigge himfelf account for that 
prodigious multitude of adepts recruited in fo fhort a pe- 
riod for Illuminifm? « When I entered the Order (he 

* R. Ittlliu* Journal, Orig. Writ. Vol. II. Seel. VI. 
. f Orig. Writ. Vol. I. and II. Hannibal's four Letters, 


« writes to Cato-Zwzck) you were all in the dark with 
« refpect to the Mafons of tbejlrifi Obfervance. I told 
" you (o, and was pofitive that among them there were 
" excellent men (for us). Spariacus believed mê; and 
" the event has proved it. Our beft adepts at Neuwied, 
'* at Gottinguen,at Mayence,at Hanover, at Brunfvvick, 
" and in the Palatinate, were all formerly Free-mafons of 
« the Striai Obfervance."* 

Neverthelefs, thefe conquefts on Mafonry made by II- 
luminifm do not fatisfy either Pbilo-Knigge or Sparta* 
cus-WQifhzupt. They will not even let the name of Ma- 
fonry exift, but as a cloak for their Illuminifm. Let us 
then conhder of their new means and further fuccefîes in 
the following Chapterf 

* Utifere beften leute in Neuwied, Gottinguen, Mainz, 
Hannover, Braunfchweig.PfaltZjfuid ehemalige mitgliederder 
Striden Obfcrvantz. 

f For the whole of this chapter let the Reader apply to the 
Original Writings, Vol. II. Part I. and the Reports of the Pro* 
vincials ( Prtvintial-Beriche) from P. 159 to %%u 




Xew means praclifed, and new eonquejîs made by Knigge 
and Weijbaupt on Mafonry. — Difputes between thefe 
two Chiefs of Uluminifm. — 'J heir defigns on the Ger- 
man Mafons conjunmiated before Knigge's Retreat. 

NOTWITHSTANDING the immenfe number of 
Mafons that had flocked to theftandard of Ulumi- 
nifm, Weifhaupt and Knigge labored under fome appré- 
hendons with refpecl: to a new congrefs that had been ap- 
pointed for the following year at Willemfbaden. Knigge 
particularly dreaded that new Code and new form that 
was in agitation for the Lodges. He knew that fome of 
the Brethren had been named to make a digeft of laws; 
nor could he forget, that others bad received instructions 
from the Congrefs to gain admiffion into, and get them- 
Jches received members of all the Jecretfocieties, in order 
that they might be initiated into their myjleries^ and make 
their report at the following congrefs. Left all the fruits 
of his laffc mifïïon at Willemfbaden fhould be blafted in 
the bud at this new meeting, Knigge (ought to make him- 
felf acquainted with the difpoiitions, with regard to his 
Uluminifm, of the commhTaries nominated to make the 
new digeft of laws, 
A melius r fhe chief of thefe comminâries was a man of the name 
of Bode, already famous in the annals of Mafonry, and 
v/ho was foon to become more fo in thofe of Uluminifm. 
—The fon of a common foldier of Brunfwick, he was 
brought up as fifer of a regiment, but he foon thought 
himfelf deftined to act a higher part in the world than to 
accompany a drum with the fhrill founds of his fife. He 
had learned to read, and was fuiRciently acquainted with 
the French and the Englifh languages to undertake fome 
tranflations. Thofe of Triftram Shandy and Yorick's 
Sentimental Journey gained him more credit than money; 
he then fet up as a bookleller at Hamburg; but foon be- 
coming the widower of a rich heirefs, he abandoned tradei 
and was decorated by the Duke of Weimar with the title 
of Counfellor of Embaff'y. At length he was declared 
Privy Counfellor to the Landgrave of Hefle Caflei. 



Created a Commander among the Templar Mafons un- 
-der the title of Knight of the Lillies of the Valley, Eques 
a Lilio convallium, Bode had brought with him all that 
genius neceffary to give importance to the games of their 
Equality and Liberty, and, above all, that concern which 
impiety and independence manifeft, to difcover their mys^ 
teries in the fymbols of that fame Equality and Liberty. 
The fervices he had rendered to the Brethren may be ap- 
preciated by that which Knigge believed to be lb mi: h 
to his honor, when he fays, that nearly all the little good 
that is to be found in the fyjlem of the Striéf Observance 
is to be attributed to Bode; or, in other words, every thing 
that ahunilated their fyftem to that of Weimaupt. After 
having clofely fcrutinized his man, Knigge declares him 
to be advanced in years, but ftill in queft of truth which 
he had not yet been able to find, though he had been for- 
ty years a Mafon; he depicts him as indiffèrent to all fys- 
tems, though petulent, fiery, and jealous of dominion, and 
as loving to be flattered by Princes. To this cefcription 
I may add from my German Memorials, that his exterior 
was unpolifhed and almoft deformed, which, however, 
did not hinder this old Mafon from acting the part of a 
wit and of a man of fentiment with the Ladies. They al- 
fo defcribe him as a pedant, with an appearance of franlc- 
nefs that Princes miflook for opennefs of character; but 
with which they might not have been fo eafily duped had 
they known, that though he fought their favor, he as cor- 
dially hated them as he did what he called the Mumme- 
ries of Religion^ ofjefuits^ and of Priejls. Such ienti- 
mejits muft neceffanly have endeared him to the Illumi- 
nées. Knigge more particularly courted him on account 
of the great influence he enjoyed over the German Ma- 
fonry. Thefe two men fcrutinized each other, and Kni 
at length declares, that " after many mutual explanatin 
<l he had admitted him to the degree of Scotch Kni- 
Here Bode found all thole promifes to forward the views 
of the Order, to reveal all his difcoveries on Mafonry to 
his new Superiors, to inftall the Illuminées in all the p'ri.i- 
cipal ports of the Lodges, and to embezzle their fui 
None of thefe ebligations appear to have gi'Jc? 
uncaftnefs; but he feared, that in the end thoie unie:.- 
Superiois would turn out to be jeluits and Priefts. It 
was neceffary, therefore, to remove fuch fears, and to gua-, 
rantee to him that thofe Superiors detefted Piieih and 


Jefuîts as much as he did himfelf. " On this condition 
« (fays Knigge) he promifed, i/?, To labor for us, and, 
" by means of the new Syftem or Code to be formed for 
*' Mafonry, to throw the empire over the Lodges into our 
" hands. 2«//y, To put the Directories and provincial in- 
" fped-tions, in as much as depended on him, into the hands 
" of the Illuminées, ylly^ To prevail on the Brethren of 
" the Stria} Observance to fraternize with us. 4-tbiy-, In 
" the forming of the new Mafonic Code, never to lofe 
tc fight of the Illuminized plan for the choice of Matters 
" or Vénérables of Lodges. $ihly, To lay before the Su- 
" periors all the knowledge he has acquired concerning 
" the origin of Mafonry and of the Rohcruciansj and to 
" caufe the Deduofisns promifed for the Striai Objervance 
" to be printed at our preffes, and to difhibute them to 
" our Brethren according to agreement."* 

Such promifes from Bode were of too much confe- 
quence to be rejected by the Illuminées; he was receiv- 
ed with open arms, and, under the characteristic of Jme- 
lius, was ufhered into the higher degrees. We fhall foon 
fee how faithfully he acquitted himfelf of his promifes. 

While Knigge was making fuch important acquittions 

from Mafonry, Weifhaupt was meditating another plan, 

that was to inftall him matter of all the Lodges of Poland» 

The Areopagite Cato-Xwack received nearly at the fame 

time both Knigge's official note relative to Bode, and the 

Wei- following letter from Weifhaupt: u i have a mind to un- 

fhaupt's « dertake the Polonefe Confederation, not precifely to II- 

V L ews ?" " luminize them, but merely as Free-mafonry to efta- 

Mafbn " Wi * h ik * Hl iem oj Confederate Lodges; to fele<St the a- 

" biett perfonsj to get the ftart of the Striai Obfervance y 

a and to deftroy it. Write immediately to Warfaw, that 

" you are acquainted with feveral Lodges at Munich and 

pother towns, that are willing to confederate with them 

" on the following conditions: 1/?, That they Ihould 

* Original Writing?, Vol.11. Phi Jo's bericht uber jonien ; 
Di»irh January, 1783.— tf îry DtdnÛîbÉsthé account of the 
c/n-iibunons to be dr.iucled for the Grand Ohfirvance, and af» 
t rward to be delivered over to the Jiiumiru-es. be not meant. I 
du noi uoderftand the meaning of them. But Bode referves to 
himfelf the difctetionary power of letting other perfons parti- 
cipateof them; that is to lay, he wifhes to ferve the Illuminées 
without appearing to have abandoned his former Brethren.-— 
(Sue VoL III. oj thefe Memoirs.) 


(i acknowledge but the firft three degrees — idly, That 
" each Lodge fhould be at liberty to have what Superiors 
<( and as many of them as they pleafed-y3<//y, That ; II 
" Lodges ihould be independent of each otner, at leaft as 
" much fo as the Lodges of Germany are of thole of Po- 
" land — âfthly, That all their union ihould be carried on 
'* by the correfpondence and viiks of the Brethren. — If 
" we can but gain that point, v/e fhall have fucceeded in 
" all we want; leave the rejt to me." 

" Philo has already received inlrrucrjons toprepareour 
" Lodges of the Rhine and of Lower Saxony for this 
" plan. Don't lofe a day; for both time and danger prefs. 
« 'John is corning, and the confederation will take place 
* € at Vienna before that time. The Lodge %. % appears as 
<* if it would accede. . . Send to Warfaw the manifeito 
« that is to be immediately circulated in the Lodges on 
« the occafion. Without doubt the federation Will be 
Cî numerous. See hszv I eanfeiase every occriJioK açid turn 
« every circuir;;hrace to uft. As faon as you iiiaJl get an 
" anfwer fend it to me; don't lofe a minute. The moll 
iC important bufmefs for us is, to eftabliih an Ecleâic 
" Mafonry; if we fucceed in that, 'tis all we want. Do 
tc not mention our order at Warfaw; it is always defir- 
" able to gain fo elTential a point. Send all your docu- 
* c ments on Poland to Pbiio. A multitude of Lodges 
tc would have joined us had they not dreaded to be taken 
" for blind Lodges. This arrangement will raife the diffi- 
•* culty. The Lngliih Lodge of Edejfa (Frankfort) has 
" already promiled to accede to thefe conditions. Send 
¥■ your di (patches off immediately for Warfaw, without 
" tranfmitting them to me, that they may get there the 
" lboner; and defire an immediate anfwer."'* 

Though perlons who cannot gain adrniilion to Wei- 
fhaupt's fecret councils may not forefee why he fo earn- 
eltly intereits hirr.ielf in this plan for the propagation of 
his confpiracy, we may, however, remark, that Knigge 
had conceived the lull importance or the meafure, when a 
week after he writes to Zwack, " 7 bat plan on Poland 
" is a titojl majierly blow. I have already fent my draft of 
° the circular letter for the Lodges tc Spartacus." Ac- 
cording to Weifh'aupt's plan, this circular letter was not 
intended for the rol.ih Mafons alone, but was to be lent 

* nth January, 1783. 


to all the Lodges of the Order. It is to be found in the 
fécond volume of the Original Writings, and is exactly 
that medley of artifice for the feduction of Mafons which 
might be expected from its author. Knigge begins with 
a fulfome eulogy on their inflitution. He tells them, that 
their fociety tuas intended by God and nature to reclaim 
the rights of humanity opprejj'ed^ of virtue perjecuted^ and 
offcicnce degenerated. In aftory artfully intermixed with 
truth and falsehood, he endeavors to demonftrate how much 
the Order had fwerved from its grand obje£t for about 
twenty years pair. To reftore it, therefore, to its ancient 
fplendor, he invites all Brethren fired with a true zeal to 
unite with thofe Mafons who alone have remained in pos- 
fefïion of the real myfteries, with a fociety formed for 
their prcfcrvation about the year 1762, and whofe fpecial 
objecl: was to oppofe the tyranny of the Brethren of the 
Strict Obfervance; in fhort, to join a fociety which he 
declares to be compofed of the beft heads of the Order, 
and of men whofe fcience and experience v/ould command 
the efreem and veneration of all that approached them.— 
At length, giving the plan for his new aiibciation, " In 
" the new regimen admitted by thefe real Mafons (fays 
" he) we invariably hold to the firft three degrees. — Se- 
" veral Lodges unite together in the choice of one for 
" their Scotch Diretlory, or chief place of Lheir diftric"t, 
" to which each fends a Deputy. This Directory decides 
" on money matters, overlooks objects of ceconomy and 
" the raiting of contributions, and grants powers for the 
" erecting of new Lodges. Above this tribunal we have 
tc no Superiors who have a right to raife contributions; 
a they are only entitled to an exa£t account every three 
" months of the moral and political ft a te of every Lodge. 
" A certain number 0/ Scotch Diretlories join to chufe a 
" Provincial Directory, three of the latter ele£t an In- 
" fpeclor, and three infpeclors chufe the National Di- 
" rector. 

cc This is not the place for expatiating on what we have 
" already done in the filent abodes of fecrecy, or on what 
" we mean to do. It will fuffice to fay, that we have 
" fchools to form the young men whom we afterward ad- 
" mit into our Order, and who are deitined to labor to 
" procure happier and more tranquil days for the rifing 
" generation. The care we beftow on thefe pupils is in 
w our eyes th^ moft honorable part of our labors. Should 


w the Lodges wifh for any further particulars, they (hall 
" receive them from the very perfons who have thought 
" proper to propofe this plan."* 

The memorials before us are not fufficiently explicit to 
enable us to decide what effect. Zwack's and Knigge's 
letters produced on the Polifli Mafons. In Zwack's note> 
however, on the progrefs of the Brethren we may obferve, 
that the Aréopage was in treaty for a Jiritl alliance with 
the National Lodge of Poland. With refpeir. to Germa- 
ny, we are not left in the dark as to the fuccefs of thefe 
artifices ; but then it is to Bode particularly that fuch fuc- 
celîcs are attributed. Through his means it was, that 
Knigge acquired powerful prote&ors with the Mafons of 
high rank, and particularly with the committee that was to 
frame the new code. • By the help of fuch protection he 
fo amazingly extended the number of the adepts, that 
Weiihaupt pretended to be alarmed, or was fo in real- 
ity. The defpotic founder viewed with a jealous eve 
the afcendant that Knigge was daily acquiring, and the 
great encomiums bellowed on him by the adepts in their 
£hiibus Licets. Befide, his profound policy led him to 
conceive that his power would be too much divided by 
that of Knigge's, to enfure him fovereign fway over his 
tenebrous meetings, and to preferve that unity of objet!: 
and of action which his projects required. This multi- 
tude of adepts luddenly initiated into the higher myfteries 
kept him in a ftate of continual alarm. Among thefe new 
dilciples fome might be found who, not having undergone 
the neceffary trials, might expofe both himfelf and all the 
confpiracies of his Sect to be difcovered. Though Knigge Quarrels 
had faithfully copied (as the reader has feen) all the pro- betweeo 
fligate myfteries that Weiihaupt had invented in the de- We '- 
gree of Epopt, yet this illuminizing chief did not fcruple ft a " ptan ^ 
to accufe the Baron of having weakened them; the fact ° * 
was, that he could not forgive him for having participated in 
the glory of founding the Order. He even pretended that 
Knigge v/as privately laying the foundations of another 
iêcret fociety.f Thefe reflections weighed fo heavily on 
the mind of the defpotic chief, that all on a fudden Knigge 
found himfelf depofed at the very inftant when he was 

* Extract from the Circular Letter, Original Writings, Vol. 
U. Part II. Sed. VI- 


Original Writings, Vol. II. Let. ao, 


rr.nft elated with his fuccefles in the frrvice of the Or* 

Weifliaupt took from' him the direâion of his pro- 
vinces, and made him fubjec-t to fome of his own pupils. 
~— f he manner in which Kniggc received this humbling 
news cannot be better defcribed than in his own letters to 
Weifliaupt and to Zwack. The latter had attempted to 
reconcile thefe two terrible competitors, particularly by 
affecting to throw the whole blame of their difagreements 
on Mahomet and another brother. " It is neither Maho- 
« met nor that other brother (fays Knigge to Cato), but 
< c it is that Jefuitifm of Weifliaupt, that occafionsall our 
" broils and difputes. It is that defpotifm which he exer- 
*< cifes over men perhaps lefs powerful in imagination, 
<c art, and cunning than himfelf, but equal to him at leaft 
" in good-will, prudence, uprightneis, and probit) ; over 
" men who have rendered the moft important fervices, 
* c without which his Order would ftill have been a piti- 
* c ful medley of boys. Long fince have I obferved his in- 
*' tention of deceiving me; but I am firmly refolved 
** to make him feel, notwithftanding my exceffive pati- 
* l ence and obedience, that there are men who are not to 
K be played upon with impunity. I therefore declare, 
" that nothing can ever put me again on the fame foot- 
cc ing wirh Spartacus on which I was before; but as long 
** as I live I will do every thing in my power for the 
* c good of the Order \ and ye (the Areopngites), my bejl 
* l of friends, ye fhall always find me ready to obey ye in 
u every thing conducive to the fame objecV 

After this exordium Knigge proceeds to enumerate e- 
very thing that he had done for Weifliaupt, in the per- 
fecting of the Code, the founding of Lodges, and the re- 
cruiting of Brethren. " I had actually recruited five hun- 
u dred (he continues) when he chofe to view me in the 
u light of an indifferent being, who was ruining his af- 
" fans by my want of reflection. Without giving me any 
*f intimation, he began to correfpond with my inferiors. 
" I have i'een fome of his letters to my pupils, in which 
<{ he treats me as a novice. — At prefent I am under the 
<c direction of Minos> and am to fend him my Shiibu: 
" Licet every month. Without being an ambitious man, 
cc I fee no reafon why I fhould put up with fuch affronts, 
" and allow myfelf to be led like a fcholar by a profefTor 
K of Ingolliadt. And certainly with refpect to him I look 


« Upon myfelf as difpenfed from all obedience. With re- 
<{ gard to you, ready to obey the flighted intimation of 
<c your wifhes, I confent to continue to direct the pro- 
* c vinces of He (Je and Upper Saxony, until every thing is 
" properly organized in thofe countries. I fliall then re- 
*' tire, prompt, notwithftanding, to ferve you with all my 
" might, either by night or by day," 

This letter is dated the 20th of January, 17 S3, and is 
immediately followed by another to the fame adept. The 
latter fhows how painful it was to Knigge to abandon the 
Brethren; but at length he writes to Zvvack, " Were \ 
"to give way to an imprudent vengeance ? reflect on thi^ 
«' at leaft. 

" It was by order of Spartacus (auf Spartacus geheifs) 
" that I wrote againft the ci-devant Jtjitijii and againft 
u the Rijtcrucians, neither of whom had ever done me 
" any harm. It was by his orders that I fpread diffenfions 
" among the Mafons of the Striai Objervance, and fe- 
" duced their ableft brethren. I inftilled into them ftrong 
" ideas of the antiquity, the excellence and power of our 
" Order, of the perfection of our Superiors, of the irre-* 
" proachable manners of the Brethren, of the importance 
* c of our myfteries, and of the fincerity and purity of our 
** intentions. Many of thofe who at prefent labor molt 
" efficacioufly for our Order, were under confiant appre*. 
u henfions that we were leading them to Deifm. Little 
<c by little, however, I do what I pleaje. Now were I to 
** inform the Jefuits and the Roficrucians of their real 
" perfecutor; were I fimply to let fome certain perfons 
" into the fecret of the inlignificant novelty of the Order; 
*' were I to inform them that I compofed parts of the de- 
<c grees; were I to tell them how I am treated after the 
*' many fervices I have rendered ; were I to make them 
« l acquainted with the Jejuitifm of that man who leads us 
*' all by the nofe, and facrifices us to his ambition whenever 
" he pleafesj were I to inform the fecret-hunters that 
" they will "not find that which they are in queft of ; were 
«' I to let thofe who love religion into the fecret of the 
" founder's religious principles; were I to found the a* 
< c larm to P^ree^ mafons concerning an aiibciation fet on 
" foot by the Illuminées; were I myfelf to eftablifh an 
" Order on a more fol id, clear, difinterefted plan, whofe 
** object lhould be honefty and liberty; were I to attract 
w the many able men whom I am acquainted with intcj 


« this Order; were I to place certain perfons in your '5 
" who would inform me in future of every thing that was 
" tranfùéting in it; were I to give a hint only in Greece 
" ( that ihould at once difclofe the founder and 

" his Order; were I to found the alarm to Princes by 
" means of \Numenius and the Roficrucians -at Rome (Vi- 
" enna): — I Ihudder at the idea! No, I will not carry 
; fuch lengths; but if" I do not obtain fatis- 
i, i will take fuch fteps as my honor requires.-— 
" Let me once more enjoy that unlimited confidence that 
" 1 formerly enjoyed, and then I fhall be ready to under- 
ji it things for the Order again. I am perfectly 
ted with our people ; I know what attaches each 
" one to the Order, and what engines fhould be let in 
tc motion either to excite their enthufiafrn or fuddenly to 
" crufli it. Once more I repeat it; if I am left at liberty 
" to act, I will anfwer upon my head to put the Order 
" immediately in poueffion, ift->of mofi important fecrets ; 
tc 2dly, of a ftr$ng preponderance over the Mafons of the 
a Strict Obiervance, or, rather, of means abfolutely to de- 
** Jiroy them; 3dly, of a great influence over the Mafons 
*' of Zijnnendorf'sfyfbem; 4-thly, Ipromife to put the Or~ 
" dcr in pofjeffion of great riches y and of great power, and 
tc that without making any alterations in our confiitu- 
« tions." 

So far, from allowing himfelf to be foothed by thefe 
promifes, or affrighted by thefe menaces, which ZwacJc 
was to tranfmit to It, Wetuhaupt appeared to be- 

come more inflexible. He knew his agents too well; he 
was certain that Knigge could never bring himfelf to be- 
tray him; and indeed he muft have betrayed himfelf in 
denouncing his chief. That adept, without doubt, might 
. have deferred him and carried many of the brethren with 

him; and Weifhaupt would have preferred fuch extre- 
mities rather than have had rebel adepts, particularly com- 
petitors under him. " What care I (he writes) for all 
€t that multitude of unmanageable adepts who wilh to be 

41 guided by no other rule than their fancy?" At 

other times he would write, " It is by means of thofe who 
" will obey me, that I muft perform moji afionifhing things. 
<: I anfwer for nothing when 1 meet with reliftance from 
" my adepts; I have forefeen every thing, and 1 have pre- 
" pared every thing. Letfny whole Order go to rack and 
" ruin j in three years k will anfwer to reftore it, and that 


c,: to a more powerful ftate than it is in at prefent. — Ob- 
" fiacles only ftimulate my activity. I know how to turn 
« them to my advantage; and when people lhall think 
« that I am undone, even then fhall I rife ftronger than 
« ever. Let that perfon leave me who thinks he can bet- 
" ter himielfelfe where; and time will fhew whoismis- 
«' taken. I know how to find men more docile, I can .- 
" crifice whole provinces, the defertion of a hw individ- 
" uals, therefore, will not alarm me."* 

Thus firm and confiant in his determination to enforce 
obedience, Weifhaupt left Knigge under an interdict; he 
continued to tranfmit all orders to him through the me- 
dium of his inferiors; he even fo far let him at defiance, 
as to refufe to give him the watchword and the quarter- 
ly fign; fo that he might almoft look upon himfelf as ex- 
pelled the Order. If he deigned to write to him, it was 
in a tone only calculated to add to his humiliation; ^id 
Knigge himfelf actually thought all his intercourfe with 
this overbearing Defpot had been broken off when he re- 
ceived a letter ftill more imperious and injurious than 
ever. Pbilo's anfwer is remarkable; and I will lay it be- 
fore my readers; not that I think it important to defcribe 
ail the jealoufies and inteftine broils that may very well 
be called the rogues quarrel, but becaufe it fljows how 
well in the midit of all their difputes thefe fellows knew 
each other, and how they drew together when the mis- 
fortunes of nations were in queftion; it /hows aifo hoy/ 
they vied with each other, am! placed all their merit i,n 
the deftruclion of the altar and the throne, and in ha\ ing 
abufed the confidence of Princes; fuch were the m 
deeds on which they grounded their rights ofpre-i 
nence in their dark dens of rebellion. 

This letter from Knigge to Weifhaupt was written at 
fucceflive periods during his excurfion from Frankfort to 
Caffel, to Brunfwick, and Neuterhaufen. He begins it, 
dated at CafTel, 25th February, 1783. 

u An unfoi'efeen circumftahce occaiions my writing to 
" you. Read my letter without paffiqn, wrlh ialitv, 

" and as coolly as you are able. I own that, as late evçn 
" as yefterday, until I had received yoi 
" ter 1 little thought we were êv< >d togetb- 

4< er again. lam perfectly refolved t it for one 

* Original Writings. Vol. II. Let. S, to tato. 

13a antisocial conspiracy; 

« more anfwer; and if it is in the fame tone that you 
« have lately taken with me, nothing fhall hinder me 
<l from abfolutely breaking off all connexion with you* 
" Do not pretend to think that this is an idle threat. I 
" am aware that you can do without me; but I alfo know> 
a or am at Ieaff, willing to think, that your confcience will 
" rife in judgment againft you, if you continue without 
*' reafon to reject a man who has been your mod active 
" co -operator. What am I to understand when you fay 
" that you can begin the whole over again, and that with 
41 new agents? To be fure you may try; but were you 
" really to undertake it, you would ceafe in my eyes to 
" be that man whom I was willing to believe endowed 
ct with prudence. The points to which I wifh to call 
" your attention require a general view of our refpe&ive 
" fituations. Let us addrefs each other freely. 

" You have injured me; you know it; but you will 
"'not own it, becaufe you are afraid of loiing your con-^ 
ct fequence were you to fay, I have really behaved fhame- 
w fully ill to that m?.n. You wifh to perfuade both your- 
" felf and others that you are indifferent to my flaying 
" with you or not, for that I am not fit for fo great an 
" undertaking; though you well know, that we both have 
w our failings; that men muft be taken as they are; that 
*' no one would proceed far, if he were to change co-ope- 
" rators every fix months. To make fhort of the matter,, 
" you would be forry to fee me abandon you, and found 
4< another fociety; but you are unwilling to appear to 
" ftand in need of me. 

tc Now for Me : I have not the vanity to pretend, that 
" a man of a fupcrior underftanding to my own fhoul,d 
" fo debate himfclf as to afk me pardon. But I could wifh 
c< you to reflect on the following circumftances : — I am 
" certain that I have acled according to my confcience, 
" and on a (olid, plan. I defy any perfon to point out to 
u me thofe indiicretions by which I am fuppofed to have 
" done the Order irreparable evil. So far from it, I have 
41 engaged men of the moft tranfcendant merit in its fer- 
<c vice. If in many hundred recruits any are to be found 
" who are not exactly what they ought to be, your own 
w conduit will plead my excufe, iînçe you have entrufted 
u me with the government of five provinces, a perfon that 
u you at prefect upbraid as a heedlefs giddy young fellow.. 
44 Ln fhort, I have aîted as I ought to have done. That 


* c you ihould acknowledge this, I do not defire; but I 
f< really wifh to fee you convinced of it. Our union fhould 
** be grounded on a reciprocal and boundlefs confidence. 
« — If you are unwilling to grant me yours, remember at 
" leaft that I am not to be led like a machine. I there- 
tc fore retire, not through an ill-judged delicacy, but be- 
" caufe I can be of no uie to you, and that I know perfore 
lt to whom I can be of great ufe, and who place unbound- 
" ed confidence in me. 

" Now to the point: / can inform you, that lajl night 
li I brought my grand plan to ajlate of maturity. Mark me, 
" therefore: fince I have quitted the government of my 
ct provinces, great things have been the objecls of my la- 
** bors, letters.,' and conferences. For this iveek pafi I 
* c have had here (at Cajfel) feveral private interviews 
« with the P— C— or H— C— ," (Prince Charles of 
«* HefTe Caflel, brother in law to the King of Denmark). 
** All this taken together has enabled me to fulfil the fol- 
" lowing promifes, provided 1 am treated a} I think I 
* am entitled to he." 

Thefe promifes of Knigge are nearly the fame as thofe 
already mentioned in his letter to Cff/a-Zwack. He adds, 
however, fome few points that are eflential ; for example, 
he does not only promife to difcover to the Illuminées 
the real objetl of Alafonry and of the Roficrucians, but to 
make it a part of the higher degrees oj Ifeifhaupt 's mys- 
teries. This addition is not an indifferent indication on 
the occult myfteries of Ivlafonry. Without having been 
a Roficrucian, Philo-Kniggo had long applied to their 
myfteries before his admilTion into Illurninifm. He had 
ftudied them as Cojnmander and Knight Templar, but had 
not been able to dive into their lait myfteries. It was re- 
ferved to Bode, to that man known by all Germany to 
have been one of their moft zealous and learned Mafons, 
to initiate Knigge in thefe myfteries; and we muff hence 
conclude, that few of the brethren were acquainted with 
them; but no fooner are they difcovered to Philo, than ' 
he conceives them to be worthy of being blended with 
thofe of Weifhaupt. Thefe occult myfteries, therefore, 
of the Roficrucians can fall little fhort of the baneful ma- 
chinations of Illurninifm; and all that jealoufy that ftill 
.rages between the Roficrucians and Illuminées may be 
faid to be only a rivalfhip for hireling primacy. No long- 
er do I pretend to difpute with Brother Dupe on the «x- 


iftence of thefe hideous myfteries ; on the contrary, I wi!! 
compliment him on his {till having fufficient virtue left 
to be refufed admiflion; but I will infift on the abfolute 
neceility and duty of* abandoning any afTociation that can 
have nurtured the abominable and impious plots, the dis- 
covery of which is the caufe of fo much exultation in 
thcfe arch-confpirai 

On the fame conditions Knigge promifes Weifhaupt 
to dij cover to the Order certain ferrets vf Nature^ ; 
(fays he) at once affanifliing, marvellous, and productive* 
and all this without being miracles.* He alfo fpecifies 
the means by which the Illuminées are to acquire power 
and wealth; it \slbe liberty and a lice'. Den- 

mark, Hoi/: an, and other Jlates, with fund's 

for the enterprise. Infhort, his] , . r^Ro- 

iicrucians is accompanied with the promife of a power- 
ful party againft the Jefuits.f 

This letter remained in his turn 

from Cailel to Brunfvvicr:; he there continues it on the 
ioth of March: « The D— F— of B— , (L 
" dinand of Brunfwick) has call.d me to this town to 
" confer with me on different fubj eels. I will ky more 
" of this on a future occafion, let us revert to the moft 
" preffing bufinefs. I have already faid it, and I repeat it 
41 again without any difguife, here are my conditions: If 
c< you reftore me to your confidence, all will be termi- 
" nated, and this whole bufinefs remains afecret between 
<* us. From this inftant I not only engage to attach 
" fell ftronger than ever to the order, but I alfo promife 
*' and guarantee to it a power of which it can have no 
M conception. 

" Should you rcfufe to rely on me, from that inftant 
"our union is difiblved; I erect another fociety on much 
" ftronger bonds. But no threats. Think of it, and weigh 
« it coolly." 

Knigge alfo takes time to reflect; and on the 26th of 
March he continues from N fen: " I am here a- 

" gain. . . Once more I fay, if you know your own inter- 
*' eji the world is ours; if not, may the confequences of 
" your fcandalous proceedings fall upon you. But no; 
" 1 it ill rely on your prudence, fate leads us admirably. I 

• Krftauouch und eiotraglicb, obgleich keine wunder. 
t Line macim'ge parthey gegen jefaiten. 


«have great things before me; I have prodigious ones 
« in view. — It is in your power to partake of thorn. 1 
<* have not as yet taken a iingle ftep againft you. 1 hope 
« your conduct will give me reafon to write to Jtheus y 
" that I had formed a wrong opinion of you." 

On the 27th of the fame month another poftfeript in 

the following terms: " I was juft going to fend my let- 

" ter, when 1 received this Order, which you fend me by 

«■ F. . . Oh ! you ought not to have taken fuch a ftep, 

« You with then to drive me to all extremities? Upon 

tt my word you will gain nothing by it, Reflect on the 

" importance, Ï may venture to fay, that 1 have given to 

tl your ailociation. Were I now to difcover to certain 

" perlons your whole hiftory, and your principles fo dan- 

« gerous for the yjor/d, and declare that I was obliged 

« to moderate them by every means in my power, who 

« would not ihun you ? What is your «'agree of Ebopt in 

« comparifon with your means of attaining a good 

«* (that is» to lay in comparifon to the principle, vllmeans 

" are good when the end is good? ) — What is it, I fay, 

tc when compared with your icandalous injuftice towards 

" Wolter and Levelling? — O ! what are men? — Good 

" God! were you a Jefuit yourfelf? I tremble to think 

" of it; but mould that be the cafe all Hell ihould not 

u fave you from my claws." 

Lajt Poftfeript of the 31ft: " Do not hurry yourfelf 
« to anfwer me. Caio may tranfmit certain things to you 
" that may make you change your mind. Take care of 
« yourfelf cave ne eadas. V engeance is a thing that I 
« mall with great difficulty refift."* 

AU thefe letters depict Knigge as an adept determin- 
ed to withdraw himfelf at length from the defpotifm of 
the modern Spartacus; not indeed to abandon his plots, 
but in order to lay the balis of new aflociations of Con- 
ipirators: In the midil of all thefe broils, it is worthy of 
remark, that the injured competitor in his letters to Wei- 
fhaupt and to Zwack intermixes anfwers and advice on 
every thing that can tend to propagate the Order, In his 
poftfeript of the 26th of March, forgetting on a fudden 
all his anger againft Weilhaupt, he informs him, that 
Brother Accatius folicits letters of recommendation and 
directions to the Brethren of Italy for another adept who 

* Orig, Writ. Vol. II. Let. r, 3, and 3* from Pbilo. 


is going to fécond Brother Hannibal in his million to 
thole countries. *'• This affair (fays Knigge) is of" the 
'* higheft importance to the Orders for our man is an 
<( excellent Scrutator; andldoaffure you that fpecial good 
" news is come relating to the Monks of Italy." Molt 
certainly^ discontented Monks of the ftamp of Dom Ger- 
les might be found there; but before they could be en- 
rolled an article of the Code which excludes them from 
the Order was to be difpenfed with* As I have already 
obferved, however, Knigge was always lefs fcrupulous 
than Weifhaupt on the article of exceptions. In thefe 
fame letters he warns the Arcopagites to pay particular 
attention to the affairs of the Order at Vienna; and in- 
forms them, that he has important news from that coun- 
try; and with refpecl to Poland, though he may be ac- 
quainted with no perfon who could forward the federa- 
tion, he had people at leajt in Livonia. And in his offi- 
cial reports we find that he had a miffionary in that part 
of Ruifia, vjbofromfo great a dijiance perhaps might not 
(end his £htibus Licet s exaelly and monthly ; but who 
would labor for the Order perhaps with more fuccefs than- 
any of its Apoftles,* 

Such tendernefs for the welfare of the Order, and zeal 
for the propagation of its plots, evidently demonftrates 
that Knigge, fo far from abandoning it, expecled to re- 
alTume his former rank. It appears ftill clearer in the let- 
ter he wrote to Cato by the very fame poll:, by which he 
had fent all his menaces to Weifhaupt: cc I have great 
" views indeed for our Order, and that makes me forget 
" all the injuries I have received from Spartacus. I do 
<c not wifli him to own that he is in the wrong, but only 
" that he fhould know that the fault lies with him." The 
letter ends by conitituting Cato judge of the conteit.f — » 
Weifhaupt needed no more to convince him that this 
■warfare would terminate to his advantage. He did not 
wifh to lofe Philo, but flill lefs could he bear him as a 
rival. " If Philo (Weifhaupt fays to Zwack) will return 
" to me, and confefs that he is in the wrong, he will find 
u me fuch as I formerly was in his regard. But for your 
" part do not fhow the lead eagernefs to reclaim him. I 
" wifli to prove to him that I can do without himj his 

* Aber er wild wiirken wie noch keiner gewlii'kt hat. 
f Woruber fie, befster Cato I Richter feyo n.çgen. 


<c vanity mull not be flattered; he wants to be entreated, 
11 and it is exactly for that reafon that he fhould not be 
*' entreated. — If he has the good of the caufe at heart, he 
" will return of his own accord, and I wû\ receive him 
* c with open arms."* 

Thç good of the caufe, as Weilhaupt calls it (that is, the 
propagation and triumph of Illuminifm with all its impi- 
ous plots), was evidently as dear to Knigge as to him- 
felf. This mutual bias to crime reconciled them together 
again, at leaft, for a fpace of time fumcient to acquire for 
Illuminifm the greater part of that authority which Knigge 
had promifed to the Areopagites. It is true, that he tells 
us he had obtained his difmilîion, and an honorable tefli- 
nnony of his fervices. It may be a fact that he received 
his difmilîion, as he fays, on the exprefs conditions, that 
he would never undertake any thing detrimental to the 
interefts or plans of the Illuminées; that he would keep 
a profound iilence with refpeit to the fecrets of the Breth- 
ren; that he would never do any thing that could com- 
mit the fuperiors, and not even fo much as name them;f 
but certain it is, that the date coincides with the time of 
the difcoveries made at Munich, which mult have induc- 
ed him to take fuch precautions as he judged necefTary 
to avoid being implicated with the other chiefs of the Il- 
luminées. He declares that he received his congé on the 
firft of June, 1784, and the firft decrees iiTued by the E- 
le£tor ofBavaru againft Secret Societies bear date of the 
twenty-lecond of the fame month. Four months after we 
fee P£/7fl-Knigge mentioned by Weiihaupt as an adept, 
without the leaf! allufion to his retreat, and this may cre- 
ate fome doubt at leaft as to the date. Whatever may 
have been the cafe, fourteen months elapfed horn the time 
of their grand difputes, till that when Knigge declares he 
broke oft" all connection with the Illuminées. Hereafter 
we fhall fee what is to be underltood by this pretended 
dereliction of his former Brethren. It is however certain, 
that during thofe fourteen months, he but too well enti- 
tled himfelf to the gratitude of the Sect by the new fer- 
vices he rendered, and more particularly by his intrigues 
with Bode, by means of which he confummated Wei- 


* Original Writings, Vol. II. Letter 24. 

T Seine obern- w«der zunennen noch zu compromittiren. 


fhaupt's plan of confederation or of intrufion in all the 

or Germany. 

The fede- 'J he grand obttacle to thefe plans was the jealoufy of 

ration of the Rohcrucians, of the Brethren of the Striai Obferv- 

). *- a " a/ue, and of thv. PI Halètes, calling thenifei ves the Tbeofo- 
lons and , . , ,,, , , . > r r» 1 \r • > 

I'iuminees phical illuminées, but the acquihtion of bode; Knigge s 

«omioued. frequent vifits to their Highneffes the Duke Ferdinand 
oftJrunfwyck and the Prince Charles of HelTe- Caffdl ; 
the manner in which he impoied on thefe two chiefs of 
German Mafonryj the influence acquired by Philo thro* 
the means of Bode over the Commiflaries who were nam- 
ed at Willemfbaden to frame the laws, are circumltances 
inore than fufficu-nt to account for his fuccefs in fpite of 
iuch numerous opponents. When Bode was thoroughly 
convinced that Hluminifm, fo far from being an invention 
of Jeluits and Priefts, was no other than a nioit determin- 
ed conipiracy againft Princes and the Priefthood, which 
he equally hated; when he beheld the means of its deve- 
loping themfelyes in the degrees of Epopt and of Regcnt y 
he then had no other view than to perform the promife 
... he had made to Knigge, to dedicate bis life entirely to the 
leryice of the Order, and particularly f<? have its intercjls 
at heart in the jraming of the nevj Code. Never was 
promife more rehgiouAy kept, nor attended with greater 
fuccefs. With refpeâ to thofe Brethren whole antique 
in,) fteries perpetually recalled to their minds Equality and 
Libert}', nothing could be more (educing than Knigge's 
circular letter on EcUdiivc or Elective Mafonry. Many 
Lodges had of their own accord acceded to his federation. 
iiuJw introduced its laws into the new Majonic Ritual. 
It was oii feeing thefe laws that the Mafon who beft, fore- 
fa w their çonfequences exclaims, in the bitternefs of his 
heart; " Oh, my Brethren! At what point ihail I be- 
cc gin, or where (hall 1 end, when I fpeak to you of that 
'-ï bode known among the Illuminées by the name of A- 
" melius? Judge, my Brethren, of the important, I would 
*'• lay difaflrous let vices he went to render them; he, who 
" has becii in habits of intimacy with fo many of our 
u Brethren; he who had taken fo great a lead in molt of 
•■•.our ggneral meetings; he, who, under an affectation of 
" good nature and of German uprightnels, concealed a 
u heart replete with the raoft heinous impiety, and afran- 
M tic enthufiafm for Naturalifm; he, again, who had tak- 
41 en offeree at die Brethren of the Strict Qbjtrvame be- 


l< caufe they had not fatiated his ambition. What an ac- 
" quifition in all réfpeâs was this man for the Illumi- 
« necs ! — His firft efforts were directed againff. us. He 
<{ a<5led where Knigge could not gain admittance. It ivai 
" through his means that the Illuminées- gained theit as- 
*' tendency in the ncxv fyflem that zvas to have heen e/ra- 
" blijhed at Wille?njbctden; that they gained admittance 
* c into our Directories; they jveceeded in frater- 
<c nizing ivith the greater part oj our Brethren of the 
" StriSf Observance. His Iniinuator Knigge had left him 
" no alternative but to bring over Free-mafonry to this 
ft unfortunate alliance, or to crufh the Brotherhood. To 
" the aftonifhment and grief of every true ivlafon, it was 
" by the combined efforts of Bode and Knigge, that the 
" greater part of the Lodges throughout Germany were 
" tainted and infected with this baneful Illuminifm."* 

I often meet with fimilar avowals and lamentations in 
the different letters and memorials that I have received 
from German Mafons, heretofore zealous for the honor 
of their Brotherhood, but now lamenting the intrufion of 
the Bavarian peft among them. Some few Lodges, how- 
ever, held out againff. it. That of Berlin, called oj the 
Three Globes, in 1783, publifhed a circular letter, ana- 
thematizing all Brethren who mould pretend to degrade 
Free-mafonry fo as to transform it into a fociety of men 
confpiring againit their God and their country- Whe- 
ther this Lodge had not been initiated into the laft myfrc- 
ries of the Roiicrucians and other conlpi-ring degrees, or 
whether this anathema was but a (ham, the circular let- 
ter had but little effeâ;. The intrufion continued, and 
became (o general, that the illuminizing Sect in its in- 
frructions to the Directing llhoninces makes ufe of the 
following formidable exprcfiions: " Of all the legitimate t 
" Lodges in Germany, there is ONLY OKE ihat has not 
" coalejc :d with our Superiors, and this Lodge has been 
" obliged to fufpend its labors."! 

This declaration does not imply that the greater num- 
ber of the Brethren were already illuminized, but only de- 
notes that the Superiors, whether Mafters, Wardens^ or 
Treafurers, of almoft every Lodge had entered into the 
federation with Weifhaupt. — But what an awful a/pecl 

* Difcouffe of a Mafler on the ultimate fate of Free-mafonry. 
f Degree of Dire&ing Illuminée, Se<ft. 3, No, 5. 


does this fubterraneous power prefrnt! — A multitude of 
emiiTaries and agents difperfed throughout the tenebrgus 
recelicS of Mafonry. The Superiors once gained over, the 
Lodges would make but a feeble and fhort refinance. 

The greater part of thefe fuccenes were to be attribut- 
ed to P b i/o -Kniggej neither did he hide thofe pretentions 
that could indicate the rival. Weiihaupt cou id not brook 
the mod diftant appearance of rivality; new contefts a- 
rofe between the two chiefs. Knigge at length abandoned, 
or pretended to abandon, the Order. It does not appear 
that Weifhaupt mowed the leaft regret. His power feem- 
ed to be built on foundations that could not be ihaken by 
any ftorm : — it was no longer confined to a corner of Ger- 
many.* The Danube and the Rhine could no longer 
bound it. In the North and the Eaft he had his emiila- 
ries, in Holland, Poland, and Livonia. f His apoftles in 
the South had already advanced from Milan to Venice.^ 
On the Weft he was beginning his attacks on France by 
the way of Strafbourg.§ But juft at this period was pre- 
paring that ftorm which in the annals of the Se& {hall be 
called the Third Epoch. 


* That the reader may form a clear and precife idea of the 
Wanner in which thefe different Lodges and Illuminées on their 
fe»era! millions correfponded with their chief, I think it right 
to fubjoin the Geographical and Political Chart of the Seel, 
fuch as it was drawn out by Knigge in the Original Writings. 
1 know this plate only comprehends Germany, and that with- 
out the /Uiftrian Provinces, " becaufe (fays Knigge) the Breth- 
ren ofthofe Provinces have petitioned to have aj'eparate Nation- 
al Direclor''* But every reader can apply a iiimilar one to 
any other ftate. To complete it, I have added Weifhaupt in 
direct communication with the Areopagites, and the latter with 
the National DireflGrs. — A very flight inflection will fuffice to 
fliow, how inftructions, communications, &c. pafs to and from 
the General, down to the Scotch Directories, and from the lat- 
ter to the loweft individual of llluminifm. 

f Philo's Bericht. 

X See Juridical Depofitions made at Munich. 

§ Original Writings, Vol. 11. Letter 23, to Cato, a8th Jan- 
uary, 1783. 

Geographical and Political Chart of the Uluminized German Lodges. 

Provincial of Bavaria 

who fuperintends the 

Firft Infpeftoi 

who infpecls tbe{ Provincial of Swabia 

who fuperintends the 


the General of all 

I L L U M I N I S M, 

torrefponds ivith, and gives his orders 

The Areopagites, 
who tranfmit their orders 

The National Director 
of all Germany, 

who direcls - - 

the < 

Scotch Directories oj 

Munich - - - for The Dutchy of Bavaria. 

Saltzburg The Archbifhopric of Saltzburg, 

Ratifbon - - — Ratiibon, Pafl'au, Sternberg, Ortenburg, Leuchtenbers, Sulzbach. 

Freyfingucn - — The Upper Palatinate, Freyfingucn, Neuburg. 

' Augfburg - - for Augfburg, Coftanz, Kcmpten. 

Scotch Directories./.! ^, tut " ard . Wurtemberg Zollem, and the Imperial Towns. 

I Uettinguin Octtinguen, Furftemberg, the Abbeys, and Imperial Towns. 

Cliarlfruhe - - — Baaden, and the Seignorial and Imperial Towns. 

Provincial of Franconia 

,. who juperintends the — Scotch Directories 

Aichftadt - - for Aichftadt, the Country of B;.reith, and the Imperial Towiii. 

Wunzburg - — Wurtzburg and Bamberg. 

Bareith - - - — Bareith, the Counties and Lordfhips. 

Memmingen The Towns of the Teutonic Order and Henneberg. 

Second Infpeitor 

who mjpefts the < 

Third Infpector 

wtu '"fpeils tht 

Provincial of the Electorates 
of the Rhine 
who fuperintends the 

Provincial of the Circle 

of the Upper Rhine 
who fuperintends the • 

Provincial of Weftpbalia 

who fuperintends the 

'Provincial of Upper Saxony 
who fuperintends the 

^Provincial of Lower Saxony 
who fuperintends the 

H id !h ' C f or The Palatinate of the Rhine. 

Mentz - - - — The Electorate and Beilftein. 
Scotch Directories o/-( t 

q m I - — The Archbifliopric of Treves. 

— Cologn, Aremberg, Reineck, Ifenbur 

Bonn or ) 
Cologn I 

ÏCaftèl - - - - jor The Landgraviate of HefTe-CalTel. 
Wetzlar - - - — Veteravia, and the Seignorial and Imperial Towns. 
Frankfort - - — Frankfort, Fulda, Hanover, Ifenburg. 
Darmftadt - - — Darmftadt, Homburg, Ufinguen. 
Spire - - - - — Spire, Worms, Deux-Ponts. 

J" Neuwied - - for The Countries of the Wied, of Seyn, Moeurs, Thorn, Ellen. 
Munfter - - - — Ofnabruck, Juliers, Cleves. 

Paderborn Paderborn, Minden, Corvey, Naflau, 

Oldenburg Ferden, Hoya, Schauenburg. 

- Scotch Directories of\ 

- Scotch Directories of < 

Scotch Directories oj 

\Tofaee page 140. J 

"Drefden or 

Berlin - - 

Weimar 01 
1 Jo ha 
Dcflau - - 

Hanover for The Electorate, Celle, Grubenhagen. 

nfwick - - — Wolfenbuttel, Magdeburg, Halberftadr, 
emeu - - - — Bremen, the Holltein, Hamburg, Hildctheim, 
. . — Mecklenburg, Lubeck, Ritzeburg. 

•r Hanove 
r\ Brunfw 
1 Bremen 
(_ Streliiz 

\ fir The Electorate of S_axony and the ProyoP.mip of .: 

Brandenburg and Pomerania. 

I The Dutchy of Saxony and Principality of Schwartzburg, 

. Anhalt, Mansfield, Stolberg, and Querfurt. 



Third Epoch of Illumimfnu 
Difcovery of the Se£f. 

IT was not without reafon that Weifliaupt had exprefs- 
ed his apprehenfions as to the precipitate manner in 
which Knigge had admitted fo many candidates to the 
myfteries of the Sect: on the other hand, Knigge might 
with equal reafon upbraid Weifhaupt with want of pru- 
dence in recommending to the adepts fuch books as thofe 
publifhed under the name of Boulanger; and thus difclo- 
img his atheifm previous to the laft myfteries.* Butfuc- 
fcefs' had fo emboldened Weifhaupt, that he kept no far- •„ ex " f 
ther referve on the fcore of religion, even with his Mi- ni um i n . 
nerval fcholars; and fo early as the year 178 1, the court ifm furmi- 
of Bavaria entertained (orne lufpicions of this new Sect, fed. 
It had even ordered certain inquiries to be made; but the 
Illuminées had art enough to bafRle thefe inquefts.f — 
Left, however, any enquiries mould at any future time Wei- 
take place, Weifhaupt bethought himfelf of making the Aiaupt's 

Elector the tutelar! y adept of his confpuracies. " I am of means for 

• r * prevent- 

" opinion (would he write to his Areopagites) that in ; ng any 

" order to ftrengthen ourfelves, you mould fend a depu- procefs. 

ft tation to the Elector, to offer him the Protectorate of 

u the Eclectic Lodges. The Brethren UlyJJes, Jpello, 

" and fom'e others of the moft diftinguifhed members, 

" even Ce If us for inftance, might be deputed for this pur- 

" pofe. Should the Prince accept it, we fhall be elfectu- 

" ally fkreened from any future perfecution, and nobody 

" will then be afraid of joining you, or of frequenting 

*' your Lodges."^ 

The reader may eafily judge how fuch a deputation 
would have been received by the Elector, when he is in- 
Formed of the manner in which he had formerly received 
a fimilar proportion while refiding at Manheim. One or 
his minifters at that time, under a far more plaufible pre- 

* Original Writings, Vol. II. Let. a, from Pbilo to Caio* 

f Ibid. Let. i, from Efittetus. 

X Orig. Writ. Let. I, to Epiclehu, ;th Feb. 1783. 

14* ANTISOCIAL conspiracy; 

tence, propofed to him to call to his court the moft famous 
Philofophers of the day, and to grant penfions to thefe 
pretended great men, after the example of Lewis XIV. 
who had been the protestor of the learned men of his age. 
The glory of fuch an undertaking ieemed at firft to flat- 
ter the Prince; but on confuting men of real learning he 
foon perceived that l'uch a meafure would only end in 
multiplying a Seel equally inimical to their God and 
their country; and Charles Theodore would no longer 
hear of the Proteclorfhip of Philofophifm. This anec- 
dote was lent to me by a perfon who heard it from the 
very minifter that had made the proportion to the Elector. 

It is not understood how the court of Munich acquired 
its Rrif. knowledge refpccling Uluminifm ; the informa- 
tion, it received was not fufficiently explicit indeed to de- 
fcrib'e the fpirit of the Sect, but it gave a general idea of 
the danger of fecref fociëtiés. On the 22d of June 1784, 
His Electoral Highnefs publifhed an Ediét abfolutely for- 
bidding aïïfaret communities, fouettes^ and confraterni- 
ties, other than thofe by law eirablifhed. The unconta- 
minated Mafons ihut up their Lodges; the illuminized 
Mafons,'who had many of their adepts about the court, 
thought themfelves ftrorig enough to bid defiance to the 
Edict:, and continued their meetings. A work publifhed 
by Air. Ba'bb, a Profeilor at Munich, entitled The fir jl 
Warning en Free.-mojonry, began to difclofe more clearly 
the plans of the new adepts. Soon after the Count Jo- 
feph Tôrring made a more vigorous attack on them. The 
Illuminées not only wrote apologies in anfwer to thefe 
attacks, but fet many other engines to work, the artifice 
of which cannot be better defcribed than by Weiihaupt's 
own letters to his adepts. 

" Liften for a moment to my advice, (he writes on the 
c ' iocb December, 1784). If any inquiry be fet on foot, 
" 1 am of opinion that none of the Chiefs lhould fuffer 
" themfelves to be led into the detail and particulars of 
44 the Order; and they mull pofitively declare, that no 
" power on earth lhould force them to make any difcove- 
" lies excepting to the- Elector perfonally: the two de- 
rees of the higher myfteries ftiould then be- fubmitted 
tc to him. A»- Î. ■■{{ fueh ihall be the line oi conduct which 
" Ï will hold, if ever I am eallcd upon. You will then 
4i fee what a happy turn our affairs will take. You have 
ad what Brother D ,. . . thought of the full degree. 


* l I am certain the Elector will view it in the fame light. 
u I place all my hopes in the goodnefs of my caufe. Bold- 
" ly and without the leal! apprehenlion, 1 can declare be- 
u forehand, that if I am to fall it (hall be in an honorable 
" manner, though it were to coft me my head. Deport 
" youriclves in the fame manner, and inftil courage intq 
" the others. This is an admirable opportunity of ihew- 
" ins; your magnanimity ; do not let it pals by without 
" avail. 1 have mentioned my plan for the Eledtor to 13 ro- 
" ther CromwelL and he augurs fortunately from it: — but 

P, J 

" he very well knows that Such a meafure will only be 
w reforted to in the laft extremity." 

What an extraiydinsiy mode of defence muft this ap- 
pear to thofe who do not know that tbefe two degrees 
which he intended to (how to the Elector were the cor- 
rected ones, luch as he had prepared for Princes and cer- 
tain other candidates who would have been difgufted with 
them in their real flate. Sometimes die whole of that 
part relating to the mytTeric^, and the difcourfes of the 
Hierophants, were retrenched, and nothing but, the idle 
ceremonial preferved. A fécond letter oi Weifhaupt's to 
his Areopagites dated the 2J February 1785, will more 
clearly explain the whole of this artifice. "My Brethren 
" (he fays), the ftep you are going to take is proper, and 
" fuch as the circumftances require. The Memorial of 
*' our Alenelaus (Werner, Counfellor at Munich) is 
11 very fine and very judicious. I only with you to add, 
" that you will (how your degrees to nobody but to the 
' ; Ek:£tor j and thofe that may be fubmitted to his inlpec- 
" tion are — iff, The Novice; 2d!y, The Afinerval} 
" 3%> The Minor Illuminée. [A"ota bene,that the words 
" dumrnjler m'onch (frupid monk) are to be changed into 
* 4 dummjler menfeh (ffupid men]. 4thly, The Major II- 
11 luminee entire, except thefe words, which you will ef- 
u face : the Priejh and bad Princes are in our zvay. 
« 5thly, The Direfîing Illuminée - y but in this degree 
< ; you will only Ihow the ceremonial of the reception, and 
« my difcourfe; not a word of the reft. 6thly, The de- 
" gree of Pricjl ox Epopt ; here you will only JJioiv our 
" injlruùlions that relate tofciences ; and you will care- 
*' juhy read thofe ovtr^leji any allufion or reference to the 
« reji /houldfubjifr. 

" As all the packets for Ephefus (Ingolftadt) are open. 
*< ed, I plainly fee that I am the petfun at whom they aim. 

144" antisocial conspiracy; 

" To-morrow I will write to Alfred (the mintfter Sein- 
" iheim) ; and that letter will inform the court before - 
" hand how I mean to behave on this occafion. Openly 
" declare to the Elector, that the Order is a produce of 
" his own fiâtes, and that I am the author of it. Then 
<c the whole affair will turn upon me 3 but I am much 
" miftaken if they will proceed to a perfbnal inqueft until 
<l they have further proofs, which can only be acquired 
" by opening the lettejs. Show yourfelves, great, firm, 
* and undaunted. My conduâî will prove to you what I 
" can be. In the inftruction for the degree of Epopt take 
" great care of that part that relate s to H>fhry y leave 
u nothing that can lead to the difcovery of the theft com- 
" înitted on the Archives." 
He is dis- All this artifice, however, proved ufelefs. The court 
covered had acquired Sufficient proofs to take fuch fleps againft 
an -n- £ j S " tne hero of the Sect as prudence might require. A few 
days after he had written thefe inftructions to his Areo- 
pagites, he was difmilild from his chair of Profeflbr of 
Laws in the Un i ver ft ty of Ingolftadt; only, however, 
as a famous Mafhr of Lodges, and as difobedient to the 
Edict fuppreffing all fecret focieties. The myfteries or* 
his Lodge had not yet tranfpired ; it was only known, 
that feveral members of his illuminifm, difgufted with 
his doctrines or his plans, had abandoned his Lodges as 
early as 1783. Among others were to be found Co- 
sandey a jh-icft, and the Abbé R enner, both of them 
Profefïbrs of the Litiera: hunianiores at A'lunich. But, 
great as might be the horror which they had conceived 
of what they had ken of the Seel: without having attain- 
ed the grand myfteries, it does not appear that they had 
as yet taken any fteps againft it , at leaft they had not 
given fuch details as might direct the arm of the law. On 
the 30th March 17B5, however, they received a fummons 
Juridical from His Ele&oral Highnefs, and from the Bifhop of 
rj.epo - Freyfinguen,to appear before the Tribunal of the Ordina- 
two lllu- rv ? an d there to declare whatever they might have obferv- 
minees. ec ^ m tn e Sect of Illuminées contrary to religion and good 
morals. Nobody, even then, had the leaft idea that the 
confpiracy was pointedly directed againft the government. 
Meilrs. Cofandey and Renner made their depofitions, 
the one on the 3d the other on the 7 th of April follow- 
ing. I muft give extraits from both, though perfectly 
agreeing with each other. That made by Mr. Cofandey 


\$ more ample on the principles of the Illuminées, while 
Mi". Renner defcends more particularly into their confti- 
tution and the education of their pupils. I (hall therefore 
begin by an extract from the latter j and then revert ta 
that made by Mr. Cofandey. 

^aridical Depojïtion ?nade by the Profcjfor Renner on 
the Illuminées. 

After having ftated the orders he had received to ap- 
pear before the Tribunal, and the fubject on which he 
was to give evidence, Mr. Renner begins by declaring 

" The Order of the Illuminées muft be diftinguifhcd 
# from that of the Free-mafons. But this diftinction is a 
tc fecret to mere Mafons, as well as to Illuminées of the 
?* Minerval degree. I was myfelf in the dark refpecKng 
f 1 it, until, after a long trial, they thought proper to ad- 
*' vance me to the degree of Minor Illuminée, the firft 
M degree in which they take the name of Illuminée. I 
" was even constituted Superior over a imall number of 
M the Brethren." s 

Here the deponent, who thought he was to become a 
Mafon on his firlt entrance into the Seel:, learns that he 
is not yet one; and tells us, that many of the Brethren 
bad complained heavily that they had not been admit- 
ted as yet to the Intermediary Degrees. He himfelf 
is admitted to them, and does not find them fatîsfactp- 
ry : but he adds, *' The advantage I reaped from them 
?* was, that I discovered the benefits which the Order de- 
" rived from Free-mafonry. The Illuminées fear no- 
" thing fo much as to be known under that name. They 
*' allume the cloak of Mafonry, only becaufe they believe 
" themfelves more feeure when rttafked under the appear - 
u ance of an aflbciation that is looked upon as iniigniii- 
* c cant. — -The Mafonic Lodges, according to their ex- 
P preffton, only contain the drefs of the people (der trbfs 
M von leuten) or the bulk of the army, among whom a 
P few perfons may be found, that may look upon tftem- 
" felves as very happy, after long and fevere trials, to be 
t* fecretly admitted into the fanctuary of the Order. All 
^ the other Free-mafons, Apprentices- Fellow-crafts, and 
*' Mafons, are to content themfelves with idle ceremo- 
f* nies, and remain under the yoke, either becaufe their 

14-6 antisocial conspiracy; 

cc eyes are not firong enough to bear the light, or becaufe 
" their love for the Order, and their fecrecy, two elTential 
4C requisites in every adept, cannot be fufficiently depend- 
" ed on. When once they are condemned to linger in 
" obfeurity, they can never have hopes of rifing io the 
" rnyfteries ; and this is exprefled by the fuperioi s in the 
<c following fentence, Ex inferno nulla ejl R.edernpt'10. 

*'• Meantime thefe Mafons, without knowing it, are 
4i under the direction of the Illuminées, who reap great 
" advantages from their reputation and their riches. — 
u Thefe men (fay the Superiors) are fufficiently recom- 
u penfed by being admitted to converfe with the adepts of 
u light, and to learn enough from fuch converfations to 
" appear enlighted to the prophane. 

tc The Illuminées, who at firft only fhow themfelves 
" under the appearance of a literary fociety, gave them- 
u (elves the following conftitution: Their Order is fub- 
** divided into different claffes, called degrees, becaufe the 
" light expands itfelf according to thefe claifes. — The firft 
" degree is a fort of Noviciate, though every perfon re- 
tv ported as infmuated, and recommended by fome mem- 
" ber of the Order as worthy of being admitted, muft 
*' have been prepared and inftructed to a certain point by 
" his Infinuator or Recruiter. It is a confiant rule in the 
" Order, that every Candidate Ihould undergo a year's 
u trial, that his infinuator may obferve him accurately, 
u according to the regulations of the Order, and in a £%ui- 
" bus Licet draw an exact picture of his perfon, his cha- 
" racter, his talents, and his conduct. If the Candidate 
" is judged to be worthy, he is admitted into the clafs of 
" Preparations. — In my time there were two of this na- 
c ' ture, called Churches. Each was directed by four men, 
" forming what was called the Mo.gijiracy. They were 
<£ the Superior, the Cenfsr, the Treajurer, and the Secre- 
" tary, and all thefe were adepts of higher degrees. — 
« We held at leaft one meeting every month, at which 
tc all the members of the fame Church were to attend, to 
" wive their Superiors a fealed letter directed Qiiibus Li- 
" cety Soli, or Primo y containing an exact ftatement of the 
" conduct, difcourfe, &c. of thoie whom they had cbjerved 
" during the month. 

" No member is difpenfed from thefe £>uibus Licets, 
" which afcend from Degree to Degree, and are only open- 
« eel by thoie who have aright to read them. The other 


ft J 

" occupations of the meeting were/after fome ceremonies, 
* to read the ftatutes, a few partages from the ancient Phi- 
** lofophers, and a difcourfe on various fubj eels, compofed 
" by the different members in rotation. As the Brethren 
" in general do not like religion, the greater liberty the 
cc writer ufes on that fubjeft, he is the more applauded, 
" and acquires a higher reputation of being enlightened. 
" Sometimes, however, the prefence of certain brethren, 
" either feeble as yet, or not to be entirely depended upon, 
" caufe the Superiors at fuch le&ures to give ngns of ap- 
u parent dilTatisfaction. It would be a violent breach of 
** their policy to give way to intemperate language, and" 
" to exprels the principles of the Order too openly, as 
u each member might look upon fuch talk as a part of 
« their fyftem. 

" To avoid fufpicion, and to attain their ends more cer- 
" tainly, they hold weekly meetings, whence all ceremony 
"and conftraint is difcarded. Here the pupils hold dis— 
K putations among themfelves on all forts of fubje&S. It 
" is on thefe occafions that the fuperiors, and thofe who 
" have imbibed the true principles of the Order, fneer at 
" what they call Religious Préjudices ; for in their lan- 
K guage every thing that can obftruct their views are pre- 
<c judices. It is then that by means of the molt (educing 
w fubterfuges they reprefent their principles in fuch poign- 
u ant language, that the molt timid, encouraged by their 
11 example, and purified from ail drofs and religious pre- 
judice, become perfectly like the reft. He that can 
" withftand fuch artifice is a man loil in the eyes of the 
« Order. 

" That which made the greateft imprefiîon on me, ?,- 
" mong the Illuminées, was certainly their method of 
" binding down their adepts and fubctuing their minds. — 
u They extoll the greatntis and power of the Order; they 
" fpeakof its dignity with the utmoft refpect; they ilun 
<c you with the molt magnificent promifes, and affure you 
" of the protection of great perf m ages ready to do every 
" thing for the advancement of its members at the re- 
" commendation of the Order ; till at length each pupil 
" reaily conliders, or appears to confider, the intereft of 
t; Ulurninifin as his own, and views all the propositions 
« and orders he receives from his fuperiors as duties which 
« he has to fulfill. Should a pupil under this idea have 
« the misfortune to declarej in a $j(it/us Licet^ a Pr'uno^ 

14.S ANTISOCIAL conspiracy; 

« or a Soli) fome mifconducl of his own, or fome feerefc 
w that he has been entrufted with or that he has extorted 
" from any body, the unhappy confident is loft to him- 
" felf, for he thenceforth belongs wholly to the $câ.—~ 
li When once they have thus tied him down, they affume 
" a very different tone with him. They care very little 
tc about him; * He may abandon us (they fay), we ftand in 
" no farther need of him.' — I do not think, that any one has 
" yet dared or will ever dare to (how the leaft difcontentj 
" much lefs a defire to quit the Order; efpecially if he 
*' reflects on the dictatorial threat, It jhall be in •vain for 
tc any prince to pretend to fave him who ftiall dare to be- 
" tray us.* 

" They felecl their pupils with great caution^ and only 
" entice into their Order thofe whom they think can be 
* c ufeful to the attainment of their ends. Statefmen, per- 
*' fons diftinguifhed by rank or fortune, archiving coun- 
kt fellors, fecretaries, clerks, profelîbrs; abbés, preceptors, 
u phyficians, and apothecaries, are always welcome candi- 
" dates to the Order. 

" The degree of Major Illuminée is, if Ï may make ufe 
" of fuch an txpremon, a fchool in which the candidate is 
lc trained like a true Bloodhound." f 

Here the deponent relates their method of watching 
their adepts, and of defcribing, both them and the pro- 
phane. He alfo mentions fome few of the thoufand or 
fifteen hundred queftions that are to be anfwered on the 
character, the habits, &e. of any perfon whom an adept is 
ordered to fcrutinize. He then continues; 

" This method of enlightening the pupils always goes 
u on increafing in every degree. A brother may know 
(< thofe of his clafs and thofe of an inferior one; but, un* 
" lefs his Superiors have conferred on him the commifiion 
4< of Director^ Vifitor, or Spy, all other adepts are, in their 
" language, invifible to him. This, v/ithout doubt, is the 
" point that conltitutes the great ftrength of the Order. 
" The chietSjby this method, watch an inferior without be- 
Ci ing known; they know how far he is devoted to the Or- 
'■' der and true to his fecrecy; and a point of ftill greater 
* c importance is, that in cafe of any explofion, (of which 
li they have been long apprehenh»;^),and on ail occafionsj 

* Kein F'jrft Kann den fchutzen der uns verr'ath. 
t Wie die wahren ipiirhund; abgeiicluet werden. 


K they can fupport the brethren without any one enter- 
" taining the leaft fufpicion of their being connected -vith 
*' the fyitem, fince they are unknown even to the Bre- 
" thren, and of courfe to the prophane. 

" There are men^ and they may be eafily difcemed*, zvho 
u defend the Order (of Illuminilm) with great warmth, 
K though they do not declare themfehe; to belong to it. — 
" Such conduct certainly deferves a little animadverfion. 
u Either thefe defenders belong to the Order, or they do 
" not ; if they do not, can they pretend to defend that 
« which they neither know nor have any pofîîbility of 
" knowing. W they belong to the Order, that very cir- 
" cumftance renders them unworthy of belief, though they 
u ihould adduce as proofs fame few works thrown out to 
' w baffle any attempt to inv^ftigate the plan of the Order, 
" or fhould protêt! on their words of honor when they 
" fpeak fo highly in its praife. When a perfon comes fe- 
'*< riouily to çonfider the impofilbility of knowing any 
" thing of Illuminifm but by being a member of it, and 
" when we compare the many advantages derived from 
" their inijifibility ; if we fhould be tempted to draw 
u any concluions on thefe defenders, we might (and that 
u without reafoning ill) fuppofe'they belonged themfelves 
" to the Order, and to that particular ipecies of adepts 
" which the Illuminées term invijible."* 

After having thus given as much of the general plan 
of the Illuminées as he could know without having been 
admitted to the higher degrees, the Deponent comes to the 
principles which the Superiors wii.ii to inculcate in their 
pupils; and in the iirff. place he mentions the following, 
of which they have mads a fori of proverb : 

* Und zwar von tener art dcr verfchwundenen, wie man fie 
in der ordens fptache nennt. — Were I to requeft certain En- 
glilh reviewers, and particularly Dr- Griffiths, or his afliftants 
jn the Monthly Review, to read and weigh this obfervation of 
the German depooant, thofe gentlemen might perhaps vvifllto 
retort it on me; biK let them recollect, that when men who 
have aflbciated with robbers are feen to depofe againft them, 
or when the writings of conipirators are produced in evidence, 
a s perfon may eafily prove their criminality without being an 
accomplice. But you, Gentlemen, who were not with them, 
yet pretend to prove their innocence, will your a/I'erticn inva- 
lidate the evidence of eye and ear witneiTes? — if you are of 
their party, all that can be -concluded from your déniais is, 
that you are ftill very faithful and much devoted to them, iince 
in their defence you refill the demonftraiion of evidence. 


Tous les Rois et tous les Prêtres 
Sont des fripons et des traîtres.* 

With regard to Suicide, the. Superiors preach it to their 
brethren to prepare them for more tempejluous times. — 
" They have the art of reprefenting fuicide as fo eafy, and 
'* fo advantageous in certain ci rcumlfanccs, that I fhould 
" not be furprized (lays Mr. Renner) to fee fome adept 
*' carried away by the lure ofa certain vol uptuoufnefs which 
" they pretend to be peculiar to fuicide; and they even 
" pretend to prove their aflerrions by examples. 

" But of all their deteffable principles the mod danger- 
" ous in my judgment is this : The end jn/iifies the means. 
u in confequence of this morality, and according to 
" their constant pkactice, the mere fufpicion that 
" a man will at any future period be in a pofition to ob- 
" ftruc-t the views of the Order will be a fufficient reafon 
lt to calumniate him, however virtuous he may be. They 
" will cabal to drive one man out of his place; they will 
" poifon another; a third they will aflaflinatej in fhort, 
" they will do any thing to attain their ends. Suppofe the 
" crime of the Illuminée fhould be difcovered, he always 
" has the Patet-exitus as a refource. // is only a ball 
" through the bead, and he efcapes the rigor and ignomi- 
" ny of the law." 

Mr. Renner next alludes to what the Sect calls its Mo- 
ral Government or Com?rJJJion of Morals, or its Fifcah 
" This commiffion is a college formed of the moft able 
" and honed men, that is in their language, of men chiefly 
" belonging to the clafs of Invifibles, and who, enjoying 
" the confidence of the fovereign, would, according to* the 
" vices of their commiffion, inform him of the morals 
" and honeftv of each of his fubjecls; but as probity is 
" neCeflary to fulfil the divers Rations of the ftate, each 
" peifon fhould be prepared beforehand for the office he 
11 is to occupy. An admirable plan ! But fhould they ever 
" accomplish it, fhould their rule ever be adopted, what 
" would become of ail thofe men who did not belong to 
" Ulurhinifm ? Happily, the pian is difcovered in lime; 
" ofherwife they might have verified what a Superior juft 
tc returned from vifiting a Superior or' a higher degree 
** had foretold ; All the Pojls once properly piled in fuc- 

* Ail kings and all priefls are rafcals and traitors. 


<l cejfion to each other, Jh-mld the Order hecompof/dofhut 
*.Jtx hundred members, r.o potver on earth could rejijl 
« them." 

Mr. Renner finiihes by declaring, that he is unacquaint- 
ed with tiie ultimate object of the Order; that the Supe- 
riors were perpetually talking of that obiect, but never 
mentioned what it was. He believes it to be of the ut- 
moft conlequence ; but he leaves every one free to con- 
ceive, after what he has (aid, how that object can accord 
with the civil and religious duties. He affirms on oath 
the particulars contained in the above declaration, and 
which he leaves written and figned by his own hand. 

'Juridical Depojitioiu of M r. Cos AN D E y, 3.'/ Jpril y 1785. 

My reafon for placing Mr. Renner's depoiition in ft, 
was^becaufe he is more explicit on the government of 
llluminiim; while Mr. Cofandey chiefly dwells on the 
principles of the Seer. After having ihown in a lew 
words how Free-mafonry ferves as a cloak to the Sect, 
how the candidate is gradually fettered in the bonds of the 
Superiors, and how dangerous muff be a fervitude to men 
who from principle wiih to appear idlers though in the 
m vt active purfuits; he proceeds with the unfortunate 
Minerval to the degrees of Minor and Major Illuminée. 
11 It is here (fays he) that the pupil is a little further ini- 
" tiated into the fyifems of the Order. Light, however, 
a is imparted to him but flowly, and with ail poffiblepre- 
" cautions. He is here made acquainted with a greater 
" number of Adepts and Under-Superiors; but the Chiefs 
u always remain invijible. 

" In order to be advanced to the higher degrees the 
•* candidate mult, in the language of the Se£t, have got rid 
M of all religious prejudices, or at leaft he mull allume 
* 4 the appearance of one who has fo done in the prefence 
" of his Superiors ; as no religionijl (fuch is their expres- 
" lion) can be admitted to the higher degrees.* 

" The moft excellent Superiors are the perfons that 
a give the ton in all thefe degrees. Their orders, their 
" maxims, their opinions, their doctrines, are the foul, the 
w ftandard, the fpirit, the main fpring of this inltitution. 

* Dann kein Religionar (es ift ihr aufdruck) wird in die ho- 
here grad aut genommen. 


* { The lower clafs of Superiors and Chiefs, are cunning 
«* knave's, and black and ryftematiç villains, or fometimeu 
<c milled enthufiafts, fpurred on and abominably deluded 
<c by the others, As a proof, I will relate fume of their 
" principles in the form of proverbs, which are never giv- 
" en in writing, but are perpetually inculcated in the adepts, 
" by thefè Superiors. 

u I. JVhcn nature lays too heavy a burthen upon ui x 
il it is to fuicide tfydt tue are to apply for relief. PatêT 
" Exïtus. An Illuminée, they would tell us, fhould 
* { make away with hi mfelf rather than betray his Order; 
* c and they alfo represent a fecret yoluptuoufnefs to he in- 
" herent to fuicide. 

" II. Nothing through reafon\ every thing through 
çc P a Jfi°Py ' s their fécond maxim. The end, the propa- 
*' gatioii, and the advantage of their Order, fupplies iç the 
<c minds of the adepts the place of God, country, and con- 
" ieience. Every thing that obitrucis theprogrefs of the 
" Order is the blackeft treafon. 

" III. The end fane life s the means. Thus calumny, 
" poifon, aifailination, treafon, revolt, wickednefs, and any 
" thing that can lead to this end, is laudable. 

" IV. No Prince can five the man who dares to betray 
tc us. Things then are carried on in this Order that are 
" adverfe to the interefts of Princes; things that fronv 
u their importance might be difcovered to Princes; fuch 
< l a difcovery (in the language of the Seel:) would be the 
" blacked treafon ; and the traitor is beforehand threaten* 
** ed with vengeance. They mull alfo have means of de- 
" ftroying their accufers with impunity; and fuch means 
*' are eai:!y furmifed. 

" V. All King: and all Pricfls are rafals and trai- 
" tors; and in another place, Ail Pricfs are Knaves. — ■ 
" The total annihilation of religion, of the love of the 
" country, and of princes, enters into the plans of the II- 
" luminees; becaufe ffaythey) religion as well as love of 
4t the country, and of princes, restrains the affections of 
^ men to particular fiâtes, and diverts them from the more 
? extenfive views of Illuminifm, 

" Among their plans I obferved one which they called 
" their ?noral Empire or Government. This government, 
" which would throw the whole force of every flate into 
" the hands of their college or council oi Illuminifm, would, 
^ without any appeal to the prince^ name to all promo- 


( r tiong, and grant or refufe all the favors of the ftate.— 
f* tJy thefe means they would be entrufted with the abfo- 
f l lute right of definitively pronouncing on the honeftyor 
* 4 the capability of each individual. By thefe means too 
* 4 all the prophane would be difcarded from the court and 
" other employments ; and, to ufe their expreffion, a holy 
* c legion would furround the prince, mailer him, and die- 
" tate his edicts according to their own will and pleafure. 
*< This Regimen or Moral College, alfo called the Com- 
IC mifilon of Morals, or the Fifcal (being a fortofexche- 
* c quer chamber for the government of the people), would 
*' invefl the Sect with a moil formidable defpotic power 
f* over the four quarters of the globe, and v/ould reduce 
f* fovereigns to the defpicable ftate of mere phantoms, or 
" of crowned ilaves." 

This College, or Mora! Regimen^ will occur again in 
another juridical depofition; and I will then explain how 
it ferved to veil the future projects of the S^cl for the 
diforganizatiou and abfolutedeftruction of all focicty what- 
ever. Mr. Cofandey concludes with faying that he is rea- 
dy to affirm on oath the truth of all that is contained in 
the above declaration. 

Thefe depositions, notwithstanding their importance, 
feemed to make but little impreffion. Whether the tri- 
bunals were befet by, or in great part compofed of Illu- 
minées, or not, I cannot know; but they affeâed to treat 
thefe declarations as containing nothing either very ferj- 
pus or menacing; or whether the removal of Weilhaupt 
|iad made them view the Seâ as deftroyed, and the con- 
spiracy as counteracted, I do not pretend to fay; but cer- 
tain it is, that at length Heaven by its thunderbolts warns 
nations and their rulers of the plots contriving againffc 
them, of the extent of which plots they were ignorant^ 
neither had they furmifed the baneful activity of the con- 
spirators. Qifmifled from his public functions at Ingol- 
ftadt, Weifhaupt had taken refuge at Ratifbon. This Wej- 
town becomes his new Efeu/is, his center of myfteries j " lau pt 
all his plots had followed him thither; and fo far was he Ç? nt, " ue s 

. l"iIS plots 

from looking upon them as baffled, that he purfued them at R at i s , 
with redoubled ardor. Vengeance had rendered him more bon. 
terrible from the recefTes of his new retreat; and now en- 
tirely liberated from all public duties, he gives up his 
whole time to the preparation and drilling of emifTaries, 
aijd to teaching them the means of fapping, when on their 


154 antisocial conspiracy; 

different millions, the foundations of the altar and fte 
throne, of civil fociety, and of all governments whatever, 
An adept Among his adepts was one Lanz, an apoftate prieft. 
ftruck Weifhaupt defigned him as the perfon to carry his mys« 
with ^ teries and confpiracies into Silefia. His miffion was aî- 
icc lten " rea( ^>' nxed, and Weifhaupt was giving him his laft in- 
ftructions, when a thunderbolt from heaven ftruck the 
apoftate dead, and that h the fide of WeifhaupU* The 
Brethren, rn their firfl fright had not recourfe to their or- 
dinary means for diverting the papers of the deceafed adept 
from the infpeeYion of the magiftrates. The perufa! of 
forrie of his papers furnifbed new proofs; and being trans- 
mitted to tat court of Bavaria, induced it to take the de- 
termination of following up the difcovefies made in the 
depofitions of Meflrs. Cofandey and Renner. 

The enquiries made, chieflv related to thofe who were 
known to have had connections with Weilhaupt at Ingol- 
itadt. The adept Fischer, fuft judge and Burgo-mas- 
ter of that town, and the Librarian Drexl, werebanifh- 
ed. The Baron Fr.auf.nb erg and fifteen other of Wei- 
(haupt's pupils were expelled the univerfity. But nei- 
ther their punjfhment, nor the circumftance of the adept 
being ftruck by lightning, could raife any fymptoms of 
remorfe in the mind of their mafter. The following let- 
ter to Fifcher may ferve as a fpecimen- of the manner in 
which he wifhed to fupport their courage, ftimulate thei/ 
enthufiaim, and infufe all the rage and vengeance of his 
plots into their minds. 

" I jaiule you, my dear martyr?' it is thus he begins 
his letter. He then reminds his pretended martyr of that 
paffage in Seneca where thejuft man itruggling with ad- 
verfity is reprefented as the light mod worthyot Heaven: 
He then continues : " Am I to congratulate you, or am 
« I to condole with you on your misfortunes? I know 
" you too well to indulge in the Litter fentiment — Receive 
« then my moil fincere congratulations on feeing you 
" among thofe to whom polterity will render juftice, and 
M whofe conftancy in the defence of truth it cannot fail 
" to admire — You arc triply and quadruply more dear to 
" me, now that you fbare my fate and that of fo many 
w other magnanimous perlons. I leave it to your pru« 
° clence to decide whether you will commence a profecu» 

* See the Apology of the Illuminées, P. 6*. 


** tion againfr thofe who have been guilty of fuch abomi- 
<l nabie injuftice againft you; or whether Submitting to 
** your exile without murmur or complaint, you will wait 
* { for better times. You fhall not want; I and the Bre- 
<* thren will provide for your expenfes. 'The public paper s 
u alfa Jhall reprefent the whole çf this bufmefs in its pro- 
sper light. Drexl in the mean time will retire to Brunn. 
*' Let the laughers laugh, and our enemies rejoice, iheir 9 

«joy ere long Jl)all be converted into tears. Look upon 
« your f elf as happy to fuffer with the better part of the 
" nation. If I have the power of giving my benediction 
u to any body, I give you mine with both my hands.— 
" O be thou blefjed, moji worthy and moft confiant of my 
11 Heroes. ... i am forry that all this has happened jufr 
tc at the time when I am fetting out for the banks of the 
« Rhine. I depart next month and fhall not return till a 
*' few months hence. In the mean time IJball not be idle\ 
« and it is not without a reafon that I go to that country. 
« Acquaint -the Brethren of it. Be always firm and con- 
" (tant. No difhonorcan attach to you; continue as yon 
" have begun, and your very enemies will be obliged to 
* l admire you. Adieu, learn to appreciate and feel your 
" own greatnefs. Your enemies ;,re little indeed in their 
« triumph. — (Ratijbon this qth April 170*5^. 

" P. S. If you want money I will have proper mea- 
K fures taken at Munich to fupply you." 

This letter was either intercepted or fell into the Elec- 
tor's hands by fome other means;* and he there faw how 
dangerous a man this muft be who could thus infufe his 
enthufiafm into the minds of his Conipirators. A fecret 
co nmifSon was named to receive further depofitions.— > 
The aulic counfellor Utzschneiber and Mr. Grum 
BERGER of the Academy of Sciences, who were known to 
have abandoned the Order of the Illuminées about two 
years before, were Summoned to make their depofitions. 
The Prieft Cofandey was called upon once more. The 
declaration made in common by thefe three Gentlemen 
will recall to the minds of the readers many of the parti- 
culars already dated in the foregoing declarations, and irt 
the Code of the Illuminées, with refpecf. to the means em- 
ployed by the Sect, for making themfelves mailers of the 
Mafoaic Lodges; for appropriating to themfelves their 

* See Original Writings, Vol. II. lad Letter and Note, 


fund?, to provide for the expenfe of their travellers; aftd 
for multiplying the number of their adepts. — The fame 
method for the fctutators is obfervable, the fame oaths, al- 
manacks, and cypher for the firft degrees. The depo- 
nents had abandoned the Order before they were admitted 
to the higher degrees. The principles that had been laid 
down to them are on that account the more remarkable;» 
I lhaJ], therefore, translate that part of their evidence a« 
being of the utmoil confequence. Some perfons may be 
of opinion, that to have fimpîy ftated the perfect coinci- 
dence of this new declaration with thofe already feen 
would have fufficed; but they fhoUld confider that repe- 
titions of ohjeâ s of inch importance may be infifted 011 
by many readers, becaufe the proofs are ftrengthened by 
the number, the character, and concordance of the wit- 

The ^Juridical Dcpojltion made in common hy the Aulic 
t Counfcllor (Jtzschneider, the Prieji Cosandey, 

and the Academician Grunberger, on the qth of 

Sept. 1785. 

<c The object of the ttrft degrees of Illuminifm is at 
<( once to train their young men, and to be informed of 
u every thing that is going forward by a fyftem of cfpion- 
*' age* The Superiors aim at procuring from their in- 
" feriors diplomatic aits, documents, and original wri- 
*' tings. With pleafure they fee them commit any trea- 
u fons or treacherous ads, becaufe they not only turn the 
** fecrets 'betrayed to their own advantage^ but thereby 
" have it in their power to keep the traitors in a perpetual 
*' dread, left, if they ever fhowed any figns of ftubborn- 
" nefs, their malefactions fhould be made known. — Ode- 
" rint dwn metuant, let them hate, provided they fear, is 
" the principle of their government. 

" The illuminées from thefe firft degrees are educated 
" in the following principle»: 

I. " The Illuminée who to rife to the higheft 
" degrees muft be free from all religion ;f for a religionifi 

* Und zu gliech zur aufkundfehaftung aller fachen. 

t Der Illuminât, der in die hohern grade kommen will, muft 
<rofl aller religion frey ieyn. 

Historical part» %$1 

lt (as they call every man who has any religion) will ne- 
" ver be admitted to the higheft decrees. 

II. The Patet Exitus^ or the doctrine on Suicide, is 
exprelled in the fame terms as in the preceding depofition. 

III. " The end fanfiifies the means. The welfare of 
" the Order will be a justification for calumnies, poifon- 
" ings, aflafîînations, perjuries, treafons, rebellions} in 
* c fhort, for all that the prejudices of men lead them to 
" call crimes, 

IV. " One muft be more fubmiffive to the Superiors 
" of Illuminifm, than to the fovereigns or magiftrates who 
cc govern the people ; and he that gives the preference to 
" fovereigns or governors of the people is ufelefs to us.* 
" Honor, life> and fortune, all are to be facrificed to the 
u Superiors. The governors of nations are defpots when 
" they are not directed by USi They can have no autho- 
*' rity over us, who are free men,"| 

The Marquis of Conftanza ufed to fay, lc that there 
<£ ought to be but two Princes in Germany — Thefe Prin- 
M ces fliould be illuminées, and fo furrounded and led by 
IC our adepts, that none of the prophane could approach 
** their perfons. The greater and lefter.'officcs of the ffcate 
K fliould be folely entrufted to members of our Order; 
" and the advantages of the Order fhould be attended to, 
w tho' in direct oppofition to the mterefts of the Prince, t 
il Sovereigns fhould alfo pafs through the lower degrees 
" of the Order, and they fliould only be admitted to the 
tc higher degrees when they properly apprehend the holy 
C£ deligns of the Order— which are no other than to deli— 
cc ver the people from the bondage of their Princes, No- 
" bles, and Prieits; to cftablifh an equality of ftations and 
4t of religion; and to render men both free and happy. — - 
K Should we ever have fix hundred Illuminées in Bavaria* 
*' nothing coiïld refill: us," 

I promifed to make a few reflections on this article} 
and to thofe perfons [ addrefs them, who would immedi- 
ately lay hold of it to prove that the illuminées, fo far from 
wifhing to annihilate every government and civil fociety 
itfelf, had no other view than to re-unite Germany under 

* Vollte jemand den Regenten mehranhangen, £0 taught er 
nicht tiir uns. 

f Sie haben kei.n Recht iîber uns freye Menfchen. 

t Alies was das befte des Ordens befordert, mufs man thun, 
wtnn es gleich dem beilen der Regenten auwider baft. 


pre and the fame government.* Molt undoubtedly fuch 
views were held out to the deponents in their lower dais- 
es ; but let it be remembered, that none of them had been 
admitted to the higher myfteries. It is in the degree of 
Epopt that the defigns of the Order for the total dtftruc- 
tion of Civil Society are manifefted. There the illumi- 
nizing Hierophant no longer fays, that Germany ought 
to be under the government of one Prince; but he fays 

TBOM THE FACE OF THE EARTH' j that every father 
jhall, like Abraham^ be at once the prieji and f over eign 
cf bis family; end reason Jhall be ihefole Code of Man. 
The Hierophant there declares, that secret societies 
are the agents that are to produce this revolution, and 
that it is one of the grand fecrets of Illuminifm. There, 
in fhort, is clearly to be hen the plan of bringing men 
back to the pretended Patriarchal nomade and favage 
life; and it is even exprefsly aflerted, that the original 
caufe of the fall of man was their re-union in civil fociety ! 
The depositions, therefore, of Mcffrs. Utzfchneider, Co- 
fandey, and Griinberger, are perfectly con e£f, fo far as 
they relate to their degrees ; for fuch was the doctrine 
taught in the degrees of Major and Minor Illuminée. — . 
Another remark may alio be true, that as a preparatory 
itep the Illuminées only leek todeftroy all the lefler pow- 
ers in order to form one or two great ftates in Germany ; 
but that will not change the fate decreed in the higher 
myiteries for thefe greater Princes of the German nation, 
or for all Princes and nations in general. This iingle Po- 
tentate will then fhare the fame fate as Religion. We 
have heard them talk of reducing the world to the unity 
of Religion, as well as to the unity or equality oïjlations* 
But has not the Sect already declared, that in order to be 
admitted to the laft fecret one muft begin by getting rid 
of all Religion ? This plan, therefore, for reducing Ger- 

* This is precifely what has been lately attempted to divert 
the eyes ofthe public from their monitions and Antifocial plots ; 
and even in England this plea has been let up. in hopes of in- 
validating the j. roofs adduced in fuch Memoirs. I know not 
who writer of thefe paragraphs; but though e- 

ven t! Sieur Boettiger hinifelf, famous among the German Il- 
luminées, were the author of them, I mould little fear his ar- 
guments. Let my readers compare his proofs with mine: I 
&£k no more. 


many under the dominion of one Prince, is evideQtly no- 
thing more than a preliminary ftep, in like manner as 
their plan of fubjccling Princes to the government of 
their Order. When the proper time comes, all thele 
plans are changed, in the leflbns of the adepts, to the to- 
tal annihilation of every ftate, prince, and civil govern- 
ment on earth. 

The Reader may eaftly perceive how the Seel, even fa 
early as the degrees in which the three deponents had 
been admitted, prepares them for the laft fecrets; espe- 
cially when he fees immediately following the pretended 
union of Germany, that maxim which has already ap- 
peared in the firft depofition. 

V. "The love of one's prince and of one's country 
■" are incompatible with views of an immenle extent, with. 
w the ultimate ends of the Order, and one muft glow with 
" ardor for the attainment of that end."* 

In the Degrees alfo to which the deponents had been 
admitted we fee the Superiors incefTantly declaiming on 
that end; but they never mention what it really was. — - 
They even confefs that they are not in the fecret; they 
fay that the knowledge of it is referved to the higher 
degrees; their own declaration, therefore, proves that it 
cannot be this unity of Religion or of government to 
be eftabliihed in Germany, as they are not Arrangers to 
that plan. Beiides, how can it appear, that the love of 
one's country, or national love, is incompatible with the 
wifh of uniting a great nation under the dominion of one 
Prince. On the other hand, we fee thefe maxims in per- 
fect accord with the views of Illuminifm, when, advan- 
cing toward the higher degrees, we hear the Seel pouring 
forth its blafphemies againft Princes and Nations, and 
potitively declaring, as one of their myfleries, that Secret 
Societies were only contrived to fweep Nations and 
Princes from the face of the earth. Such are the plots to 
be discovered to nations ; fuch have been the tricks em- 
ployed by the Illuminées to lull nations to fleep on their 
dangers; and, Englifh Reviewers having hearkened to 
fuch insinuations, I am obliged to have recourfe to repe« 
titions in the midir, of a nation whoferuin is now become 

* Furften and vaterlands Hebe wiederfprechen den weitaus- 
fehenden gefichts pun&en des Orders— Man muis gluhea fur 
deo zweck. 


one of the chief objects of the Sett. — But let us return to 
the depositions of our witneilcs. 

" The Superiors of Illuminifm are to he looked upon 
" as the moft perfect and the moft enlightened of men j 
" no doubts are to be entertained even of their infalli- 
*< bility.* 

" It is in thefe moral and political principles that the 
" Illuminées ate educated in the lqwe ; and it is 

u according to the manner in which they imbibe them 
" and fhow their devotion to the Order, or are able to 
w fécond its views, that they are earlier or later admitted 
" to the higher degrees. 

" They ufe every poffible artifice to get the different 
" poft-ofïïces in all countries entrufted to the care of their 
*' adepts only. They alio boaft that they are in pofFes- 
*' fion of the fecret of opening and reclofing letters with- 
<£ out the circurnftance being perceived. 

" They made us give anfwers in writing to the follow- 
" ing queftions : How would it be poffible to devife one 
" fingle fyitem of morals and one common government 
Î* for all Europe, and what means fhould be employed to 
" effectuate it? Would the Chriftian Religion be a ner 
" ceffary requifite ? Should revolt be employed to accom- 
« plifn it ? &c. &ç. 

" We were alfo afked, in which Brethren we fhould 
" place the moft confidence if there were any important 
" plan to be undertaken ; and whether we were willing 
<c to recognize the right of life and death as veiled in the 
" Order; and alfo the right of the fword, Jus Gladii. 

" in confequence of our acquaintance with this doc-! 
** trine of the Illuminées, with their conduce, their man- 
" ners, and their incitements to treafon, and being fully 
" convinced of the dangers of the Seel:, we the Aulic 
« Counfellor Utfchneider and the Prieft Dillis left the 
" Order. The Profeilor Grijnberger, the Prieft Cofan- 
K dey, Renner, and Zaupfer, did the fame a week after, 
* c though the Illuminées fought to impofe upon us fhame- 
" fully, by afTuring us that his Electoral Highnefs was a 
<c member of their Order. We clearly fiw that a Prince 
" knowing his own interefts, and wholly attending to the 
4< paternal care of his fubjecls, would never countenance 
cc a Seel, fpreading through almoft every province under 

* An deren untriiglichkeit «pan nie zweifeln diirfe. 


f* the cloak of Free-mafonry 5 becaufe it fows divifion 
*' and difcord between parents and their children, between 
* c Princes and their lubjeds, and among the mod: fincere 
** friends ; becaufe on all important occailons it would 
*' inftall partiality on the feats of juftice and in the coun- 
" cils, as it always prefers the welfare of the Order to that 
" of the ft.ite, and the interefts of its adepts to thofeofthe 
" prophane, Experience had convinced us, that they would 
" foon fucceed in perverting all the Bavarian youth. The 
^ leading feature in the generality of their adepts were irre- 
" li<2;ion, depravity of mqrals, difobedience to their prince 
cc and tu their parents, -and the neglect of all ufeful ftudie% 
*' We law that the fatal confequence ofliiurninifm would 
*' be, to create a general diftruft between the prince and his 
* c fubjeccs, the fithei and his children, the minifter and his 
f fecretaries, and between thedifferenttribunals and coun- 
tc cils. We were not to be deterred by that threat fo often 
W repeated, That no Prince canfave him thai betrays us. 
" We have abandoned, one after the other, this Se£t, which, 
" under different names, as we have been informed by fe- 
I* veral of our former Brethren, has already fpread itfelf 
£ in Italy, and particularly at Venice, in Aujlria, in Hal- 
^ land, in Saxony on the Rhine, particularly at Frank* 
*' fort, and even as jar as America. — The Illuminées 
< v meddle as much as pofîibîe in ftate affairs, and excite 
I* troubles wherever their Order can be benefitted by 
f c them." 

■ Here followed a lift of a great many invifibles, of feve- 
ral fuperiors, and of fome of the mod active members. A 
fécond lift contained perfons who, though as yet unac- 
quainted with the ultimate views of the Order, were zea- 
lous and active Recruiters, but the government thought 
fit to keep thefe two lifts fecret. The deponents then pro- 
ceed : 

" We are not unacquainted with the other invifibles^ 
* who in all probability are chiefs of a higher degree, 

" After we had retired from the Order, the Illuminées 
" calumniated us on all fides in the moil infamous man- 
* c ner. Their cabal made us fail in every requeft we prc- 
* c fented; fucceeding in rendering us hateful and odious 
t* to our fuperiors, they even carried their calumnies fo 
<c far as to pretend that one of us had committed murder* 
* c After a year's perfecution, an came to repre- 
t$ fent to the Aulic Counfellor Utzfchneider, that from ex-? 

î6l antisocial conspiracy; 

« perience he muft have learned that he was everywhere 
" perfecutéd by the Order; that unlefs he could contrive 
" to regain its protection, he would never fucceed in any 
" of his demands; and that he could ftill regain admis- 
& iion." 

Here ends the depofition figned by the three deponents. 
After their fignature follows the atteftation, that each of 
the deponents had been called in feparâtely in prefenceof 
the Côrrïmiffary, and their refpective declarations read to 
them; and that each hadaiErmed the truth of the contents 
on oath, as witneil'es, the 10th of September, 1785. I 
leave the reader to make his reflections on the llrength 
and nature of thefe firfl proofs acquired againff. Illuminifm; 
and protëç'd immediately to the circumftances which dis- 
«iofed the ulterior projects of the Sect. 



Continuation of the Difcoveries made in Bavaria as to 
the Illuminées. — Proceedings of the Court with refpecl 
to the Chiefs of the Seat. — A few Remarks on and a 
Lift of the principal Adepts. 

NOTWITHSTANDING the important difcove- 
ries made by the court of" Bavaria, proofs were ftill 
wanting of* the plans and of the ultimate views of illu- 
minifm, which the Sect concealed with fo much care, and 
of which none of the witneiTes could give any fatisfactory 
account. The court had neglected to feize Weilhaupt's 
papers at the time; and it was clear that the adepts had 
taken every precaution to put theirs beyond the power of 
the moft diligent fearch. The court even appeared to 
pay little or no attention to the proper fteps that fhould 
be taken, and only watched the motions of thofe adepts 
who frill kept up a correipondence with their chiefs. If 
we are to credit the apology publifhed by the Illuminées, Puni1 "^ 
it was for no other reafon that Delling, municipal of- ç omç ,',> 
ficer of Munich, and Krenner, profefl'or at Ingolftadt, theadeptsi 
were difmifTed from their employments. On the fame ac- 
count, they tell us, were the Count Savioli and the ?v1ar- 
quis Confranza exiled from Bavaria, and the Baron Mag- 
genhoff condemned to a month's imprifoment in a mo- 

This apologifr. alfo pretends, that the Canon Hertel 
was deprived of his benefice, becaufe he would not give 
in an account of the funds belonging to the Illuminées. — 
But after the different parts that we have feen thele adepts 
perform, it appears that the court was pretty well inform- 
ed; and it certainly gave a great proof of" its clemency 
when it allowed Brutus-Szvïolï and Diomedes-Confttin- 
za a penfion which they were at liberty to expend where*- 
ver they chofe, excepting in Bavaria. Light, however, 
as thefe punifhments were for confpirators of their ftamp, 
the Illuminées filled all Germany with their reclamations, 
crying out againft a perfecution which they reprefented 
as the height of deipotiim, oppreflion, and injuftice. The 


depofitions that had been made were published, and thé 
authors of them were immediately aiTailed with a torrent 
of abufe, lophiftry, and calumny ; nor was the court fpa- 
red. The. whole bufinefs appeared to be changed into a 
literary war,in which the impudence of the apologifts had 
very nigh fucceeded in calling doubts on the wifdom and 
juftice of his Electoral Highnefs;* and it was high time 
to have recourfe to fuch meafures as could inconteitibly 
prove the guilt of the Seel. 
This àr- -At length, on the I ith of Oftober, 17 86, the magis- 

chives of trates, by order of the Elector, made a vifit at Cato- 
the Seel: Zwack's houfe, at a time when he leaft expected it. O- 
oiicover- ^ ers wenr . on the fame cornmiffion to the caftle of San- 
derdorf, belonging to Hannibal Baron Baflus; The re- 
fult of thefe vifitations was, the difcovery of a multitude 
or letters^ difcourfes, rules, plans, and fratutes, which may 
be looked upon as the archives of the confpirators, and 
have been publifhcd under the title of Original Writings 
of the Order and of the Seel of the Illuminées. The con- 
spiracy of which Weifhaupt was the chief, now appeared 
in fuch horrid colors, that one could fcarcely believe hu-i 
man wickednefs to have been able to devife it. But at 
the head of each of thefe two volumes is an advertifementj 
informing all readers-, that orders have been given by the 
Elector to the keeper of his archives to (how the origin- 
als to whoever might wifh to verify them. The only re- 
source now left to the confpifators was to complain of 
. the violation of domeftic fccreey. Pretendedjuftifications 
jfwarmed again from the adepts; and they had the impu- 
dence to afl'ert, that thefe letters, fo far from containing 
anything militating againft fociety or religion, only con- 
tained views for the happinefs and amelioration of man- 
kind. They made every attempt pofîïbïe to give plauli- 
Me interpretations to their letters; but they never dared 
aller t that any of thefe writings had been forged. Their 
own avowals are to be found in their apologies; and the 
proofs of their antireligious and antifoci-al confpiracy reft 

s For the whole of this literary war, fee the Apologie dsr R- 
luvdnaten, and the addition Nachtrackt zu der Apologie, Sec. 
a!ib the anfwer of the deponents Grojfs sbfechten des Orders d& 
'liluminutienj the addition to thefe anlwers Njcbtracb, &c. No. 
J » 2 > i' 

MicToRicAL Part, 16^ 

topon fuch inconteftible grounds, that their fophiftns can 
never invalidate them.* 

The court of Bavaria, when it gave \o great a publi- Why this 
tity to the proofs it had thus acquired, was not actuated difcovery 
folely by a view of juftifying its own conduct ; but it was ™*kzs la 
defirous aiib to warn every llate of the dangers with which '" £ ™" 
it was threatened. The Elector, therefore, fent a copy on |h er 
of thefe Original "Writings to all the powers of Europe; courts» 
and theanfwers of the different miniftcrs proved, that they 
had all received thefe documents of a molt monftrous con- 
fpiracy againft every church and ftate. The hiftorian will 
naturally afb, how it came to pafs that the knowledge of 
thefe proofs of a confpiracy, at once fo evident and fo 
threatening to every ftate in the world, ihould have been 
Co long confined to Germany. And how it happened, 
that thefe Original Writings did not become the daily 
lectures of every family. Should not every father have 
read it to his children, and explained to them the horrid 
machinations that were contriving againft their God, 
their country, and their property ? Univerfal indignation 
muft have feized every mind, and cruflied thefe illumini- 
zing monfters in their cradle. Such at leaft were the fears 
which the confpirators themfelves had conceived on feeing 
their plans and means difcovered. Unable to deftroy the 
proofs, they did every thing in their power to hinder their 
circulation. On the other hand', few minifters were aware 
of the itnmenfe influence and power of fecret focieties ; 
and the Bavarian alFociation appeared to them more des- 
picable than dangerous; the very excefs of their confpi- 
racy gave it a more chimerical appearance; and the policy 
of fome ftatefmen might have made them believe that the 
publication of the archives of thefe confpirators would on- 
ly ferve to accredit their iophilinf, and add to the danger 
by divulging their principles. 

Lallly-, the language in which they were written was 
little known in tne other parts of Europe; and it was 
thought bell to leave them in a profound oblivion. Such 

* For thefe avowals fee the Apology of Ctffo-.Zwack ; the 
Preface of Werfhaupt's Illuminifmcorrefled} the Baron BafTus's 
Defence; and particularly the Laji Qbfervatioru byKnigge. — 

Philo, in this latter work, very frankly acknowledges all the let- 
ters that are attributed to him in the Original Writings, arid he 
frequently quotes Weifhaupt's letters as being tqu?.iiy authen- 
tic with his own. 

i66 antisocial conspiracy; 

may be the explanation of this fpecies of phenomenon, or 
of this total ignorance in which the reft of the world were, 
with refpect to the nature and views of the Illuminées, 
when I announced to the public the ufe I intended to 
make of them in thefe Memoirs. 
Even in A myftery ftil! more aftonifhing, and which could not 

Germany. ^ ave ^ een De ij evec | } h a j not t h e progrefs of the Illuminées 
proved it, is that inactivity or fomnolency in which all 
the German courts appeared to be buried in the midft of 
the dangers that had been fo clearly pointed out to them 
by the court of Bavaria. Unfortunately for the Empire, 
Frederic II. of Pruflia died a little before thefe laft proofs 
were acquired againft the Illuminées. No fooner did this 
Prince hear of the conspiracy, than he immediately traced 
all thofe principles of fedition and anarchy which he had 
already been obliged to divulge as the tenets of the So- 
phifterSj the Illuminées even pretend it to have been at 
his inftigation that the court of Munich profecuted their 
chief and the firft adepts who were difcovered.* What 
would he not have done himfelf againft this Sect, if he 
he had but feen in the Original Writings the progrefs 
that it was making in his own dates ! Minifters, under a 
Prince fo tenacious as he was of the authority necefïàry 
to fupport his Government, and fo juftly offended as he 
was againft the Sophifters of Rebellion, would not have 
fneered or replied farcaftically to thofe letters which the 
court of Bavaria tranfmitted as introductory and expla- 
natory, together with the proofs acquired againft the Sect. 
But the archives of Illuminifm were not difcovered till 
the nth and 12th October, 1786, and Frederic had died 
on the 17th of Auguft of that year. His fuccelfor was a 
prey to adepts of another fpecies, almoft as great knaves 
as thofe of Bavaria. The Emperor Jofeph had not yet 
been undeceived with refpect to the Lodges that furround- 
ed him. Many other Princes were either feduced, or fo 
' fettered by the Illuminées that they could not act. This 
may ferve to account for their apparent indifférence ; and 
it alio explains the circumftance of feveral of them hav- 
ing viewed the proceedings of the court of Munich in the 
t of an abfolute perfecution of their own Brethren. — ■ 
The Prince Bifhop of Ratifbon was the only one who 

* See Memorial inferted in No. 1% of the Weltkunde,i\\z 
Tubingen Gazette. 


feemed to know his danger, and who publifhed edicts in 
fupport of thofe iffued by the Elector. 

Neverthelefe, the proofs publifhed by the court of Ba- Other fe- 
varia are thofe whence the molt evident demonftration of £ retS i 
the plots of Illuminifm have been deduced in thefe Me- ' ■ . ^ 
moirs. The very fcraps of paper found among the ar- Original 
chives indicate the moft confummate villany. Among Writings, 
thefe were, chiefly in /^.Y-MafTenhaufen's hand, and in 
the cypher of the Order, receipts for making the aqua 
toff ana, the moft acute of all poifons i for procuring abor- 
tion in zvomen; and for poijoning the air of an apart- 
ment : alio a collection of one hundred and thirty feah of 
Princes, Noblemen, and Bankers^ with the fecrët of tak- 
ing off and imitating all thofe for which the Order might, 
according to circumftances, have occafion. The defcrip- 
tion of a lock, of which the adepts only fhould have the 
fecret, was likewile contained in thefe papers; alfo the 
model of a coffer wherein to preferve their papers, and 
which mould take fire immediately if any of the prophane 
attempted to open it. On other detached papers were to 
be feen the plan for placing fome adepts in the fuite of an 
ambafTador, who mould then carry on fome commerce as 
fraudulent as it was lucrative for the Sect. Alfo the fe- 
cret intimation, that all the Superiors of Illuminifm mould 
know how to write with both hands. A manufcriptalfo 
was found entirely in Zvvack's hand writing, and looked 
upon as very precious by the Order, becaufe, under the 
title Better than Horus, it contained all the blafphemies 
of Atheiim.* 

Notwithstanding the little impreflion the publication 
of thefe difcoveries had made on the other Princes of Ger- 
many, the court of Bavaria continued its profecutions a 
garnit the Sect. About twenty of the adepts were cited ^°[ 

More a- 
to appear; fome were difmifled from their employments, ijfhed. 

others condemned to a few years imprifonment ; and fome, 
particularly Zwack, faved themfelves by flight. The E- 
jedtoi's Tribunal could not by any calumny be accufed 
of being fanguinary, as not one of the adepts was con- 
demned to death. This punilhment feemed to be referr- 
ed for Weiihaupt alone, and a price was fet upon his 
head. The Regency of Ratifbon, which, In the firft in- 
stance, had refilled to drive him from their territories, no 

f Original Writings, Vol. II. Se&. i$> 19» «• 


longer dared to fupport him, at leaft not openly; and he 
took refuge under His Highnefs the Duke of Saxe-Go- 
tha. The reafon why the Founder of ïllurninifm, and a 
Why tney number of his profcribed adepts, found protection and ftill 
«farther contmue m favor at fo many courts, may be explained by 
courts. ^» e numerous difçiples who enjoyed places of high impor- 
tance in the different courts, and lbme of whom, indeed, 
were the Princes themfclves, The lift of thefe latter, were 
it accurately made out, would aftonifh pofterityj more 
particularly, fhould the art with which Weifhaupt feduc- 
ed them, by truncating the myfteries, have efcaped the 
notice of the hiftorian j or fhould the means have remain- 
ed a fecret by which he blinded them and bound them to 
the Order, by furrounding them with adepts who know 
how to feize on the miniitry, on the Dccafteres, or coun- 
cils, and occupied ail the places of confequençe by the m- 
(elves or their creatures. 
ïlluminiz- I will not pretend to fay, that thefe artifices of Illumi- 
edPiinces nifm can excufe thofe Princes for becoming difciples of 
Weifhaupt. But mofî certainly they were rendered the 
dupes of his impiety before they became the fpart of his 
coufpiraciesj and undoubtedly the latter was but the ju(t 
puni foment of the former. However this may be, we fmcl 
Lewis Ernest of Saxe Gotha at the head pf thefe 
adepts under the characterise of Timoleon. According 
to all the letters that I have received from Germany, this 
Prince is at length conlcious of his error, Ke, at prefent, 
pays much greater attention to the happinefs of his fub- 
jeCls than to the myfteries of the Se6t, Weifiyaupt is not 
even allowed to appear in his prefence; but the goodnel; 
of his heart will not allow the Prince to withdraw his be- 
nefactions even from thofe who have incurred his difplea- 
fure. It is thus, at leaft, that the penfion he allows to the 
Founder of Illuminifm is explained.* B^t on the other 
hand, Weifhaupt is far from being excluded from the pre- 
sence of Maria Charlotte Meinungen, the wife of His 
fjighnefs; and thus is explained the alylum which the 

* I am alfo informed, that this penfion is not taken from the 
public treafury, (as I laid in my third volume, page 2,) but from 
the Duke's private purfe. Thofe indeed who look upon the fu- 
perfluities of this purfe as foreign to the duties that a Prince 
pwes to the public, to decency, or to his own honor and repu- 
tation, may make the diftincUon, I, for one, at kaft, fluil ne» 
yer adopt it. 


contriver of fuch horrid plots ftill finds at that court, not- 
>viihitanding the conversion of the Prince. 

I will not pretend to pronounce whether Augustus 
of Saxe Gotha has imbibed a fimilar difguit for Ulu~ 
minifm, as has his Brother the reigning Prince. At the 
time of Weifhaupt's arrival, however, he was alfo an a- 
dept under the characlerivtic of Prince Walter. 

Charles AugustusDuke of Saxe Weimar was 
alfo initiated under the title of Efchylus-, but he renoun- 
ced the myfteries of the Se£r. 

The late Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, at 
once the martial hero of Minden, and the Mafonic leader 
at Willemfbaden, fell a prey to all forts of Illuminifm. — - 
Wiihermots had begun by initiating him in the Illumi- 
nifm of Swedenborg, and of the Martinifts. His frequent 
conferences with Knigge feduced him into that of Wei- 
ftiaupt, who created him his Brother or Ms High Prieir. 
Aaron^ and His Highnefs died during his Priefthood. 

As to the late Prince of Neuwied, I know not 
what name was given him in recompenfe for his devotion 
to the Seclj but at his court it might with truth be faid, 
fhe Illuminées had acquired fuch an afcendancy, that if 
they had gained a fimilar one in other parts, the world 
mull have been theirs. This unfortunate Prince little 
thought that his own fon would be deprived of all power 
in his own liâtes, and that he would be reduced humbly 
to folicit the Camilla of the Empire for leave to afiert his 
own rights, and to drive out from his dates thofe adepts that 
had been protected by his Father, and his Uncle, the 
Count Stolberg; or at leaft for leave to difmifs them from . 
the employments they occupied, even from that of the e- 
ducation of his children, which they had feized upon in 
Ipite of him.* 


* This law-fuit between the Prince and Illuminifm is of a 
rnoft extraordinary nature indeed. The reader fhall hear him 
lïate his cafe himfelf to the Diet of Ratiibon in the year 1794: 

" Every one is acquainted with what this Seel; has done in 
V France. We have alfo ïttn extraordinary inftances of its 
" power at Neuwied: It has a Lodge here called the Three 
" Peacocks. My Father and my firfl Wife greatly favored thefe 
** adepts, and my prefent one in particular is the great pro- 
" te<5trix of feveralof them; of that Paftor Win z for example, 
" who, notwithftanding the great iervice I rendered him in 
f* ftifling a profec'uiion againft him for Sociniaoifm : isnowone 


Another {pedes of adept is My Lord the Baron of 
Dalberg, Coadjutor to the Sees of Mentz, Worms, 

Cohftanz, and Governor of the town and country of 
Er'fôrt. We are led to {brink back in aitonifhment, and 
( Karxiihe whether our e}^s do not impofe upon us, at the 
fight of a Bifhop, intended to occupy the fuit Ecclefiafri- 

and Electoral See in Germany, ranked among this 
îîîuminized Brotherhood. Moreover, perfons who had 

ri been in company with His Lordfhip infilled on my 
effacing his name from thefe Memoirs. They afTured me, 
that he held the principles of the modern Philofophers in 
the utmoft deteftation, and that to them he attributed the 
French Revolution. I then produced a pamphlet publifh- 
ed by His Lordihip, with all his titles and his name at 
the head of it, entitled, Of the Influence of Science and 
of the Polite Arts on the Public Tranquillity — Jt Er- 
jo-rt, 1793. They then faw that the object of this pam- 
phlet was tojlljie in the germs what His Lordfhip calls 
noxious -prejudices of Jome fiort-fighted good people^by 
proving to them that neither the Philofophers nor the So- 
phifters of the age had given rife to the French Revolu- 
tion, and that Gondorcet himfclf had but little contributed 

" of my preateft enemies. She was alfo very clofely connected 
*' with the Au. lie Councilor Krob&r (the adept Âgif). One 
" Schwartz, from Brunhvick, and a titular m?jor of Weimar j 
" to whim my Father entrulted the education of one of my 
" children, and who, to my great grief, has ftill two of them 
" under his care, is aifp a great favorite of the Princefs's; ihe 
" has placed her whole confidence in him, and fees him very 
* x often, although letters from Brur.fwick depict him in the light 
" of a moft dettftable intriguer. Scveial Counfellors and vari- 
" ous officers and other inhabitants of Neuwied are," like him, 
*' members of the Seel, and are in an agreement with thePrin- 
" cefs. It is notorious, that they are all bound by oath mutual- 
*' ly to fupport each other. They have alfo gained over various 
•' other perfons who do not belong to their Order ; and thus an 
•* afTociation has been formed for my deftruclion.'' 

In tact, the Illuminées had fucceeded in getting this Prince 
placed under an interdict in his own ffates; he accufed feveral 
cf his f'ift judges as being adepts: It coft them little to de- 
flare on their oaths that they were not, and ibme indeed no 
longer continued attached to the Seel. 1 his incident occafioa- 
ed him much unpleafant trouble; but at length he was rein- 
ftated in his pofjtilions after a vet y iong law-fuit, which mull 
have taught the German Princes haw well llluminiim can take 
advantage of ii$ power when once it ha* fucceeded in fur- 
ibunding them, 


towards it. This pamphlet alfo abounded in thofe argu- 
ments of Illuminized Philofophifm which the Sect fet forth 
to dupe nations as to the tendency of their confpiracy; I 
did not therefore efface the name of his Lordihip; I, on 
the contrary, fubjoined that of Crefcens, his characteriftic 
among the Illuminées. How is it poffible that at fuch a 
name he could refrain from fhuddering with horror! and 
what fervices could the Order expedi from him under fucii 
a characteriftic ? — The name of Crefcens has only been 
tranfmitted to pofterity by his addiction to the infamous 
debauchery of the Cynic Philofophers, and by his caUurir 
nies againft the Chriftians, which obliged St. Jufcin to 
write his Second apology for Christianity. .A proteftant 
who is eager to fee that of His Lordihip tells us, that it 
will mofi certainly appear in its proper time, and we im- 
patiently wait for it!* We fhall there find, 1 hope, that 
His Lordihip ruid not been initiated into all the fecrets of 
the Seel. They muft at leaft have concealed from hirn 
their deligns upon the Sees of Mentz, Worm?, and Con- 

ftanz, to which His Lordihip was Coadjutor. In all 

probability, thefe were not the fecrets of which his Se- 
cretary Cryjîppu S-K.OLKORN informed bun, who admit- 
ted to the degree of Epopt, was already become a half- 
naturaliji without knowing it, and from whom Khi 
expected the greater!: ferviceS.f But can this character- 
iftic of Crefcens denote any other view than that of feduc- 
ing His Lordihip into an apoftacy fimilar to that of his 
Secretary? We can only repeat, that it is with great an- 
xiety we wait for His Lordihip's Apology. 

Buj what other Apology, than a clear and public pro- anc j r ,,- 
feffion of faith, and an abjuration of Illuminiirn, can re- 
tnftate the honor of the Prelate Haslein, know 
Se£t as the Brother Philo of Byulos! The Original 
Writings defcribe this adept prelate as overloaded with 
work. It is an unfortunate circusnftance for him to have 
been able to find time to pen letters and plans that could 
have placed him in fuch great efiimation wi n : .« 

of thefe confpirators.J 

* See the Eudemonia. Vol. IV. No 5, Letter of Do :1 or % 
H. Jim S . 

f Original Writings, Vol. II. Letter i, fro 

t •original Wiitings, Vol. I. Let, from Diam Vol. 

II. Letter i,from Phin. 


Among the higher clafs of adepts may be ranked Ahx~ 
cinder, or the general Count of" Pappenheim, Govern- 
or of Ingolftadt, and Alfred the Count of Seinsheimj 
Pvlinifter and Vice-Preiident of the Council at Munich. 
At getting pofleflion of this latter Minifter, Weifhaupt 
exults, and on giving him the charicteriftic of Alfred he 
thus writes to Cato: — M What great men we daily gain 
" over to our party at Athens (Munich), and that with- 
" out its being perceived! Men much confidered, ready 
" formed, and perfect models ! " Weifhaupt does not wifh 
to fee this adept in leading firings, and therefore difpenfes 
with his noviciate. He alfo hopes, with a little care on 
the part of the recruiters, to fee his Excellency become one 
vf his greatefl enthufiafls; and he foon found that he had 
judged accurately of his pupil. The adept Minifter goes 
of his own accord tolngolftadt to be prêtent at the inaugu- 
ration of an illuminized church, where Weifhaupt does the 
honors inanewdifcourfe prepared for the occa/ion. Full 
or' admiration at the leffons of the Chief, the illuminized 
Minifter becomes the carrier of this difcôurfe to the Breth- 
ren at Munich; and all the town of Ingolftadt were fur- 
pi ized at feeing the Minifter, with fo many other of the 
Brethren, come to vifit Weilhaupt.* At length the day 
arrives when the object of this vifit ceafés to be a mys- 
tery, and the adept Minifter is condemned to a fhort ex-' 
ile: but it ftill remains to be known, whether it is a fm- 
Cere repentance for his paft enthufiafm, or fome new in- 
trigue or fecrct influence of the Brethren, that has re- 
called him and reinftated him in his former dignities at 
the Court of Munich. All that I can gather from my 
correfpondence at Bavaria is, that Iliuminifm is very far 

tri having loft its influence in that country. 

Another adept, dear to the Sect, is the Count KoLLO- 
vj h, the Numenius of Knigge, and whom Wei- 
fhaupt wifhed to cure of his theoibplucal ideas. He was, 
however, eirtrufted to the care of Brutus Count Savioli> 
r*ho, obferving him pafs too fuddenly to doubts on the 
'/ty of the foul) began to iufpect. that his Hidden, 
converiions to the fyftems of Iliuminifm was only pre- 
:d, in order that he might gain adiniflîon to the fe~ 
crets of the Order. It he ever attained the higher de- 
grees, it was not at leaft with the enthufiafm of Alfrâd.f 

* Original Writings, Vol. II. Letter 7, 9, rS. 

f Origifui Writings, Vol. II. Lciter from Bruias. 


Weifhaupt alio clafTed Cbabrias, the Baron Walbe'm- 
?TEf.s, at Cologne, among the adepts of high rank: Fie 
was the Minifter of the Elector-, but no fooner had he 
Uncovered the knavery of the higher myfteries than he 
abandoned the Order. Ptolemeus Lag us, or that fame 
Baron Riedsel, who, in iW;W-Dittfurt's plan, was to 
have had the direction of the Illuminized Sifterhood, imi- 
tated this example. We cannot hope, however, to tear 
the mafic from all thole confpirators whom Weifhaupt 
has encompafi'cd with darknefs, and who fhould rank a- 
mong the higher clafs of adepts. The Lift that was pub- 
lished foon after the Original Writings, contains chiefly 
thofe whom my reader have already feen in the courfe of 
this work. I (ball, however, fubjoin it here with fiich ob- 
lervations as time has imce enabled me to make. There 
will appear adepts fcattered throughout the Councils, the 
Magiitracy, the Army, and the houfes for public Educa- 
tion j and this general view v/ill better enable the reader 
to judge of the care with which the Confpirators fought 
to occupy the mcffc important polts of fociety while they 
planned its ruin. 

Lift of the principal Illuminées from the Foundation of 
the Seel in iJJ&-> till the Difovery of the Original 
Writings in 1786. 

Characleriftics. ileal Names of the Adepts. 

Spartacus - Weishaupt, Profefibr of Laws atîn- 
golfladt, and Founder of the Sect. 

Agrippa - Will, Profeflbr at Ingolftadt. 

Ajax - Massenhausen, Counfellor at Mu- 


Akibiades - Hoheneicher, Councellor at Mu- 

Alexander - Co'intPAPPENHEiM,GeneralandGo- 
vernor of Ingolftadt. 

Alfred - Count Seinsheim, Vice-Prefident at 

Munich, firft exiled as an Illuminée, 
then fent from Deux- Ponts to Ra- 
tifbon, and at length returned to, and 
in place at Munich. 

Arrian - Count CoBENZEL,Treafurer at Aich- 

Attila - Sauf.r, Chancellor at Ratifbon, 








(:\](o Danaus and 

Philip- Strozzi) 




(at firft Zoroajiei 



Epi Bet us 
Mpimsnides - 


Hermes Trijme- 

Liivius ' - 

Lttdijvicus \ 

Mahomet \ - 



Numa - 
NttmQ, Pompilius 
Pe, u les 

Real Names of the Adepts. 

Count S a viol i, Counfellor at Mu- 

Xavjkrius-Zwack, Aulic Counfel- 
lor, and Counfeilor of the Regency. 
Exiled as an adept. 

Baader, Phyfician to the ElecTrefs- 


Bajerhammer, Judge at Diefen. 

) ' 

Troponero, Counfellor at Munich. 

Marquis of Cost anz a, Counfeilor at 

Mieg, Counfellor at Heidelberg. 
Fai.k, Counfellor and Burgomafter at 

Riedl, Counfellor at Munich. 
Baron Bassus, a Swifs from the Gri- 


Sol cher, Curate at Haching. 
Rudorger, Secretary of the States at 

Lori, difmiffed from the Order. 

Baron Schroekenstein. 

If ertel, Canon of, and exiled from 

Werner, Counfellor at Munich. 

Baron Dittfurt, AffefTor to the Im- 
perial Chamber of Wetziar. 

Dufresne, Commiffary at Munich. 

Baron iMonj ell ay, exiled from Mu- 
nich, received and placed at Deux- 

Sonnensels* Counfellor at Vienna, 
and Ce n i or. 

Count Lodron, Counfellor at Mu- 

Baron Pecker, Judge at Amber-:. 

Baron Knigge, urthe fervke of Bre- 


Charaâertftics. Real Names of the Adepts. 

.Philo of Bjblcs The Prelate Hasle in, Y r ice-Prefident 
of the Spiritual Council at Munich, 
and Bifhop In Partibus. 

■Pythagoras - Drexl, Librarian at Munich. 

Raimond de Lulls Fronhower, Counfellerat Munich. 

Simonidcs - Ruling, Counfellor at Hanover. 

Solon - Might, anEcclefiafticatFreyfinguen. 

Spinofa - MUnter, Attorney at Hanover. 

Sylla - Baron M aggenhoff, Captain in the 

Bavarian fervice. 

Tamerlane - Lang, Counfellor at Aichftadt. 

Thaïes - Kapfimger, Secretary to Count TaC- 

Tiberius - Merz, exiled from Bavaria, fmce Se- 
cretary to the Ambaflador of the Em- 
pire at Copenhagen. 

Vefpaftan - Baron Hornstein, of Munich.* 

This Lift appears to have been chiefly compiled for the 
Bavarian adepts in the firft volume of the Original Writ- 
ings. The fecond volume might furnifli us with the fol- 
lowing additions, beftdes a multitude of other adepts vvhofe 
true names have not been difcovered. Thofe whpfe names 
are not followed by the page quoted from the Original 
Writings in this lift, have been lent to me in Private Me- 
morials and Letters, or are extracted from Public Jour- 


Characterises. Real Names of the Adepts. 

Aaron - This adept is only mentioned under the 

initials P. F. V. B. (Prince Ferdi- 
nand von Brunfwig), both when he 
fends for Knigge, and when he pro- 
mifes his protection to the adept who 
is to Illuminize England, (P. 122 
and 104.) 

Accacius - Doctor Koppe, Superintendant flrft at 
Gotha, after wards at Hanover, (P. 


* This Lift is taken from that published in the German 

i 76 


Charafleriftics. Real Names of the Adepts. 

AgatMcles - Schmerber, Merchant at Frankfori; 
on the Mein, (P. iû.) 

Agis - Ivkober, Governor of the Prince of 

Stolberg's children at Neuweid, (P, 

Alberoni - Bleueetreu, formerly a Jew, after- 
wards a Counfelior of the Chamber 
at Neuweid, (P. 181.) 

Amelius ~ Bobe, Privy Counfelior at Weimar, 
(P. 213 and 221, &c.) 

Arch elans - De Barres, formerly a Major in the 
French fervice, (P. 183.) 

Arijlodemcs - Compe, High Bailiff at W einburg in 
the Elect orate of Hanover. 

Bayard - Baron Busche, a Hanoverian in the 
Dutch fervice, (P. 195-) 

Belifarius - Peterson, at Worms. 

Campanella - Count Stolberg, the maternai uncle 
of the Prince of Neuweid ; and with 
him may be comprifed the whole 
court, the favorites, fecretaries, and 
council withoutexception, (P. 69 and 

Cornelius Scipio Berger, a Lecturer at Munich, (P. 

Crefcens - BaronDALBERGjCoadjutorofMentz, 
(fro?n Memorials, Letters, and Ger- 
?nan Journals.) 

Cbryjippus - KoLBORN,SecretarytotheBaronDaI- 
berg, (P. 73 and 100.) 

Cy ril - ScHWEiCKART,at Worms. 

Gotefcak - Moldenhauer, Proteftant Profeflbr 
of Divinity at Keil in Holftein, (P. 

Hegefias - Baron Greifenclau, of Mentz, (P. 

Leveller - L,EUCHSENRiNC,anAlfacian,and Pre- 
ceptor to the Princes of Heffe Darm- 
ftadt; driven from Berlin, he took re- 
fuge at Pans. 

Lucian ~ Nicolai, Bookfellerand Jqurnaliftat 
Berlin (P. 28.) 




Marcus Aurelius 


Peter Cotton 

Pic de la Mi- 


Prince Walter 

Real Names of the Adepts. 

Schmelzer, Ecclefiaftical Councilor 
at Mentz, (P. 196.) 

Feder,* Profeflbr at Gottinguen, (P, 

Munter, Profeflor of Divinity at Co- 
penhagen, (P. 123.) 

Count Kollowrath, at Vienna, (P. 

Volger, Phyfician at Neuvveid, (P. 

Brunner, Prieft at Tiefenback in the 
Bifhoprick of Spire, (P. 174.) 

Fischer, Lutheran Minifter in Aus- 
tria, (P. 204.) 

Rontgen, Proteftant Minifter at Pet- 
kam, in Eaft Friefland,and the En- 
glish Apostle of liluminifm. 

Ernest Lewis, Duke of Saxe Go-*- 
tha, (Private Memorials.) 

Augustus of Saxe Gotha, (Ibid.) 

We do not add to this Lift Efcbylus, or Charles Au- 
guftus of Saxe Weimar, as he has declined the honor of 
continuing one of Weiihaupt's difciples. The late Prince 
of Neuyvied might be fubjoined for many realbns, and he 
would make the fifth Prince well known to have been 
connected with the Sect; but he is no more, and we have 
not fufEcient proofs to infcribe on the lift feveral others 
of that clafs who iu Germany are fuppofed to belong to 
the Sect, 

* It was on feeing the ftrong illufion of his degree of E- 
popt (fo ftrangely impious) on the Doctors Feder and Koppe, 
and fome others of the Univerlity of Gottinguen, that Wei- 
fliaupt wrote to Cato, " You cannot conceive how much my 
*' degree of Priejl or Epopt is admired by our people ; but 
" what is the moft extraordinary is, that feveral great Piotes* 
' ' tant and Reformed Divines, who are of our Order, really be- 
*' lieve that that part of thedifcourfe which alludes to religion 
" contains the true fpirit and real fenfe of Christianity. Poor 
(i mortals, what could I not make you believeV Qrig- Writ, 
Vol. II. Let. 18. 

r;ï ANTISOCIAL conspiracy; 


New Chiefs and new Means of the Illuminées — D evict 
of the Jefnits Mafonry and Succefs of that Impojiure. 

State and A MONG the fecret writings that the Se& had in 
«jifpofifons J~^ vain fought to conceal from the eyes of juftice, was 
aftei^tr-eir one on w h\ch was found in Ctfro-Zwack's hand-writing, 
éifcovery. tn ' s remarkable marginal note: " In order to re-eftablifh 
" our affair?, let fome of the ableft of thofe brethren who 
* c have avoided our misfortunes take the places of our 
" rounders ; let them get rid of the difcontented, and, in 
" concert with the new ele£t, labor to reftore our fociety 
a to its primitive vigor."* Weifhaupt had fcarcely left 
Jngolffeadt when he threatened thofe who difmifTed him, 
that ere long their joy JJjould be converted into farrow ;f 
and it was evident that the Illuminées were far from hav- 
ing abandoned their confpiracy. Notwithftanding, how- 
ever, the awful and menacing aipect which it prefented, the 
different powers, it would feem, affecled to leave the con- 
ipirators in poiïeiïion of means to profecute their illumini- 
zing plans with greater activity. 

If we except Weifhaupt, no adept in Bavaria had been 
condemned to a feverer punifhment than exile or a fliort 
imprifonment. In other parts,from Livonia to Strafbourg, 
and from Holftein to Venice, not a fmgle inquiry had 
been made concerning their lodges. Many of thofe adepts 
who had been convicted of the deepeft guilt had met with 
protection inflead of indignation in the different courts. 
Notwithftading the cleareir. proofs of his guilt had been 
adduced, we fee Zwack, a very few days alter, producing 
certificates of his probity and fidelity to his prince, which 
had more the appearance of having been iflued by his ac- 
complices than by the Aulic Council ;% and the Prince 
of Salm Kyrbourg calls him to his court, in all probabi- 
lity to be lerved with a fimilar fort of fidelity ! ! The 

* Original Writings, Vol. I. lafl pages. 

T His Letter to Fifcher. 

t See his Appendix to the Original Writings, P. 35 and 36. 


confpirators Brutus-Szvioli and Diomedes-Conftmzti 
might continue to recruit for the Seel, provided it was 
not in Bavaria^ and that at the expenfe of the Prince who 
had difcovered their plots. Tiberius-Meiz^ whofe infa- 
mous morals are recorded in the Original Writings, bare- 
facedly efcorted them in the retinue of the amballador of 
the empire to Copenhagen. jflfred-Se\n(heim merely 
bartered the favor of his Prince for that of the Duke dc 
Deux-Ponts, and an intrigue was immediately fet on foot 
to reinftate him at Munich. Spartacus himfelf tranquilly 
enjoyed his afylum and a penfton at court, though he had 
confpired to annihilate every Prince. Never had fo men- 
ilrous a confpiracy been difcovered or fo publicly denoun- 
ced; yet never were confpirators fo amply fuppiied with 
the means of continuing their plots by thole even againft 
whom they were confpiring. Thus plainly did every thing 
denote that the flight of Weifhaupt would be to Illumin- 
ifm, what the Hegira of Mahomet had formerly been to 
Moflemifm, only the prelude to a greater and more fplen- 
did fuccefs. Experience now taught Weifhaupt to com- 
bine new means according to his favorite maxim oi ap- 
pearing idle in the midjl of the greateji activity. Per- 
haps alfo, content with having laid the foundations of his 
confpiracy, and with having arrived at that day which he 
had long iince foretold, when he could defy the powers of 
the earth to deftroy his fabric ; or, perhaps, fatisfied at 
feeing he had now formed men able to prelide over his 
Aréopage; he fimply gave his advice on important occa- 
iions, leaving the common details, the functions of an or- 
dinary chief, to other adepts. However that may be, 
though it were proved that he had given up the dignity 
ef chief, though the archives of the Sea; were more deep- 
ly concealed than they are, yet proofs of the plots which 
they are now profecuting would not be wanting. Their 
public actions {hall in future depofe againft them in de- 
fault of their fecret archives. The adepts were known; 
it was therefore eafy 'to watch their labors and compare 
their devices. The German writers have had the ltart 
of us in that career; hiffory, therefore, will not be deiii- 
tute of demonftrative proofs. 

The grand object of the Illuminées, after the difcovery They «- 
of their iecret papers, was to perfuade Germany that their te JjPP c ta 
Order was extinct; that the adepts had not only renoun- ^"ex- 
ced all their illuminizing myfteries,but even all intercom^ iftencc 


among themfelves as members of a fecret fociety. Thefe 
are not the full Brigands or the firft Sectaries on record 
that have wiihed to make the world believe the idea of 
their exillence to be chimerical, even at the very time 
when they were moft actively promoting their plots and 
propagating their principles. But here error has belied 
itfelf even in the mouths of its moft zealous advocates* 
On the firft appearance of thofe works that denounced 
to the Britifh nation r.t large the confpiracy of the Illu- 
minées, and fhewed how they were profecuting their plots 
in the occult Lodges of Mafonry, the zealous brethren 
inhabiting the banks of the Thames called on their Ger- 
man allies for fuccor, in order to deftroy thofe ill impres- 
iions which the Life of Zimmerman, Mr. R.obifon's 
Proofs, and thefe Memoirs, were making. The com- 
plaints or the EnglUh fraternity, and the anfvver of their 
auxiliary Brother Boetiger, are inferted in the German 
Mercury, No. II, page 267. Nearly the fame anfwer 
has croiied the feas, in order to inform the EngliQi, thro* 
the channel or' the Monthly Magazine of January 1798) 
page 3, that whoever ihôuld turn his reiearches toward 
Illurnintfrn would be in purfuit of a chimera, " as from 
M the beginning of the year 1790, EVERY CONCERN OF 
" THE Illuminati HAS CEASED, and no Lodge of 
u Free-mafons in Germany has, lince that period, taken 
" the lealt notice of them. Evident proofs of this afler- 
" tion are to be found among the papers of Mr. Bode, 
K late Privy Counfellor at Weimar, who was at the head 
11 of the Order in this part of Germany, and who died in 
« 1794." 
Strange 1 he foregoing palTage, written by Mr. Boetiger, may 

avow rc " be obferved to include a very lingular avowal, which has 
latine to , , , • 1 • /^ ^ I c r 

theikih already been noticed in Germany to tne great conruiion 

of the adepts. Some zealous writers have told them:— 
You now own then, that the mytferies of Illuminifm had 
become thofe of the Mafonic Lodges, -and that they had 
continued to be (o till the year 1790; thofe journalirts and 
other authors, therefore, who inceliantly called the atten- 
tion of fovereigns to the Illuminées, were not miftaken ; 
and Zimmerman, Huffman, and Dr. Stark, with i'o many 
other writers whofe works the Sect withed to fupprefs, 
were correct in publicly proclaiming that this difaftrous 
Sect had not been annihilated when its plots were difco- 
vcred in 1780, and much lefs lb in 1785, as the adept 


Waters of the Brotherhood or their hirelings had attempt* 
ed to perfuade the world.* Now the conspirators think 
that it would fuifice for their purpofe to make the world 
believe that the idea of their exiftence^#« the year 1790 
is chimerical. This artifice alfo (hall bo unmafked, and 
nations fhall be convinced that though this Sect may have 
changed its form, yet that in (o doing it has only invigo- 
rated itfelf, and acquired new means of corruption. 

The Sieur Boetiger-, the Quixotte of the illuminées, Bode the 
and of the Brother Bode in particular, alfo makes ano- '^ w chief 
thcr avowal, viz. That his hero Bode really becané the °* c " e ^ e "* 
chief of the Illuminées in his part of Germany. f No 
Brother before him had ever made this avowal; but it 

* See Endemonia, Vol. VI- No. 2. 

T The Sieur Boetiger» Director of the Gymnafium at Wei- 
mar, and the auxiliary adept fo famous for his Eulogy 00 Rode, 
which was only laughed at in Germany, has many other claims 
to ridicule betide thofe recorded in his writings. Ihe Englifh 
may overlook the numerous demands of this kind that he has 
upon us in about half a dozen Magazines and Reviews in which 
he co-operates, for his diflertations on the Roman Ladies, on 
their toilets, and on their-./v/w; on America, md on China; oq 
the Etrufcau Vafes, on the Acling of a Player, and, in fiiort, 
on many other {abjects. But what it mod concerns trie Englifh 
people to know is, that the man, whole authority is fet up in 
Favor of the Brotherhood, is as well known in Germany for his 
talents as a leader of faction, as he is for his treadles on toilets 
and fans. Nor did he on the news of the imnurtal victory of 
Admiral Duncan reftrain his Jacobin rage in his journal's, or 
blulh at faying that it nuas doubtful whether the Englifli had 
gained this victory by the interference of heaven or of hell, 
whether it came from above or beliyw (von oben oder von un- 
ten); and that it was the opinion of many, that it would have 
been a greater happinefs for ihe Englijh to have l»Jl the battle 
than to have gained it. Such, nevertheless, is the man whom 
v/e find placed in competition with, and even let upas an au- 
thority againft the patriotifm of Mr. Robifon. 

This very fame man moreover writes to inform the EngliuH 
that he is no Illuminée. He may gain credit in England; but 
in Germany he is afked what buiinefs he had with the Miner- 
val Lodges of IVtimir? — !n what quality could he pretend to 
inherit the papers of a chief of llluminifm, which, according 
to the laws of the Sect, could only be entrufVed to brethren ? 
Or for what reafon, after having been lb intimately connected 
with Bode, does he Hill continue to he th laborious co-opera* 
tor or the adept Wieland in the Nena German Men ury? 

Thi3 auxiliary adept silo wiites to the Englifh, thar the Duke 
of Saxe Gotha, 01 application to him for that purpofe, nuould, 
•doubtleft, permit the infpeclion of thofe paper 1 of Bode's. But no 
fuch. invitation is made to the Germans ; to them he talks of a 


perfectly coincides with the information that I had re- 
ceived concerning this infamous Illumine". It is under 
the direction of this adept, therefore, whofe talents for 
confpiracy were fo much admired by P^//c-Knigge, that 
we are now to trace the labors and progress of the Sedr. 
To avert the public attention by means ef fabulous 
fcable of plots, and to conceal their own that they might profecutc 
the Jetuits tnc j r conquelts in the mafonic Lodges; to en fn are that 
*»d hs V ' c ^ s ca ^ e ^ men °* l ctters ) a "d at length taint the whole 
ohieâ. ma ^ s °^ tne P e °pl G ' A 'i tn tne ' r principles ; werç the objects 
of jf;;ieuits-BooE, and of the new Areopagites who pre- 
sided over Illuminifrn after Weifhaupt's flight and the 
tiifperfion of the Bavarian adepts. Among the various 
means devifed, one might appear Angularly ridiculous but 
for the aftonifhing advantages drawn from it by the Sech 
I mean the fable of the Jcfuits Mafonry. A prodigious 
number of volumes have been written in Germany, both 
by thofe who invented the fable, and by others who tho't 
k incumbent on them to warn the public of this new arti- 
fice of Illuminifm. I will not wander into ufelefs detail, 
but will limply lay before my reader the leading points by 
which he may trace the Sedt. until it attains the period of 
its power in our revolutions. 

As an acf of homage to the defpot Weifhaupt, Pbilo- 
Knigge was the nrft who, in the year 1781, and under 

Prince being in poffè/îion of all Bode's papers, but does not 
venture to name the prince. He knew too well that perfons on 
the fpot might attempt to gain that admittance to infpect the 
papers, if Boetiper's word could be a fufficient incitement to 
thofe, who think they have acquired a certainty that the prince 
poffelTor has powerful reafons for not Jhcwing xh&iiuo trunks 
full of papers that he bought at fuch aa immenle rate, and for 
not giving an invitation to the public fimilar to that which the 
court of Bavaria ordered to be inferted at the head of the Ori- 
ginal Writings. 

I, in my torn , invite the Author of the Monthly Magazine to 
infert thefe reflecuons in his publication, as he did Boetiger's 
letter in oppofition to Mr. Robifon in that of January, 1798. 
My teafon for making this invitation is, becaufe I have been in- 
formed that fume pei ions ruve been duped by that Utter, and 
really thought that the exifrenoe of this Sect, and or its plots, 
the moft monllrous and moft fubtle that ever exiitedj was chi- 

f c^.n t^/'o inf.rm my readers, that ai! the Secret Writings of 
Bode are not at Gotha. Many of his letters are at this moment 
printing m my correfpondents inform me, that they perfect- 
cord wi-.h the ilateniirits in my Memoirs. 


the name of Aloysius Mayer, publiflied this idea of 
the Jefuits Mafonry. He took it up again in the circu* 
lar letter written by order of Spartacus to the Mafonic 
Lodges; he again infills on it in his additions to the 
Hijhry of ' Free- Mafonry.* The adepts Ostertag at 
Ratifbon, Nicolai and Biester at Berlin, and a fwarm 
of other Illuminées, (ought to give fanclion to this Fa- 
ble by their writings. As yet, however, it was difficult to 
form a precife idea of this ilory of the Jefuits Mafon- 
ry, or whether it was true or falfe. Bode at length made 
a collection of every thing that could be faid on the fub- 
ject, and fent the whole of thefe materials to the Brother 
Bonneville at Paris. f He foon publiflied his worlc, 
entitled 'J he fe faits expelled from Free-mafonry\ and 
this production, lent to all the regular Lodges, was fup- 
pofed to be the death-blow to this terrible phantom. 

On inveftigating thefe different productions, we ob- 
ferve, that their drift was to make the Free-maibns be- 
lieve that ail their Lodges were fecretly under the direc- 
tion of the Jefuits ; that the whole of their myftexiesj 
their fecrets and their laws, were but an invention of 
the Jefuits ; that each Mafon, without fufpecting it, was* 
but the Have and inftrument of that fociety which had 
lung fince been looked upon as extinct, but whofe mem- 
bers, though difperfed, itill preferved an afcendancy dis- 
graceful to Mafonry, and dangerous to nations and their 
rulers. The refult of all this tended to perfuade the bre» 
thrcn, that true Mafonry was not to be fought for either 
among the Roficrucians or the Scotch Knights, and ftill 
lefs among the Englifh Mafons, or thofe of the Strict 
Obfervance; but folely among the Eclectic Lodges that 
were under the direction of the Illuminées.;]; 

The name of Jefuit is certainly a formidable bug-bear 
to many people, efpecially to thofe who could never par- 
don their zeal for the Roman Catholic faith; and it can- 
not be denied, that if conftancy in the caufe of that reli- 
gion was hateful, they were well entitled to the hatred 
of the enemies of the Catholic faith. It is obfervablej 
that it was in thofe very parts of Germany where the 

* See thefe works and the Original Writings, Vol. If. Let. 
az, from Weifhaupt, and Let. i. from Pbib. — Alfo the Circu» 
lar Letter, Part II. Sett. Vf. 

f Endliche Schickfal, Page 38. 

% See Pbile's Circular Letter and his conclulion. 


Lodges were chiefly compofed of Proteftant brethren, 
Its fuccefs. that this fable made che moil aftonifhing impreflion, no- 
thing being talked of but Jefuits under the cloak of Ma- 
fonry, and their great confpiracy. One might have tho't 
that the confpiracy of the Illuminées was entirely for- 
gotten; but that was not their only objecr. The Mafonic 
Brethren of the ordinary Lodges heard fo much of their 
being the dupes of the Jefuits, that they abandoned the 
Strict Obfervar.ce and the Roficrucians, and flocked to 
the Eclectic Mafons, then under the direction of the lllu - 
mimes. The Mafonic Revolution was fo complete and 
fo fatal to ancient Mafonry, that its zealous Matters and 
Vénérables declared this fiction of Jefuits Mafonry to be 
aco; f tiracy truly worthy of a Danton or a Robefpierre.* 
In vain did the more clearfighted Mafons point out the 
(hare, to vindicate their reputation and put a flop to the 
general defertion. Their demonfhations came too late; 
befide, they were written by Proteibnis, who were ftrong- 
ly prejudiced againft the Jefuits or knew but little about 
them.f But, unfortunately, when Germany really dis- 
covered the drift of the fable, the greater part of the Ma- 
ibns had united with the Illuminées for fear of falling a 
prey to the Jefuits, and many others had entirely aban- 
doned the Lodges, chafing to be neither Illuminées nor 
Jefuits. Thus was that threat of Weifhaupt accornpliih- 
ed, that he would either conquer the Stricl Obfervance 
and the Roficrucians, or deftroy them. 

Were it not that prejudice often deprives men of the 
ufe of their reafon, one mould be afronifhed to fee the Ma- 
fons fall into fuch a paltry fnare. Suppofing that I were to 
go to the Mother Lodge of Edinburgh, the Grand Lodge 
of York or that of London, and fay to their Directories and 
Grand Matters, you thought that you prended over the 
Mafonic World; you looked upon yourfelves as the guar- 
dians of the grand fecrets of Mafonry, and as the grant- 
ers of the diplomas ; but all this time you were miftaken, 
and little fufpe&ed that you were, and iiill continue to be 
nothing more than puppets put in motion by the jefuits. 

• Wahrlich ein project eines Dantons oder Robefpierre 
Wurdig ( Endlicbe Schickfal, Page 3».) 

f See on this ûibjeâ the Endiiche Schiekfal, the works en- 
titled, Der Aujgezogene Vorbang der Frey Maurery, &c. — And 
particularly the laft hundred pages of ihs work Uhsr dit Altsn 
vudKcuen Myfierien t Chap. XVI. Sec, 


Could one, I aflc, invent any thing more degrading either 
to the human mind, or to that common fenfe which muft, 
I fuppofe, be granted to the heroes of Mafonry ! Such, 
however, was the whole fable of the Jefuits Mafonry.—. 
When fpeaking of the Englifh Mafons, the authors and a- 
bettors of this fable fay, " It is true y there are fome (of 
« thofe Englifh Mafons) whofufpeâî that they are led by 
cc the ncfcy but thefe arc few. ... It is more common a- 
" mong them than any where elfe> for certain members to 
" renew from time to time the idea of unknown Superiors;'* 
and thofe unknown Superiors who lead the Englilh by the 
nofe are always the Jefuits.* 

Ere long the reproach becomes general ; all that mul- 
titude of degrees invented in France, in Sweden, and in 
Germany, becomes an invention of the Jefuits, as well 
as the Englilh and Scotch degrees ; J- and a fort of epi- 
demical ftupidity alone hinders the Brotherhood from feel" 
ing their bondage ; at leaft fuch muft be the natural con- 
fequence of this fable. How could the German Mafons 
poiîibly avoid perceiving the abfurdity of it ? Their pro- 
found adepts and the ElecT: of all nations flocked to Wil- 
lemfbaden, and in the fpace of thirty years they held five 
or fix general afiemblies; how came it to pafs that all 
thefe brethren combining their fecrets, their government, 
and their laws, revifing, meditating, and correcting, not 
only their myfteries but their whole code, were purblind 
enough not to furmife at leaft that of which they were af- 
terwards fo fully perluaded when they returned to their 
Lodges, viz. " that they were but the vile inftruments 
and ilaves of the Jefuits ?" There can be no medium 5 
either the Mafons muft be the offspring of the groffeft 
ftupidity and folly (and then what becomes cf their great 
lights and their fcience of fciences fo much extollea), or, 
the invention of the Jefuits' Mafonry muft be a moft ab- 
furd fable (and in that cafe why do they flock to the 
Lodges of the Illuminées for fear of meeting a bugbear in 
their own) ? 

This fable too appears ftill more abfurd when we re- 
flect that fuch men as Philippe D'Orléans, Condorcet, Sy- 
eves, or Mirabeau, with 16 many other Deifts, Atheifts, 
A a 

* See the Jefuits expelled Mafonry , Part I. P. ji and 33. 
f Phih's Circular Letter, 

I?5 ANTISOCIAL conspiracy; 

and moft inveterate enemies and afTaffins of the Jefuits, 
and of all thofe who preached the fame doctrines, were 
■ ot the head of Mafonry! 

It may alio be worthy of remark, at what period thefe 
Religious are transformed into the Grand Matters and 
Diredrors of that multitude of Lodges fpread from Eaft 
to Weft ? It is after they have been abohihed ; it is when, 
forbidden to form a community, they are difperfed thro*- 
out the different diocefes acting the part of private mis- 
fionaries under the infpection of their Bifhops : this is the 
period chofen for inftalling them governors and directors 
of a vaft confraternity of Mafons ? It is when ftripped of 
every thing, driven from their habitations, having fcarce- 
Jy wherewith to procure the neceflaries of life, that they 
arc fuppofed to command all the funds of the Mafonic 
Lodges I It is when, under the yoke of perfecution, they 
continue to preach the doctrines of the Go/pel, that they 
are accufed of a fuppofed fecret impiety and of a profound 
policy ! Il' they are impious, at leaft we muff, allow them 
to be as aukward in their impiety and as imbecile as thofe 
ivho could fuppofe thern to have poflefled forne ingenuity; 
for in the mid It of their fuppofed impiety, of their Deifti - 
cal and Atheift ical, their rebellious and anarchical princi- 
ples, they have been aukward enough always to have for 
their greateft enemies not only the Deifts and Atheifls of 
Mafonry but thofe of every other clafs ! On the other 
» hand, they are fuppofed to be the authors of the new mys- 
teries of Mafonry, and they are artful enough to intro- 
duce them by means of proteftant leaders, fuch as a Baron 
Hund or a Zinnendorff; befide, thefe myfteries are 
only multiplied in the divers Lodges in order to create 
inteftine jealoufies, hatreds, &c. which all the general 
meetings of the Sect could not reprefs ! This alfo muft " 
be the work of a body profoundly politic ! Did thefe ter- 
rible Jefuits then think to add to their power by thus de- 
ffroying the Mafonic puppets which they had folong go- 
verned, in place of uniting thofe millions of brethren or 
flaves under one law, who might have formed an impene- 
trable phalanx againft their enemies ? 

Certainly we muft be aftonifhed at the abfurdity of this 
fable of the Jefuits' Mafonry; but our aflonimment in- 
creafes on examining the proofs whereon it is grounded.* 

* Some readers may perhaps tax me with treating this fable, 
and the proofs adduced by the Illuminées) as abfurd and incon-. 


Let us fuppofe that Nicolai, Knigge, Bode and the 
.other writers of the Brotherhood, hnd made a compila- 


ceivable, only that I might be difpenfed from trouble of refut- 
ing demonfirations perhaps difficult to be anfwered. Should 
any fuch be found among my readers, Jet them turn to thole 
writings which fome of the nsoft famous adepts, fuch for ex- 
ample as Mirabeau, or rather his initiator and recruiter Mau- 
vilhn, extol in the higheft terms ; and which are not (he lays) 
to be looked upon as a merefyfiem, but as a complete digejl and 
exacl flatement of the principal fails that led in Germany to the 
d if cover y of this Mafonry of the Jefuits. (See Mirabeau s Prus- 
fian Monarchy, Vol. V. Book VIII. Page 77.) This famous 
book is entitled, The Jefuits expelled from Mafonry, and their 
poignard broken by the Mafons. In the very firit page we fee 
engraven on a plate this poignard with the compafs.the fquaxe» 
the triangles, the eagles, ûars, and every thing that he fuppofes 
to be the emblems of Scotch Mafonry. Should it be aiked where 
this poignard was found, no anfwer is given; but in the fol- 
lowing very ingenious manner the writer pretends to demon- 
ftrate that the great authors and directors of Scotch Mafoniy 
were Jeluits: 

ill. Bonneville declares this Mafonry to confia cf four de- 
grees, the Apprentice, the Fellow-Craft, the Mailer, and the 
Scotch Mailer. The pafs-words in thefe degrees are Boaz and 
Tubal-cain for the firil; Shiboleth, Chiblin, Notuma, for the 0- 
thers. Boaz feems to have puzzled him; he therefore rcj^s 
it, and only takes the four initials, T. S. C. N. 

The Jefuits alfo had four degrees, the Lay Brothers, (that is 
to fay) thofe who, as in all leligious Orders, were only admit- 
ted as fervants, fuch as the cooks» gardeneis, &c. Thefe the 
Jefuits called Temporal Coadjutor s . Bonneville overlooks Co-, • 
adjutor, but takes the initial of Tt mp»ral; and he thus gets T, 
which demonftrates that the Lay Brother Jefoit is the fame ss 
the Apprentice Malbn, alfo denoted by T. The i cond degree 
among the Jefuits is that of the young itudents, and thefe were 
called Scolajlici, or Scholars; but when they had finiihed their 
ftudies, and taught in their turn, they became At. 
Matters: The S in SeoUfUci'is convenient for Bonneville's de* 
monftration, and it becomes the S of the Shiboleth of the Fe-'- 
low-Craft. The third degree of the Jefuits is that of Spirit 
Coadjutor, who took the three common re >ws; here 

the C initial of Coadjutor is the C of ChiUijn, *od Boon 
has not the fl'ghteft doubt but the fpirmial Co 1 the 

Tefuits is the Mafler in Free-malonry. At 1er the 

fourth degree, or the profeffed Jefuits, that >s, rh to tie 

three firft vows have added that of going to preach the Qoipei 
in whatever part cf the world the Pope ch 1 — 

Thefe were called the prqfejfèd Jefuits; but the • 

would not ferve Bonneville's purpofe, he wa 

iherefore, that thefe ptafeflèd v.- 
gcis an N, the evident Notuma of the Sco( 
xy. Thus it^s that by comparing the ï'. S. C. N. oi Mâlbnry 


tion of every thing that was odious in Mafonry, and had 
fubftituted the word ftfuit for that of Free-mafon or Ro- 
/uruciarifVft (hall then have a pretty accurate idea of the 
general courfe followed by the illuminizing Mafons. It 
would be exactly as if any hiftorian were to take it into 
his head, when treating of Weimaupt's Code, to fubffi- 
tute the word jfefuit in lieu of Illuminée, and that without 
being able to name a fingîe Jefuit agami! whom the ac- 
cufation could be preferred, notwithilanding the ardent 
defire of thele barefaced calumniators to mention fome one 
at leafl of the culprit Jefuits. It is a long feries of contra- 
dictions. Neither do they agiee as to the time, the de- 
grees, or the ruyfferies of this Mafonry of the Jefuits.— 
The fuie fact that might defeive to be inveftigated, had 

with the T. .9. C. /V. that lie had difcovered among the Jefuits, 
he prove? that the deptees of Scotch Mafonry are the fame as 
thofc of the Jcfu.ts. ("Stt the j\fuits expelled Mafonry t Vol. II. 
Page .5 and <'i ) 

Should the leader defire to know how the word Mafon pre- 
cifely anfw to the peçfeâ degree of the Jefuits, or ft> their 
Profeffed. Bonneviile will teit him, that the letters A. B. C. Sec. 
ixand for numbers i, », ;,. 8t,c. Su pooP- the Jefuits have adopt- 
ed this eafy cypher, aod then the four letters M. A. S. O.will 
give ia-fc>i-{-i8-ri4— 4?, and then remains N, the very initial 
letter of the Nssteb the for ft ft degree of the jefuits. to which 
the? could enly be admitted at the age f forty-five! (Ibid. Page 
ft. J What a uity (exclaims Bonneville) that. this A r o/?>.'r mould 
be the prtfejfed Refait, ptofeffus quatuor votorum (Hid. Page 
6 J ; and a (till greater pity (fay 1) tor his polition, that, ac- 
cording to the constitutions of the Jefuits, at the age of twen- 
ty-five they might be admitted to take the fourth vow, provid- 
ed they had finifhed their courfe of divinity. (Confit. S-jàcî. 
Jef. Part I. Chap. II. No. ia, <k Admittendis.) Another mis- 
fortune was. t; thofe jefuits who had taught in their had generally terminated their courfe of divinity and 
taken Their lair vow by the age of tkirty-thixs. 

Were I to go en to ft )w, that the G, or the God, of the Ma- 
fons becomes the Gênerai of the Jefuits, becaufe General be- 
gins with a G. — that the Jubal, an the motician ôf the Maibns* 
is a Jefuit, becai .</ and Jefu;t both > begin with a J .-- ■ 

that the Hihn of the myfteries is a Jefuit, becaufe 

H=8 and A = i and the total 9= J.; in fhoit, were I to pro- 
c ed to enumerate live or hx hun : of the fame iia> 

tme, all given s Ibtiry» rny readef 

« ,1 i be alnv . • traducing iJon- 

neville. I muft, therefore, refer him to tjbe authoi hnnifeif; and 
let that man read and ftudy hifti who is not difgulled at the 
re- ii of the firft pages» and at the impudence with which 
this author wiihes tg impofe upon the public. 


any proof been adduced iii confirmation of it, was that oi 
the jefuits converting Mafonry into a confpiracy for the 
r:intfatementof the Stuarts on the Englifla Throne. But 
of" what confequence could tlvir rçinftaternent on the 
throne, or a fecret of that nature, he to the S wedifli, Rus- 
fian, Polonefe, or Dutch Mafons ; and how could one 
pietend to perfuade the Engliflî and Scotch Mafons that 
their Mafonry, Code, and Emblems, long anterior to the 
cataftrophe of the Stuarts, were onïy myiferics invented 
to reinfhte the Stuarts on the throne ? Should an his- 
torian ever umtertake to write the nifrory of the extraor- 
dinary reveries of the human mind, lei. hirri not forget thole 
rth by the IHumiaecs dn this occallon; and were it 
not for the eminent ufe it was of to them for the propa- 
gation of their plots, I mould never have thought of trou- 
bling my reader with it, or of ferioufly refuting lb incohe- 
rent a fable. We muft next turn our attention to a coa- 
lition more real and far more difa(troos,I mean that known 
under the name of the Germanic Union. 

A 1 



•Its principal Aclors, and the Con- 
ouefis it prepared for the Illuminées. 

FTER having defcribed fo many plots, unmafked 
io much artifice, and difclofcd fuch various means 
of deluhon and Induction, all tfluing from the dens of im- 
,', why am I forbidden to lay down my pen, and aban- 
doning thcic: dark haunts of vice, to allume the plealmg 
of.defcribing the habits of the virtuous man, or of a. 
n»ti< , and enjoying the fweets of peace beneath 

the fhadow of its laws, and that under a beloved monarch, 
revered ftiU more as the father than as the fovereign of 
his peaceful empire? Alas ! the fight of fuch a nation 
has vaniihed from the face of the earth; thrones totter 
and diiappear ; fiâtes weep over the ruins of their religion 
and of their laws, or are yet painfully ftruggiing with the 
devouring monuer. Danger flalks on every fpot; and if 
happier days are mentioned, it can only ftimulate us to de- 
nounce the too long concealed caufer. of our misfortunes, 
in hopes of feeing once again thofe nearly forgotten days 
return. Though the mind revolts at the idea, yet for the 
:c good we will purfue that tribe of Weifliaupt ; 
and fo far from giving repofe to our thoughts, we mall be 
once more hurried into new plots and machinations in- 
vented by the molt profound adepts of Illuminiim, and hor- 
ridly famous in Germany under the name of the German 
I'nion. To underftand perfectly the object of this Union, 
the hiftorian muft revert to confpiracies anterior to thofe 
The G«r- of Weiihaupt. 

manic U- "v Vc have often feen Voltaire boafting of the progrefs 

nion ; it* that Infidelity was making in the north of the German 

•ngin. Empire. This progrefs was not folely to be attributed to 

his labors, nor had he Lhe ieaft fufpicion of the many co- 

I \v. re fecpnding his views. 

■ in the very heart of Prote"ftantifm and of its fchools, a 

Confpiracy had been formed againft the Proteftaht and 

. led religiffi, inveterate in its means 


and agents as that formed by Holbach's club. The Pa- 
rifian Sophiiters openly attacked Jeiws Chrift andall Chris- 
tianity. The clubs, or rather fchools, or" the North of 
Germany, under rrççtence of purifying the Protejiant 
Religion, and ol 5 it to the principles of true Chris- 

tianity, ftripped it of „♦! the myfteries of the Gofpel, redu- 
ced it to that fpecies ...i" Deifrn which they decorate with 
the name of Natural Religion, and thus hoped to lead 
their adepts to a negr fcion of all Religion. Thefe new 
lawgivers did not absolutely profcribe revelation ; but re- 
velation was to be fubjtcted to the judgment of their rea- 

The Antichriftian Confpiracy had originated rn France 
with thofe men who ftyled themfelvcs Philofophers, and 
who profeffed to be ftrangers to all theological erudition. 
In Germany it took rife in the heart of the Univerfities, 
and among their Doctors of Divinity. In France the So- 
phiiters confpiring againft all Religion cried up the tole- 
ration of the Protectants, in hopes of deftroying the Ca- 
tholic faith; in Germany the Proteftant Doctors abufed 
that toleration in order to fubftitute Philofophifm to the 
tenets of their church. 

The firft of thefe German Doctors who, under the 
mafk of Theological difquiiitions, engaged in this Anti- 
chriftian Confpiracy, was Semler, protefTor of Divinity Semler. 
in the Univerfity of Halle, in Upper Saxony. The only 
ufe he appears to have made of his knowledge would lead 
us to fuppofe that he imbibed his principles from Bavle, 
father than from the true iburces of Theology. Like 
fiayle, we may obferve him here and there fcattering a 
few ufeful truths, but equally inclining toward paradox 
2nd fcepticifm. Rapid as Voltaire, but destitute of his ele- 
gance, he can only be compared to that Antichriftian Chief 
for the multitude of contradictions into which he {tum- 
bles at every ftep. " It is not uncommon to fee him begin 
" a fentence with an opinion that he contradids before h* 
" concludes it. His predominant fyftem, and the only one 
" that can be gathered from his numerous reveries, is, 
" that the fymbols of Christianity and of all other Sects 
M are objects of no confequence; that the Chriftian Re- 
11 ligion contains but few truths of any importance ; and 
" that every perfon may felec~t thefe truths an! decide up- 
w on them as he pleafes. His fcepticifm has never per- 
« mitted him to fix upon any religious opinion for hit»- 



« felfj unlei's it be when he clearly profefles, that Proteft- 
" antifm is not founded on bettor grounds than any of 
* ( the other Sects ; that it Jlill /lands in need of a very 
u great reform} and that this reform fhould be effected 
44 by his Brethren the Doctors of the Univerl'ties.'** 

This' new reformer began to propagate his doétrines 
Ra early as the year 1754, and continued to circulate 
them, in German and in Latin, in a thoufand different 
fhapes. At one time in an Hiftàricol and Critical Col- 
légien-, at another, in Free Difçvijïtions on the Canons or 
Rcclefiajiicai Laws; then in an Injiitutidn oj the Chris- 
tian DoStrine ; and, above ail, in an Ejfay on the Art and 
School of a Free Theology, Soon after a new Doctor ap- 
pears, attempting to make this deiîred reform, or to fup- 
preft the remaining mvfteries that Luther and Calvin 
had not thought proper to reject. This was William 

Teller. Abraham Teller, at firft ProfeflTor at Helmftadt in 
the Dutchy of Brunfwick, afterw.irds Chief of the Con- 
fiftory and Provuft of a Church at Berlin. He made his 
firft efî'ay for deftroying the myfteries by publiflvmg a Ca- 
techifniy in which, fcoffing at the divinity of Chrift,he re- 
duces his religion to Socinianifm. Soon after this, his 
pretended Ditiionary of the Bible was to the Ger- 
mans " methods to be followed in explaining the Scrip- 
" tures; by which they were to fee no other dodtrine in 
" the whole of Chriftianity than true Naturalifm, under 
t£ the cloak and fymbols of Judaifm."f 

About the fame time appeared two other Proteftant 
Doctors, who carried their new-fangled Theology Jlill 
nearer to t he J late of a degraded and Antichriftian Philo- 

Damm fophifm. Thefe w ere the Doctors Damm and Bahrdt $ 

& Bahrdt. the former the Rector of a College at Berlin, the latter a 
Doctor of Divinity at Halle, but a man of fuch infamous 
morals, that even Philo-Krii^ge was afhamed to fee his 
name among Weifhaupt's elect, and did not even dare to 

Loffler. pronounce it.J Loffler, the fuperin tendant of the 
Church of Gotha, ran the fume career of impiety, as well 
as many others whofe writings might have been taken for 
the compofitions of the Iiluminizing Epopts. The faihion 
of inveftigating religion merely to overturn its myfteries 

* See A"<*âz of a Secret Coa'.hion againjl Religion and Mo- 
narchy. The Appendix. No. 9. 

f Ibid. Appendix, No. 1©. i Endliche erklarung, P. 13a* 


became fo common in'the German provinces, that the Pro- 
teftant Religion Teemed to be doomed to fall by the hands 
of its own Doctors, when at length a few of thofe Mini- 
fters who were ftill fired with çeal for their tenets raifed 
their voices to denounce this conspiracy. 

The Doctor DESMAREES,Tuperintendant of the Church 
of DefTau, in the principality of Anhalt, and the Doctor 
Stark, famous for his erudition and his conflicts with 
Uluminifm, firft called the attention of the public to this 
riling Seel: ; the former in his Letters on the New Pas- 
tors of the Protejlant Church, and the latter in his Ap- 
pendix to the pretended Crypto-Catholicifm andjefuitif?n. 
Nothing can better probe the wound which the Proteft- 
ant Church had juir. received, than the fummary view ta- 
ken of the doctrine of thefe new paftors, by the fuperin- 
tendant of DefTau in the following terms : 

" Our Proteftant Divines fucceflively attack all the 
P fundamental articles of Chriflianity. They do not let 
^ c one Tingle article of the general fymbol of faith fubfift. 
** From the Creation of Heaven and Earth to the ReTur- 
" rection of the Body, they combat every Tingle article."* 

While thefe theological adepts were perverting their 
fcience to inundate Germany with their crafty Philofo- 
phifm, a fécond confederation was forming at Berlin for 
the propagation of thefe works, extolling them as the on- 
ly productions worthy of the public attention. At the head 
of this league was one Nicolai, a Bookfeller. Before Nicolai* 
this man's time we have often feen Bookfellers who, actu- 
ated by avarice, indifcriminately fold books of the moft 
impious and feditious, and others of the moft pious ten- 
dency; but a phenomenon that had never been feen be- 
fore, was a Bookfeller whofe impiety overcame his love 
of gain, and who would rather Tacrifice the profits to be 
acquired by the fale of religious works, than allow them 
to be difperfed among the people. Nicolai was a Book T 
feller of fuch a ftamp as D'AIembert wifhed to find, and 
fuch as he would have been himfelf had it been his pro- 
B b 

* Proteftantifche Gottefgelehrten greifen einen grund arti- 
kel des Chriftenthums nach dem andem an ; lafTen in ganzen 
Allgemeinen Glaubens-bekemnifs vom Schopfer himmels imd 
der erde, bis zur auferftehung des fleifches nicln unan gefoch- 
ten. — ( 'Uher die neuen itilicbter der ProtaJla?itiJchen Kirdrj er- 
Jej heft, S. 10.J 


fefïion. It was exclufively to the propagation of Impiety 
that he had dedicated his commerce and his literary ta- 
lents, for he would alfo be a fophifficajed writer. He was 
not even initiated into the myfteries of Weifhaupt, when 
he had actually formed the pian for overturning the Chris- 
tian Religion in Germany by one of thole means which, 
governments have never yet fufficiently attended to, or 
been aware of. At the head of his bufinefs as aBookfel- 
ler, he alfo undertook to be the compiler of a foit of 
weekly Encyclopaedia, which he entitled The Univerfal 
German Library.* At once the compiler and falefman- 
of Impiety, he engaged feveral Sophiiters to co-operate 
with him. He alio leagued with many men cf great learn- 
in-- and merit, whole articles being infected in his Jour- 
nal were to ferve as a cloak for the more impious ones, 
whence the readers were to imbibe his baneful principles. 
The moft dangerous articles of this fort were thofe writ- 
ten by himfelf, by the famous Jew Mendelsohn, by 
Biester, Librarian to the King, and by Gedike, 
Counfellor to the Confittory of Berhn. It was not 
long, however, before the tendency of this Journal waâ 
difcovered. It was obferved, that all their praifes were 
lavifhed on thofe very men whofe doctrines were levelled 
at the total overthrow of thofe myfteries of Chriftianity 
which had been preferved by Luther and Calvin. The 
man whofo well feconded the views of Weifhaupt with- 
out knowing it could not long efcape the notice of the 
Scrutators. The Seel had one in particular whofe name 
will hereafter become famous; this was the Brother Le- 
vi/Zfr-Leuchienring, who had been Preceptor to the Prin- 
ces at Berlin, and afterward to thofe of PlefTe Darmftadt. 
A fanatical recruiter, and though loquacious, very re- 
feryed on the myfteries, this Leuchfenring was then tra- 
velling as an Iniinuator. Hanover and Neuwied already 

* J have quoted his Effay en the Templars ; and I thought 
mvfe'f bound to do fo, becaufe I found that his refearches per- 
fectly coincided with thofe which I had made on the accufa- 
tions preferred again ft thole Knights, and on the proofs that 
appeared on the face of the moft authentic documents relating 
to their judgment. I was not, however, on that account lefs 
concerned to fee the Impiety with which thefe refearches are 
replete. I alio obferved ail that ridiculous difplay of erudition 
on the Eaffometoï the Templars; but I cannot deny that his 
quotations are perfectly exact. 


bore teftimony of his zeal. He had attempted in vain to 
infinuate the Chevalier Zimmerman ; but Nicolai af- 
forded an eafy conqueft. It was foon complete; Ge- 
dilce and Biefter, following his example, only combined 
their confpiracy with Weifhaupt's myiteries. The Doc- 
tor Bahrdt had fallen as eafy a prey to the AlTelTor Mi- 
nos i but the Doctor viewed what had been done by his 
new Brethren, to fécond his views and writings againft 
Chriftianity, as of little avail — He thought he could lur- 
pafs all the artifices of Weifhaupt, Knigge, and Nicolai 5 
and his evil genius afforded him the means. 

The plan that he had conceived was nothing lefs than Its plao. 
to reduce all Germany, and by procefs of time the whole 
world, to the impoffibility of receiving any other lelTons, 
or of reading any other productions than thofe of the I1-. 
luminees. The means of reducing the literary world to 
this new (pedes of flavery are all contained in the laws 
laid down by this ftrange adept for a coalition famous in 
Germany under the title of the Germanic Union, Du 
Dentfcbe Union.* 

* The Sieur Boettivcr writes from Germany, a*d his letter 
is inferted in the Monthly Magazine for "January, 1798, that 
this plan, and the whole confederation of Dr. Bahrdt, arc only 
known to Mr. Robiion through the medium of the obfeureand 
defpicable Journal of Geijjen. This journal of Gtifien was ne 
ver defpicable in any one's eyes but thofe ol: the Illuminées, or 
of their votaries. They had their reafons for crying it down; 
and thofe very reafons mull enhance ils value in the eyes ol e- 
very honeft man. In the next place, how can this Boettiger 
preiume to aft'ert that this Journal was the only fource whence 
Mr. Robifon had derived his information? The great numbei 
of works quoted by Mr. Robifon mull evidently belie fuch an a •• 
fertion, and 1 willingly declare that it was difficult to procure 
more. Had he been in pofleflion of no other than that famous 
work known in Germany under the title of Mekr A* ■ 
Text, order, die Deutfcbe Union it r . r,— 

.(More Notes than I ext ; or, the German finionofthe t'wen- 
iy-Two,) ihat work which* according to Boettig :iui- 

ficed to open the eyes of the public, is that only known by the 
Journalof Gieffen? With a fimilar aiTu ranee dots this champ 
of IlluminifmaiTert this work to have been written by B uie, hs 
if there could be the leaft probability that Bode, who had taken 
fo active a part in this confpiracy, would he ve\ y foi ward in lav- 
ing it open to the public, and expofn :/*, 
Count if of Medetft, the daughter of Wandetn («he Sti >!ier), 
to public ridicuie, a woman whofecharmg lie fo much 
and with whofe writings hs lyas fo well acquainted. >< : 


This confederacy was to be governed by twenty-two 
adepts chofen from among that fpecies of men, who by 
their functions, tneir knowledge, or their labors, had ac- 
quired a greater facility in directing the public opinion 
toward all the errors of the Sect. The other brethren^ 
difperfed through the different towns, were to contribute 
by different means toward the grand object under the 
direction of the ivjenty-two^ each of whom had his de- 
partment afligned to him, as in Weifhaupt's Arcopage. 

The perlons who were chiefly to be fought after were 
authors, poft-mafters, and booki'ellers. Princes and their 
minifters were abfolutely excepted againft ; and people in 
favor at court, or in the different public offices, were not 
to be chofeq. 

Thefe confederates were divided into fimple officiates 
and active Brethren-) and the latter alone were initiated 
into the fecret, means, and object, of the coalition. The 
inftructions imparted to the brethren were drawn up in 
the fame ftyle and method that had long fince been adopt- 
ed by Bahrdt, and other apoftates from the proteftant uni- 
Verfities, to reduce Chriftianity to their pretended natural 
religion, by declaring Mofes, the Prophets, and even 
Chrilt, to have been men diftinguifhed, it is true, by their 
Wifdom, but who had nothing divine either in their doc- 
trines or their works. " To root out fuperftition, to re- 
" ftore mankind to liberty by enlightening them, to con- 
was the writer of this publication, which {0 well difplays the 
knavery of the German Union, how comes it to pafs that Mr. 
Gbfchen, a Bookfelrer of Leipfic, has avowed himfelf the au- 
thor of it, and is univerfally acknowledged as fuch? My read- 
ers muft perceive, that by entering into thefe digreffions, 1 on- 
ly dehgn to warn the public againft the different publications 
which the Illuminées are daily difper'fing to perfuade nations 
that their plots are chimerical, while they are puifuing them 
with redoubled ardor. 

I (lull alfo follow nearly the fame documents that Mr. Ro- 
bifon has adopted, as they perfectly coincide with the memo- 
rials that I have received from Germany. Ail that I (hall lay 
before my readers in this chapter may be faid to be extracts 
from the following German writings: News of a great andin- 
vifible confederation againft the Chrifiian religion and rmnat- 
chy. — The Syflem if the Cofhtopolitant dijeovered. — The Vienna 
'Journal by Hoffman — "Notice given before it is too late, by the 
urns.— More Notes than Text, iffc. — The Knowledge of the 
World and of Men, i£c. betides many other private letters and 
memorials on the Illuminées. 

Historical part. 197 

1C fummate the views of the founder even of Chriftianity 
xt without violent means, fuch is our object, (would they 
tt fay to the Brethren). It is for that purpofe that we have 
" formed a fecret fociety, to which we invite all thofe who 
" are actuated by the fame views, and are properly îenfi- 
" ble of their importance." 

As a means of accomplishing thefe objects-, and of pro- 
pagating their pretended light, thefe active brethren were 
to eftablifh in every town certain literary focieties, or 
reading clubs (lefgefchaften), which were to become the 
refort of all thofe who had not the means of procuring the 
daily publications. Thefe were to attract as many affo- 
ciates as poffible to thefe reading-rooms; watch their opi- 
nions, imbue them with the principles of the Order, leave 
thofe whofe zeal and talents gave but little hopes, among 
the common brethren; but initiate after certain prelimi- 
nary oaths, thofe who could be of any real fervice,and who 
entered fully into the views and plans of the Order. 

The fociety was to have its gazettes and journals, 
which were to be under the direction of thole adepts 
whofe talents were the moft confpicuous ; and no pains 
were to be fpared to deftroy all other periodical prints. 

The libraries of thele literary focieties were to becom- 
pofed of books all according with the views of the Order. 
The choice of thefe books and the care of furniihing them 
were to be left to thefecretaries> and particularly to book- 
fellers who were initiated in the myfteries of the coalition. 
The hopes conceived by the man who had planned this 
aflbciation were held out to the elect as an incitement to 
the founding of new ones. What advantages (would he 
fay) fhall we not gain over fuperftition by thus dircv 
the lectures in our mufeums ? What will we not do for 
men who, zealous in our caufe, anddifperfed in all parts, 
circulate every where, even in the cottages, the produc- 
tions of our choice? fhould we ever be mafters of the 
public opinion, how eafy will it be for us to cover with 
contempt, and bury in oblivion, every fanatical work that 
may be announced in the other journals, and on the con- 
trary extol thofe works that arc; wi ng to our 
views. £y degrees we (ball become m 
trade of bookfelling. Then will it be in vain for fanatics 
to write in defence of fuperftition and defpots, as they will 
neither find fellers, buyers, nor readers. 

X^eft bookfellers themfelves fhould protefl t an 


inftitutionof this nature, they were to be drawn into it by 
advantages propofed to them, and by the fears of being 
ruined fhould they not accede to the views of the coali- 
tion. They were to be aiïured, that the brethren would 
employ every poflible means to encourage the fale of 
works that met with the approbation of the union ; but 
would alfo impede the circulation of, and difcreditby their 
journals all fuch as were hoftile to their views. Neither 
had they to fear a diminution in their trade; the aflocia^» 
tion could encourage writers to multiply their productions 
by enfuring their fale; indeed, funds were to be eftablifh- 
» indemnify any bookfeller who, in place of felling 
fuçh works as were inimical to the views of the Union, 
would leave them concealed in his lhop, pretend that he 
had never heard of fuch works, or flatly refufe to fell them, 
thus abufing by every poflible means the confidence of 
authors and of the public. 

Such was the plan of the Germanic Union, or Dr. 
Bahrdt's mairer-piece. Never had the délire of tyranni- 
governing the public opinion invented a more per- 
fidious pian. One might be led to think it the reverie of 
j evil genius who had fworn to extirpate from the 
minus of the people all ideas of any focial or religious doc- 
■. There do, however, exift crimes which in the eyes 
of the honeifc man are aim oil: chimerical, but which pre- 
fent little difficulty when undertaken by a villain. He 
that had conceived the plan was with mifchievous propri- 
ety placed at the bead of the aflbciation. The dilfolute- 
nefs and infamy of his morals had not left him where- 
with to fubfiil in any decent way, when on a fudden he 
purchafed, near Halle, a large màuûon which he called 
after his own name Bahrdt's-rube. This was foon con- 
vened into the head-quarters of the new Union. But it 
could never have acquired any great contingency bad it 
not been for Nicolai, who had long been laboring accord- 
ing to Bahrdt's views. The immenfe correfpondpnc 2 that 
1: ; had by means of his commerce with the other boo^iel- 
Iers of Germany; the fort of dominion that he enjoyed 
over the liter by means of his Urùverjal L i &'>**■ 

court paid to him by different authors whofe for- 
tunes depended on the rank he choie to affign them in 
Library y ox m the Berlin Journal, the Monatbfcbrift \ 
ana more particularly the art with which he contrived to 
. eat number of bookfeller. , gave him a pow- 


cr that no fovereign could ever pretend to. His ill urn!- 
nized co-operators, Biefter, Gedike, and Leuchfenring, 
became more ardent, daring and impious, than ever in the 
journals which they compiled. Bode like wife would have 
one at Weimar under the title of the Univerjal Literary 
Gazette. Another of the fame nature was fet on foot at 

Saltzbourg, by Hubner, who was alfo an Illumine? ■ 

The offspring of Weifhaupt were ail warned of the fire!* 
which they were to lay on thefe publications, and they 
foon became a molt terrible fcourge on all writers who 
would not Sacrifice their principles to impiety. The fa- 
ble of the Jefuits Mafonry was now improved by a new 
fiction that fpread difmay in the mind of every writer who 
y/iOied to oppofe liie progrefs of Illuminilm. 

Thofe very Jefuits who have juif hern feén reprefent- 
ed as the molt artful infidels, and as fecretly preiiding over 
the Mafonic lodges, were now become mofr zealous Ca- 
tholics, who had fecretly mingled among the Ft oteftants, 
in order to bring thefe provinces back to the Roman Ca- 
tholic religion and fubject. them to the dominion of the 
Pope. Every man who dared defend any one of thofe 
myfteries that can only be known either to Catholic or 
Proteftant through Revelation, every man who preached 
fubmiffion to fovereigns and the laws of the ftate, was 
immediately ptoclaimed a Jcfait y or the fervile flave of 
Jefuitifm. One might have thought that all the proteftant 
provinces were filled with thefe Jefuits, fecretly confpi- 
ring agaiaft the proteftant religion; and my readers will 
eafily conceive what an impreffion fuch a charge muff, 
have made to the difadvantage of any writer in thofe pro- 
vinces. Neither the office of miniftcr nor of fuperintend- 
ant of a church could fcreen a peilbn from {o terrible an 
imputation. Even that man was not proof againft if, 
who out of zeal for Luther and Calvin, had given full 
vent to all his hatred and prejudices againft the Jefuits; 
I mean Dr. Stark. In his work on The Ancient and 
Modern Myiieriss lie had declared, « that fovereigns had, 
« by the deftruclion of the Jefuits, rendered an ever me- 
« morable fervice to religion, to virtue, and to humanity** 1 
Nevertheleis M. Stark, at that time, as he ftill continues 
to be, a preacher and doctor of the Lutheran church, and 
alfo counfellor of a Confiftory at Darmibdt, was obliged 
to employ many pages of his apology in proving that" he 
was neither a Roman Catholic nor a Jefuit, and particu- 


Jarly that he was not one of the profeffed Jefuits y whs t 
having taken the four voivs, were obliged at the command 
of the Pope to go and preach the catholic faith wherever 
he chofe to fend them.* 

The Chevalier Zimmerman met with a fimilar fate, 
merely became he had laid open the plots of the Illumi- 
nées, and dared to ridicule the adept Levcller-L,e\ich{eti- 
ring,' who had propofed to initiate him into the Brother- 
hood that was foon to reform and govern the world, f — 
That celebrated man, an ornament to the Royal Society 
of London, is neverthelefs reprefented by the journalifts 
of the Seel: as an ignorant fellow, wallowing in fuperjli- 
tzcn, and an enemy of Light.% 

The Profelfor Hoffman, notwithftanding the high en- 
comiums that had been laviihed on him by thefe very 
journals, no fooner gave proofs of his zeal for religion 
and focial order, than he was reprefented in fimilar co- 
lors. Never had the difciples of Weifhaupt fa well prac- 
ifed that law laid down by their teacher, " Difcredit by all 
" means pofiible every man of talents that you cannot 
" bring over to your party." Nicolai gave the fignaj 
in his German Library, or in the Berlin Monathfchrift. 
The Brethren of Jena, of Weimar, of Gotha, of Bruns- 
wick, and of Slewick, immediately obeyed the fignal, and 
repeated the fame calumnies. " Shortly there were no 
u means of fcreening onefelf from a fwarm of periodical 
" writers, who had leagued with the modern Lucian j 
" they praifea what he had praifed ; they condemned what 
" he had condemned ; the fame turn in their phrafes, even 
ec the fame terms are to be obferved when they praife or 
" when they blame an author, and particularly the fame 
" farcafms and groffnefs of abufe."§ Scarcely could there 
be found in all Germany above two or three journals that 
were not in the hands of the united brethren, or perfons 
of the fame caft. 

Meantime the adept writers, together with Bahrdt, 
Schukz, Riem, and even P/^Vtf-Knigge, who in abandon- 
ing the Illuminées had not renounced their plots, with 
hundreds of other writers of the Sect inundated the pub- 

* See his Apology, Page 52 to 59. 

f Life of Zimmerman, by TifTot. i Ibid. 

*"§ The ultimate fate of Mafonry, Page 30; and News of as 
viable Affociation, Appendix, No. ir. 


V\c with their libels in verfe or profe, under the forms of 
comedies, romances, fongs, and diflertations. AH the. te- 
nets of religion, Catholic and Proteftant, were attacked 
with the molt bare-faced impudence. Now the fcenc 
began to change ; it was no longer to defend the Pro* 
teftants againft the attacks of the Catholicsi but the ob- 
literation of every religious tenet became their obvious 
defign. The moll pompous eulogiums were pronounced 
by the journalitls of the 'Seel: on all thofe productions of 
the brethren that openly diffeminated every principle of 
Impiety and Sedition.* But what muft appear a ftill more 
aftoniihing contradiction, though peifeclly coinciding 
with the views of the Sect, is, that thefe very men who 
wiihed fo deVpotically to fway the public opinion, and 
truih every writer that had not imbibed their principles, 
would pretend to perfuade Sovereigns that their fole ob- 
ject v/as to obtain that right inherent to them from na- 
ture, c to publifh their opinions and fyftems without dan- 
ger or conftraint.' Bahrdt in particular vindicated this 
pretended right, in his publication On the Liberty of the 
Prefs. It contained the fen ti men is of a rank Atheift, 
who wiftied to imbue his reader with all the moll abomi- 
nable principles*of Anarchy and Impiety; the author, ne- 
verthelefs, was extolled by the hebdomadary adepts, and, 
notwithstanding Bahrdt's vindication of the liberty of the 
prefs, they united all their efforts to crufli every writer 
that dared to auert an opinion contrary to theirs, 

The ufe which the brotherhood made of this liberty 
at length roufed the attention of fome few fovereigns.— » 
Frederic William, King of Prufiia, alarmed at the pro? 
grefs which thtfe impious and feditious writings were 
making, thought it necefTary to put a curb on them. He 
publifhed fome new regulations, called the Edicts for Re- 
ligion. This was received by the Illuminées with an au- 
dacity which feemed to denote that they had acquired a 
ftrength fufficient to b'd defiance to fovereigns, and both 
the Prince and the Edi£fc became the object of their far- 
cafms and moll violent declamations. At length appear- 
ed a work attributed to Bahrdt, that was the acme of in- 
folence, and, through denfion, was alio called the Ediof I^difco- 
for Religion. The magillrates ordered to take cogni- er Y' 
w c 

* Ibid. 


:e of this ihfult feized on the perfon and papers of 
rdt, and all the ncceiTary proois of this coalition and 
of its objecl were acquired. It might feem that the court 
of Berlin would have done well to have imitated the ex- 
■ie of that of Bavaria by making them public; but the 
adapts had too powerful agents about the miniftry; and 
lejtous arguments were invented for condemning to 
. archives of a new fpecies of confpiracy. — 
Ail that transpired was, that the plan had been really form* 
and that a number of authors, bookfellers, and peribns 
even who' could fcarcely have been fufpeéted, had entered 
into the aflbciation. It is not known how far Weifhaupt 
had contributed perfonaljy to it; but it appears that he 
iv ice attended at the heao-quarters of the united brethren j 
that he fpent lèverai days with Bahrdt; and that the moft 
lous and active of the united brethren were alfo difci- 
ples of Weiibaupt. if we are to believe JBahrdt, his fe- 
by two aftbeiates well worthy of their 
mailer. Thefe. were two young libertines, nearly beg- 
t who had the talents and meanneis neceflary to 
pme the clerks of his impiety. Notwithftanding the 
■;s adduced againft him, he got off with a flight im- 
prifonment, and fpent the remainder of«his exiftence in 
diftrefs, but without atoning for his vices. He was re- 
duced to keep a coffee-houfe at Bafferraorff near Halle, 
ré he ended his days as miferably as he had lived.—. 
The- illuminées have thought ht to abandon his memo- 
ry to that contempt which bis vicious life had entailed up- 
on hi. j-. ; but though they Mïected to blufh at his name, 
they nevertheless continued to profecute his plans, 
its contin- Indeed, at the time of the difcovery of this monftrous 
uation and con/piracy, it had gained too much ground to be crulhed 
"ffl- C " by the fall of its hilt contriver ; and Pi uffia, and all Ger- 
wS * many, foon became infected with thofe literary focieties. 
Nch were nothing mere than a modification of Wei- 
fhaupt's Minerval fchoois. Nor was there in a fhort 
time a town or a large village more free from this fpecies 
of literary focieties that from the llluminized Lodges j 
and they were all under the direction of the followers of 
the modern Spartacus. 

ij.'.hrdt's great object was, to place the aflbciates and 
other readers under a fort of impofftbility of procuring 
any other writings, or of applying to any other ftudies, 
than thofe of the Seûj and the precaution it had taken 


to initiaterfo many bookfellers proved a powerful (up- 
port. The conspiracy might have affumed a new form; 
but it ftill continued active, and its effects became more 
perceptible after its difcovery. It was then that the co- 
alition appeared between the bookfellers and the jour- 
nalifts of the Sect to fupprefs all books that counter- 
acted the progrefs of Sedition and Impiety. It was in 
vain for virtuous and pious men to attempt to open the 
eyes of the people ; they could fcarcely find a hookfelk r 
or a printer who would fell or print their works; or if 
any had confented they would endeavor to difguft the au- 
thor by delays, and a hundred other pretexts. Did the 
author undertake to print it at his own expenfe, the work 
was then thrown by in fome obfeure corner of the fhop 
and never expofed to fale, nor would any bookfcller at* 
tempt to fell it ; and the whole work would be fent back 
to the author under pretence that nobody would buy it. 
The very exiirence of fuch works was not mentioned at 
the fairs held in Germany for the fale of books. At other 
times the author was ftrangely betrayed^ the- printer giv- 
ing up his manufcript to the writers of the beet, and 
refutation (if the moil fcurrilous abu-fe can defefye 
name) was advertifed on the back of r . 1 as 

the firit edition made its appearance. Many authors n.ighr, 
have brought actions againft. their printers oi' a fimifar 
nature to that which Doctor Stark was obliged to brings 
and demonitrate a iimilar connivance with the Seel and 
breach of truft. " At leaft it is an undeniable fade, 
" many learned writers made fruitlefs applications to 
11 different bookfellers for publications that had been 
" fupprefled foleiy becaufe they gave umbrage to the 
" Illuminées. Their letters were never fo much as an- 
"fweredj and the very bookfellers who refufed to fend 
" thele books to thofe who applied for them, affec*bed to 
w defer the fale till the next fairs, as no buyers were to be 
; found." Many others of thefe works had fcarcely b 
delivered to the book fellers when they were tent back un- 
der the moft opprobrious pretences; ând w i'ur- 
priîe the reader i% that no perfons • 

ing fuch reluials as thole who moil op* 
Princes. In the very fiâtes of the K 

is r>und impoflible to get this foyereign's 
and his EdiSi for Religion fold in the common way.- - 
Scarcely had the author lent a few copies to the b'ooji 
Jcrs when thev were all returned to him. But did the 


Writers of the Se£r. wifh to publiih the mcft fcandalous 
deputations and the moft fcurrilous abufe agairjft fove- 
reigns and religion, or againft men in oflice or of high 
re fpect ability, the book idlers were alert in felling them, 
the journalilts extolled their excellence, and fought nu- 
merous readers for thte author.* 

On one hand, the great trada in thefe productions car- 
ried on by the Sect, with the certainty of felling them to 
the literary clubs; and on the other the great pecuniary 
contributions made by the rich brethren, formed large 
funds for the coalition. To thefe if we add the fums con- 
tributed by the brethren whom the Se£t had Rationed at 
different courts, in the church and the councils, either out 
of their own emoluments, or the revenues of the church 
and fhte, the reader will eaiily conceive how well thefe 
funds fufficed for indemnifying thoie bookfell-rs who had 
fuffered loffes by reftraining their commerce to works ap- 
proved of by the Aréopage. A particular fund was efta- 
blifiied for this purpofe. At the appointed time the boolc- 
felier had but to produce the lift of the works he had fup- 
prcired or reiufed to fell with the proper proofs, and he u- 
ceived afum of money fufticientto indemnify him for fuch 
loflès. The memorials which Ï have received from Ger- 
many, as well as feveral letters, inform me that this fund 
dill exifts in that country ; and the French Revolution 
has only furnifhed it with many others means of enrich- 
ing itfelf. 

Among the preat advantages reaped by the Seel from 
this plan which had been io well concerted, we may firft 
obferve the impoffibility under which authors lay of warn- 
ing the public againft the artifices of lllumimfm. In the 
next place it drew over to their intereft that fwarm of 
writers who, more hungry than honeft, are regardlefs of 
truth or falfehood, provided they obtain a good price. In 
:hort, it emboldened that multitude of Sophifters, more 
numerous ilill in Germany than they were in France ; Po- 
tts, Hiftonans,and Dramatifts, nearly all of whom court- 
ed the united brotherhood by afluming the tone of impie- 
ty and anarchy. The moft dangerous device prattilcJ i-y 
the adepts < rainft iociety was the gieat care with which 

* See Nrichrichten von einenVgrcffen aher unfichtbaren Bun- 
de, the appendix, Nos 8 and 13, amd the Journal of VieDna, 
by Hoffmaa. 


thev initiated the'different profefibrs of theProteftantuni- 
venicies, the fchool-mafters, and the tutors of princes.-— 
It is a painful truth, but we muff declare it, and on the 
authority of thofe who are belt aco t uainted with thehifto- 
ry and progrefs of llluminifm, that the greater part of the 
uni verities of the north of Germany were at th it time, 
and ftill continue to be, the haunts of llluminifm, whence 
its baneful poifens are circulated throughout the neigh- 
boring ftates by the writings and lectures of fuch men 
as the Profeflbrs Frederic Cramer, Ehlers, and 

. Let not the reader think that the writers ofthe Catho- 
lic ftates were exempt from the infection. Vienna was 
«iverrun with zealots who fought to diffufe the principles 
of the Sect. The Chevalier de Born, who fhould have 
contented hitnfdf with the high rank which beheld in 
chymiftry, degraded himfelf in that town by becoming a 
leader ofthe adepts ; and when the Seel was difcovered in 
Bavaria he was Co zealous in the caufe, that he fent back 
his letters of Ailbciate of the Academy of Munich, pro- 
tefting that he would have no intercourfe with men who 
had been Co little able to judge of Weifhaupt's merits. 

Next on the Vienna lift v/e find the Sieur Sonnen- 
FELD, one of thofe writers who in this age are called wits, 
though deflitute of common fenfe. He alfo was one of 
the propagators of llluminifm under the mafk of literary 
ibaeties. I am informed by perfons who attended his 
clubs, and whom he wifhed to initiate, that thefe meet- 
ings began and were held as common academies hold 
theirs: but at the time appointed the fittings broke up, 
when, only the adepts remaining behind, a fecret council 
was held, in which every thing was concerted and plan- 
ned according to the laws ofthe united brethren. 

A man whole name would have given great weight to 
the united brethren, had he hearkened to che praifes la- 
vished on him by the Illuminées at that time,f is the 

* See Hoffman's Admonition, Seel. XVI, XVIÏ, and XVIi F. 

-f It is really laughable to compare the contempt which the 
Illuminées affu-cl: for Mr. Hoffman at prêtent, with the high en- 
comiums which they pronounced on him before he undertook 
to lay open their impoAure, or even with thofeJetters (full of 
compliment on his wit, ftyle, and talents) whicr» they wrote to 
him Co lately as the year 17901 in hopes of ectiaktg him into 
their party. 


Profeflbr Hoffman, he who fo nobly joined with Zim- 
merman to tear the mafk from thefe impoftors, and has 
ever fince, with his worthy co-adjutor, been the object of 
their moft virulent declamations. In the account given 
by Mr. Hoffman himfelf, we find that the Illuminizing 
recruiters followed him as far as Pc ft in Hungary. On 
the 26th of June, 1788, he received from the twenty-two 
f$ an invitation to become a fellow of the literary 
fociety which they had already cftabliftied in that town. 
*' My anfwer (fays he) was, that I hoped they would give 
" me fome further information refpecting thefe focieties, 
u and then my duty and my prudence would diclate the 
4i anfwer that I fhould make. . . . On divers occafions 
" afterward, they gave me diflant hints as to the fpirit of 
ir fyftem» They alfo tent me feveral times a lift 0/ 
" the new members ; and the fignature of the twenty-two 
" an d thefe various documents; but it was this 

<c very authentication which made me conceive the horrid 
t; plot that was concealed under this affociation." 

The reader will eafily conceive, that for a man of his 
merit and probity, this was more than efficient to make 
him reject the offers of fuch a brotherhood. They had 
already inferibed his name on their regifters, and they 
Uged to crafe it. As a proof that he had judged 
dy of them, he quotes the letter of a virtuous and 
dearfighted ftatefrrteh, who, after having officially examin- 
ed the whole plan of the German Union and i • myfte* 
lies, pronounces them to be abominations that wonldmake 
me's hair jland on cr.d! Such are his expreillons ! 

Theie abominations, however, were far from making 

a flmilar impreffion on mëothër apoftles of the Germanic 

Union. Meanwhile Weiihaupt, a tranquil Spectator of 

the prpgrefs of his JUuminifm, feemed to take no part in 

it. The moft active adepts lived round about him at Go- 

t a, at Wejmar,at Jena,and at Berlin; but one might have 

thought him quite indifferent as to their fuccefs. If we 

:pt the vilits he received from the brethren, a few 

joun e took, and particularly thofe which he had 

under of the Germanic Union,' nothing 

1er or chief who con- 

■ Seel;. But let the reader 

never lofe fight of on the art of appearing 

perl idft of the gi thirn 

s which he iflued fix months after 


his flight from Munich : Let our enemies rejoice. Their 
joy fljall foon be changed into forrow. Don't think that 
even in my baniflvncnt I jhall remain idle*' After this, it 
is eafy to judge of his fuppofed nullity in the progrefs of 
his confpiracy. However fecret he may have been in the 
part he was acting, he could obferve but too well the ap- 
proaching accomplishment of the prediction he had made 
lb early as the fécond year of his IUuminifm, when he 
wrote to his firft adepts, " The great obftacies are over- 
tc come ; you will now fee us proceed with gigantic if rides.'* 
The Seel had not been in exigence twelve years when 
Germany was overrun with an immenfe number of adepts 
and derni-adepts. It was afiuming a menacing 2 fpeéfc in 
Holland, in Hungary, and in Italy. One of the adepts 
called Zimmerman, who began by being the chief of a 
Lodge at Manheim, and who foon became as zealous for 
the propagation of the Seél:, as the Famous Zimmerman 
had been to counteract their dark defigns, would often 
brag that he had founded more than a hundred of thofe 
confpiring clubs known under the name of literary focie- 
ties, or of Mafonic Lodges, during his career thro' Italy, 
Hungary, and Switzerland. To give the fatal impulfe to 
the world, it now only remained for the Seel to carry its 
myfterics into a nation powerful and active indeed, but 
unfortunately more fuiceptible of that effervefcence which 
bereaves man of the power of thinking, than of that judg- 
ment which forefees difailers ; to a nation which in its 
ardor and cnthufiafm, too eafily forgets that true great- 
nefs is not that courage which bids defiance to danger (Tor 
the vandals and barbarians can boatf. of iiich heroes ;■) to 
a nation, in ihort, that has ever been a prey to illufions,- 
and which, before it would hearken to the councils of wis- 
dom, might in its firft fury overturn the altar and (hiver 
the fcepter, returning to reafon only in time to weep over 
the ruins, and lament the devaluation of which it had been 
the caufe. 

This defcription unfortunately was too applicable to 
France, which in many refpects might claim the primacy 
among nations, but was too eafily led away by illufions. 
The icrutinizing Aréopage had fixed its eyes on her, and 
now judged it a convenient time tor lending its emilTa-r 
fies to the banks of the Seine. This will be the proper 

* Letter to Filher, «jih Auguffc, 17S5. 


. commencement of the fourth Epoch of Illuminifm.— « 
Now let the reader prepare to contemplate dates convuJ-» 
fed, citizens butchered, in a word, to ponder over all the 
crimes and difaiters inherent in the very nature of Rev©* 




Fourth Epoch of Illuminifm. 

The Deputation from Wcijhaupt' 's Illuminées to the Free 
Mafans of Par is : — State of French Mafonry at that 
period. — Labors and Succeff'es of the Deputies. — Co- 
alition of the Confpiring Sophi/lers, Mafons, and Illu- 
minées^ generating the facobins. 


S early as the year 1782, Philo and Spartacus had Pr °J e ^ 3 
formed the plan of converting the French nation 

to their Syftem of Illuminifm ; but the vivacity and ca- 
pricious temper of the people, fo difficult to be reftrained, 
made it feem prudent for the two Chiefs at that time not 
to extend their attempts beyond Strafbourg. The ex- 
plofion in France might be premature; its too volatile 
and impetuous people might be unwilling to wait till other 
nations were properly prepared for the grand objecr ; and 
Weifnaupt, in particular, was nut a man to be fatisfied 
with partial or local infurrecfions, which might only ferve 
to put other Sovereigns on their guard. The Reader has 
already feen him in fecret, preparing his Adepts, and con- 
triving the concatenation of his, in fuch a 
manner, that he had but to give the lignai when the fa- 
vorable moment fhould come. On the fatal day of revo- 
lution, and at the appointed hour, legions of brethren 
were to fpring forth on all fides from their fecret receffes, 
whether Lodges, Academies, or under what other denomi- 
nation foever, from the North to the South, and from the 
Eaft to the Weff. All Europe in ihort was to be revo- 
lutionized at the fame inifant ; all nations were to be hur- 
ried into a 14th of July j and all kings were, like Lewis 
the Sixteenth, to awake prifoners in the hands of their 
own fubje£ts. Altars and thrones were fimultancouily 
to vanifn from the earth. According to this plan, as has 
juft been obferved, the French were to be the laft peopie 
initiated in the myfteries, as the Chiefs took it for grant-r 
edj that with their natural impatience they would never 



be brought to wait till the explofion could be univerfalïy 
haftened Already, however, there exifted fome adepts in the very 
by Mn a- heart of the kingdom. Some few had been initiated bv 
beau * Knigge at the time of the meeting at Willemfbaden.— 

During that very year, we find on the lift of brethren, 
Dietrich, that Mayor of Strasbourg who has fince in 
Alface rivalled Robefpierre by his cruelties.* Another 
adept of vaft importance to the Se£t was the Marquis DE 
Mirabeau, who was afterwards to become fo famous in 
the revolutionary annals of his country. What ftrange 
infatuation poflciled the miriifters of the moft honeft man 
that ever fwayed a fceptre, to entruft this Marquis with 
the interefts of their mafler at the court of Berlin, well 
knowing (as they did) the monftrous immorality of his 
private life, is more than I (hall attempt to explain. One 
might be led to think that it was not deemed fufficient 
that Lewis XVI. had faved him from the fcaffold, but 
his villany was to be recompenfed by a fecret mifïion 
which feerned to denote the utmoft confidence of his 
fovereign. Mirabeau at Berlin conducted the King's 
affairs juft as he had formerly done thofe of his father and 
mother, fully ready to facrifice all parties and to fell him- 
to the higheft bidder. With fuch a difpofition, he 
could not long avoid the notice of the Pruffian Illuminées; 
and Nicolai Biefler, Gedike, and Leuchfenring foon be- 
came his confiant companions. At Brunfwick he met 
with Mauvillon, the worthy difciple of Knigge, and 
at that time a Profeilbr in the Caroline College. This 
was the man who initiated the profligate Marquis in the 
L;t rnyfteries of Illuminifm. f 

Long before his initiation Mirabeau had been acquaint- 
ed with all the revolutionary powers of the Mafonic Lodg- 
es ; nor did he, when initiated, undervalue thofe which 
flawed or might flow from Weifhaupt's inventive geni- 
us. On his return to France he began to introduce the 
new rnyfteries among fome of his Mafonic brethren. — . 
His firft aflbciate was the Abbe Talleyrand de Pe- 
RIGORD, who had already begun to act the part of Judas 

' Welt un menfehen Kentnifs, P. 130. 

f See the Diiconrfe of a Mafler of a Lodge or. the ultimate 
fate < t Mafoory; Appendix to this Difcourfe — Important Ad- 
monition by Hoffman, .Vol. II. Sett. VII. Sec. &c. 


in the firfr. order of the church. But to have only intro- 
duced the myfteries was not fufficient for the Marquis ; 
he would have teachers come from Germany, who were 
better verfed than he was in the illuminizing arts. Well 
acquainted with the reafons that had induced the chiefs 
of the Order to defer the converfion of France, he found 
means to convince them, that the time was now come 
for the accomplishment of their views ; that the whole 
nation only waited for their new revolutionary means, to 
burft into an open rebellion, for which they had been fo 
long prepared by other confpirators ; and that the Illu- 
minées might molt certainly turn the fcales. A private 
correspondence then took place between him and Mau- 
villonj* but of this a fufficiency has not tranfpired to 
enable the hiftorian to defcribe the intrigues that took 
place on the occafionj certain it is, however, that Mira- 
beau's plan was adopted by the Aréopage; and by a plu- 
rality of votes it was decided, that France fhould be im- 
mediately illuminized. This was an undertaking of too 
great importance to be entrufted to a common adept — 
The man who, fince the retreat of S 'part a eus, had been Députa - 
looked upon as the Chief of the Order, offered himfelf j *™ n ( . ; tne 
and rfmeiius-BoDE, the worthy fucceffor of both Knigge r ° *q '.* 
and Weifhaupt, was deputed to the French Lodges, in many. 
which the illuminization was to commence. Bode re- 
ceived as an auociate in this million Bayard that other 
pupil of Knigge's whofe real name was William Ba- 
con de^Busche, a Captain in the Dutch fervice, heir 

* It is to this fame Mauvillon that the German writers at- 
tribute the greater part of thofe two works published by Mira- 
beau, under the titles of The PruJJiav Monarchy, and An Es- 
fay o?i the Illuminées. Hence the high encomiums paffed on 
Wtiihaupt in the former, (Vol. V. Book VII.) and ail the cun- 
ning artifice that is obfervable in the latter, which was written 
with no other view than to miflead the public, by profeffing to 
betray the fecrets of the Sect, without, in truth, laying a fingle 
word that could expofe its views; and bv leading aftray the 
reader's attention to far diiferent objects. This device made the 
French believe that they were thoroughly acquainted with ll- 
luminifm, though they were fo perieclly ignorant on the fob- 
jec~l as to have confounded Weifhaupt's Illuminées with the 
Swedenborgians. The artifice a|fo ferved aa a cloak under 
which Mirabeau introduced Ukrainien into France, at the lime 
when he pretended to write againftit. The verv appellation of 
Pbilalete which he gave to his adepts was a trick, as it denot- 
ed the Theofophical Illuminées, quite another lptcies. 


to a large fortune, a man of talents, and well verfed in all 
that artifice and low cunning which the Infinuators were 
wont to flyle prudence and wifdom. This Baron had 
been formerly employed to propagate the plots of the Sect 
in thofe very provinces which had a right to expect from 
him even the facrifice of his life in defence of its laws.* 
The zeal with which he had fulfilled his firft miffion 
feemed to give him an indifputahle title to the honor of 
attending on the Chief of the Order in his journey to 
State of Circumftances could not have been more favorable 

MafoniV than they were at that time for the deputies, nor more 
in France difaitrous for France. The Philoibphifm of the age had 
at pe- p eratec i on t h e Lodges as fully as could be expected, to 
prepare the reign of that Equality and Liberty taught by 
Voltaire and RofTeau, and which only needed the laft 
myiterits o! Wcifiiaupt to convert them into the mort 
abominable impiety and moft abfolute anarchy. A line 
had been drawn between the degrees of ancient and of 
modern Mafonry. The former with the puerile paflimes» 
and obfcure fymbols, were left to the commonalty of the 
Brethren. The latter, ftyled philofopkical, comprehend- 
ed thofe which I have defcribed under the titles of Knights 
of the Suriy the higher Ro/icrucians^znd the Knights Ka- 
dofch. At the head of ail thefe locieties (whether ancient 
or modern) were three Lodges at Paris, particularly re- 
markable for the authority which they exercifed over the 
reft of the Order, and for the influence that they poflefled 
over the opinions of the Brethren. 
The The firft of thefe, The Grand Orient, was rather a 

Grand re-union of all the regular Lodges of the kingdom (re- 
®r K p FST presented by their deputies) than a Lodge. It might be 
ar ' 3 * called a fort of Mafonic Parliament fubJivided into four 
Committees, which, when united, formed the Grand 
Council or Lodge, where all the affairs of the Order were 
definitively determined. The Committees were fub-di- 
vided into that of Adminiji 'ration of Paris, of the Pro* 
winces, and of the Degrees. Of all thefe, the latter was 
the mainfpring and the moft impenetrable; for no vifitors 
were admitted to it, as they were to the three others, to 
the ordinary meetings of which all Matters or Vénérables 
of Lodges had free accefs. 

* Original Writings, and Philo's Berichte, 6. 


Three great Officers of the order were attached to this 
Mafonic Parliament; to wit, the Grand Majier, the 
General Adminxjirator^ and the &reat Cfrnfervator* His 
molt Serene Highnefs Brother-Philip of Orleans, firft 
Prince of the blood, was Grand Matter at the time when 
the Illuminées arrived in Paris. The two other offices 
were filled by perfons of the firft distinction; but their 
characters are fucb, that they will ever stand incontesta- 
ble proofs of what I have already afierted, that even in the 
very highest degrees of the Order, there were modified 
mysteries for thofe who, by their ranlc, were to ferve as a 
protection for its plots without eyen furmifing their ten- 

Such, however, was not the cafe with Philip of Or- 
leans. His rank of Grand Matter, his impiety, and in- 
fatiable thirst for vengeance, fufficiently demonstrated to 
the Illuminizing Miffionaries how well he was qualified 
and how far prepared to fécond their defigns in the mul- 
titude of Lodges that recognized him as Grand Mailer» 
So early as the year 1787 we find that France contained 
(as may be feen in the statement of its correfpondenc) 
two hundred and eighty-two towns, in which were to be 
found regular Lodges under the direction of the Grand 
Matter. In Paris alone there existed eighty-one j fixteeu 
at Lyons, feven at Bourdeaux, five at Nantes, fix at Mar», 
feilles, ten at Montpellier, ten at Touloufe; in fnort, in 
almoft every town the Lodges were in pretty juft ratio to 
the population. Indeed it would feem tnat even this vail 
empire over French Mafonry was not sufficient for the 
Grand Orient, as by the fame statement we find the 
Grand Master issuing out his instructions to the Lodges 
ofChambery in Savoy, of Locle in Switzerland, of Brux- 
elles in Brabant, of Cologne, Liege and Spa in West- 
phalia, of Leopold and Warsaw in Poland, of Mofcow 
in Ruffia, of Portfmouth in Virginia, of Fort Royal in 
Grenada, and in fhort to Lodges in all the French Colo- 
nies. Thus did Philip of Orleans and his Grand Orient 
enfure to the Illuminées as powerful an alliance as that 
formerly made by Knigge with the German Lodges un- 
der the direction of Weiihauptf 

* Seethe Alphabetical Statement of the Oorrefpondence of 
the Lodges of the G. O. of France. 

f Ibid. Art. Fo eign States, 


The Subject to the Grand Orient we next find at Paris a 

Lodge of Lodge called Les Amis Réunis (or United Friends), 
the Amis w hich was more particularly charged with all Foreign 
Coi refpondence. ThefamousRevolutioniftSAVALETTE 
de Lange, was one of its leading members. This adept 
]. !d under government the office of Garàe du Trefor 
Royal; that is to fay, he enjoyed that confidence to which 
none but the moft faithful fubjecl: could be entitled ; yet 
at that very time was he engaged in the various plots and 
myfteries of all the different Se&s. In order to form an 
union of them all, he had introduced into his Lodge the 
different fyftems of the Sophifters, of the Martinifts and 
of the other Mafons ; and, the more to impofe on the 
Public, he alfo introduced ail the luxuries and amufements 
of the Great. Concerts and balls made Brethren of high 
rank flock to his Lodge, and they came with the moft 
brilliant equipages. Soldiers flood fentry in the avenues, 
that the multitude of carriages might not occafion difor- 
der; indeed a Hanger might have thought that it was un- 
der the aufpices of the King himfelf that thefe balls were 
given. The Lodge was refplendent, as the more wealthy 
Mafons contributed to the expenfes of the Orcheftra, 
lights, refrefhments , and, in fhort, of all thofe diverfions 
which appeared to be the fole object of their union. But 
while the Brethren were dancing with their female adepts, 
or were chaunting in the common Lodge-room the fweets 
of Equalitv and Liberty, they little fuipedted that a Se- 
cret Committee held its fittings over their heads, and were 
employed in preparing the means for diffufing that Equal- 
ity and Liberty over all ranks and conditions, from the 
palace to the cot. 

It was actually over the common Lodge-room that the 
Committee held its fittings under the title of the Secret Com- 
?nittee of United Friends, whofe grand adepts were two men 
equally famous in the myfteries at Lyons and at Paris.-— 
Thefe were Willermoz and CHAPPEdelaHENRiERE. 
During the whole time of the feftivity two tylers, with 
drawn fvvords, flood, one at the bottom of the flair-cafe, 
the other near the upper door, to defend the entrance of 
the new Sanctuary, where were kept the archives of the 
Secret Correfpondencs. Even the man to whom all the 
packets from the Brethren of Germany or Italy were di- 
rected, was not permitted to pals beyond the threfnold of 
the door. He was unacquainted with the cypher ot the 


Correfpondence ; his duty was merely to carry the pack- 
ets to the door of the Committee \* Savalette de Lange 
came to receive them, and the fecret never tranfpired be- 
yond the walls of the Committee, The Reader may ea- 
iily conceive the nature of this Correfpondence, and of 
the Councils held in coniequence of it, when he is inform- 
ed, that to gain admittance into this Secret Committee, 
it was not fufficient to have been initiated in all the de- 
grees of ancient Mafonry, but it was necelTary to be a 
Majler of all the Philofopbical Degrees ; that is to fay, 
to have (worn hatred to Chrijlianity with the Knights of 
the Sun, and hatred to every worjhipy and to all Kings 
with the Knights Kadofch. 

There exifted other lurking haunts of rebellion* lefs T he # 
known, but ftill more formidable; fuch as that in the Rue ,° ?f ' , 
de la Sourdiere y where the Brethren of Avignon, pupils } a souk-" 
of Swedenborg and St. Martin, came to mingle their diere. 
myfteries with thofe of the Roficrucians and other Ma- 
fons both ancient and fophifticated. In public, under the 
difguife of quacks and vifionary ghoft-raifers, thefe new 
adepts fpoke of nothing but their powers of evoking fpi- 
rits, railing and interrogating the dead, and a hundred 
other phenomena of a fimilar nature. But in the dark re- 
cedes of their Lodges, thefe new law-givers were fofter- 
ing plots nearly of the fame tendency as thofe of Weifhaupt, 
but more atrocious in their conftru£tion. I have alrea- 
dy expofed their diforganizing myfteries in treating of 
Swedenborg and St. Martin. I fcarcely dared to credit 
the horrid trials and abominable oaths faid by feveral wri- 
ters to be exacted from the adepts. I could wifh to have 
fpoken of them on the authority only of the adepts thern- 

* I was informed by one of the Brethren who for a long time 
was the carrier of thefe difpatcher, that, after fome time, wifh- 
ing to become a Member of the Committee, he was induced to 
get himfelf initiated in thefe degrees; but that he forbore do- 
ing it, becaufe an engagement for life nvas required, and alfn an 
annual contribution ofjix hundred /ivres, (%$l-J lie alfo in- 
formed me, that each Brother paid a fimiiar contribution, and 
that the whole management of thefe Funds was left to the Bro- 
ther Savalette, who never gave in any accounts. This was a 
Fund to be added to the many means of corruption already in 
the polTeflion of the adepts of the Occult Lodges. Who can 
fay how far thefe resources were extended in the hands of a 
man who had the care of the Trefor Royal? The Confpirators 
very well knew how to chuie both their men and their places. 

.l6 ANTISOCIAL conspiracy; 

felves or of the Code; but thofe with whom I have as 
yet been acquainted, had only been initiated in part of the 
myfteries ; yet by what they had learned, it will not be 
1 difficult tor the reader to form a judgment of the remain- 

It is an inconteftible fact to begin with, that Sweden- 
borg's Illuminées, ityled in France the Martinifts, and 
* alfo calling themfelves the beneficent Knights, had their 
travelling adepts after the manner of the Illuminées of 
Weifhaupt. It is ?.lfo certain that the pretended Phi- 
taletes, or lovers of truth, had formed a code of laws for 
themfelves, had organized focieties, and, like Weifhaupt, 
had intruded them into the Mafonic Lodges, there to 
fearch after men who might be difpofed to receive their 
myfteries, and adopt their new degrees. Among the lat- 
ter was one called the Knights of the Phœnix. A Knight 
of this degree giving hnnielf out for a Saxon, and a Ba- 
ron of the Holy Roman Empire, pofieffed of the moft 
pompous certificates from lèverai Princes of Germany, 
came to exercife his Apoftlefhip in France a very few 
years before the late Revolution.* After having fpent 
iome time in a central town, vifited the Lodges, and ob- 
ferved the Brethren, he thought that he had difcovered 
three worthy of being initiated in the higher fciences. — > 
The Venerable or Mailer of the Lodçe, in whofe words 
we fhall relate the ftory, was one of thefe worthies. " All 
a things agreed on, (faiu the Venerable) we three waited 
cc on our Illuminée, ardent to be initiated in the new mys- 
" ries which he had promifed. 

" As he could not fubjedt us to the ordinary trials, he 
" difpenfed with them as much as lay in his power. In 
" the middle of his apartment he had prepared a chaffing- 
" difh and a brafier full of fire ; on his table were various 
" fymbols, and among others a Phoenix encompaffed by a 
cc Serpent with its tail in its mouth, forming a circle. — 
" The explanation of the myfteries began by that cf the 
" brafier and other fymbols. ' This biafier (faid he) is 
" here to teach you, that fire is the principle of all things; 
" that it is the great agent of nature, and imparts action 

* I could have named this man, as he is mentioned in my 
mannfeript Memoirs as a Philahie Illuminée very famous in 
Pruffia. Hnr the perfon whom the reader will obferve fo indig» 
nant atthefe myfteries is at prefent in trance; prudence, there- 
fore, on his account, forbids me to mention nam2S. 


K to bodies. That man receives from that agent life, 
H with the power of thinking and of ailing.' Such was 
f* the tenor of his firft leifon. Our Illuminée then pro- 
w ceeded to explain the other fymbcls. — * This ferpent 
K forming; a circle (fays he) is the emblem of the Eterni- 
" ty of the IVorld, which, like this ferpent, has neither 
" beginning nor end. The ferpent, you may alfo know, 
" has the property of annually renovating its (kin; this 
« will figure to you the revolutions of the univei Te, and 
V- of nature, which appears to weaken and even to perifli 
* c at certain epochs, but which, in the immenfity of ages ? 
" only grows old to become young again, and to prepare 
<l for new revolutions. This Phoenix is a (till more na- 
W tural expolition of the fucceffion and perpetuation of 
" thcfe phenomena. Mythology has reprefented this bird 
** as re-vivifying from its own afhes, only to (how how 
" the univerfe is reproduced, and will continue to be fo ? 
« from itfelf.' 

" Thus far the Illumiuizing Baron had taught us, un- 
* £ der the common promife of fecrecy, when on a fudderi 
" he flopped and informed us, that he could not proceed 
" any farther without previpufly exacting an oath, the 
cc formula of which he read to us to fee whether we were 
" dilpofed to take it. We all fhuddered at hearing it. — • 
*' The exact words I do not pretend to ftate; but it was 
" a promife, in the mod execrable terms, to obey the 
" chiefs of his IUuminifm, We endeavored to conceal our 
•" indignation, that we might hear to what lengths lie 
« would proceed; he thencar»e to the promife of renoun- 
" cing and abjuring the moji f acred lies, thofe of citizen, 
" °J fubjeel, of one's family, oj father, mothei ifriend, chil- 
" dren, hufband. At thefe words one of the three, unable 
" to endure it any longer, fallied forth from the room, re- 
•* turned with a drawn fword in his hand, and ran at 
" the Illuminizjng Baron in a moft violent rage. We 
fc W ere happy enough to ftop and hold him until he had 
ff recovered his feqles a little. Then, however, our col- 
* c league burft into the moft violent paflion, abufing the 
■" Baron for a rafcal, and telling him, that if he were not 
" out of the town in twenty-four hours he would have 
" him taken up and hanged." The reader will readily 
fuppofe that the Baron made the bell of his way out of the 

Another affair that will throw fome light on this mon- 
E e 


itrous Se£t took place at Vienna. A young man of high 
birth, and who has fignalized himfelf by his bravery du- 
ring this war, felt an impulfe, like many others of his age, 
to become a Free-mafon. His Lodge, though he knew 
it not, tvas one of thole under the direction of the fame 
fpecies of Illuminées. He had often been made the bearer 
of letters which he ilrongly fufpecled. At length he de- 
termined not to deliver them, under pretence that he had 
not found the perfons at home to whom they were direct- 
ed, but iii fair btcaufe he did not wifh to be made the in- 
finiment of treaibn. Curiohty, however, getting the bet- 
ter of him, he ftill continued to folicit admiflion to the 
higher degrees. At length his initiation was fixed for the 
next day, when he received a letter demanding an imme- 
diate interview, and written in the moft prefling ityle.— 
When he came to the place appointed he found an adept 
the former friend of his father. " I am now taking iucb. 
" a ftep (laid he), that the lead indifcrction on your part 
" will certainly coft me my life; but I thought myfelf 
" bound to it in confequence of the friendthip which your 
" father always fheweci me and the regard that 1 have per- 
" fonally for yourfelf. I am a loft man if you do not keep 
" my fecret; but on .the other hand, you are forever un- 
" done if you pieicnt yourfelf at the Lodge to receive the 
t; degree for which you nave been foliciting. I know you 
" too well to think that you would take the oath which 
" will be propoled to you: You cannot diflemble; and 
" ftill lefs will you be able to think or act as they would 
cc wifh to make you. Horror will betray you, and then 
" all will be over with you. You are already on the black 
" list as fnf peeled. Knowing you as I do, I can allure 
u you that ou will foon be on the Red, or blood list 
" (blode ltft)\ and then never flatter yourfelf with a hope 
" to efcape the poifons or the aflaflins of the Sect." This 
youth's refolution was not to be fubdued by fear. Before 
he would acquiefee, he w idled at lead tobe madeacquaint- 
' ed with fome of thole terrible engagements in which he 
Was to bind himfelf, and which he would not be able to 
keep. His friend then explained the oath that would bs 
required, and he found it to be no other than the utter re- 
nunciation of all the molt facred ties of Religion, of foci- 
ety, and of nature ; and a vow to recognize no other law 
than the commands of his Illuminizing Superiors. He 
. ihuddcrcd at hearing of fuch bonds ; he found means of 


-deferring his initiation, and abandoned the Lodges entire- 
ly before it was too late» Since the Revolution, circum- 
ftances have induced this Gentleman to leave the Auftri- 
an fervice and engage in the Englifh ; but it was from his 
own mouth that i learned how much he feared that his 
friend had been put on the Red Lift for the friendly fer- 
vice he had rendered him, Certain it is, that he heard 
of his death a ihort time after this interview had taken 

The reader will naturally wifli to return to our Bava- 
rian Illuminées ; but that he may better underftand what 
was and what ought to be the effect of their miffion, Ï 
muft firft defcribe the-compofition of the Lodge in which 
they were to be received ; and for that purpofe, I muft 
again infill on thofe Illuminées fo well known in France 
under the name of Thecfopbes. Let us compare the 
above-mentioned black lift and blood list with an an- 
ecdote that indeed I could never credit until I was at 
length informed of the circumftances by men who were 
perfectly well acquainted with them. Every body knew The 
that the large manfion of Ermenonville, belonging to !:" f e at 
Mr. Gerardin, and fituated about thirty miles from Paris, „\\\ Q . 
was a principal haunt of Illuminhm. It is alfo well known, 
that there, at the tomb of Jean Jaques Rouflëau, under 
pretence of regenerating man and reftoring him to the; 
age of nature, the moil: horrible diiiolutenefs of morals 
was pra&ifed. The famous impoftor Saint Germain 
prefided over thefe myfteries ; he was the God of them, 
and he alfo had his blood lifi. The Chevalier de Les- 
Cure fell a fatal vi&im to it. He wifhed to withdraw 
from this horrid fociety; perhaps even to difcover it^ 
abominations. Poifon was mingled with his drink, and 
he was not a ftranger to the c?ouiz of his death. Before 
fee expired he pofitively declared to the M:\RQUis de 
MoNTRO-l, a.general officer, that he fell a victim to this 
infamous crew of Illuminées.* 

* Nothing can equal the profligacy of morals that raged a- 
niong thefe inhabitants of Ermenonville. Every woman admit- 
ted to the myfteries became common to the Brotherhood — 
That which St. Germain had cho'fen fur himfelf was called the 
Virgin; fhe alone had the privilege of not bcin % delivered over 
to chance, or to the commands ot thefe true Adamites, unlels 
St. Germain thought proper to confer the title of Virgir 
fome other woman. This viie impofior, more adroit than C 


Having afcertained thefe facts, I ftiall no longer hefi-» 
tate to conhder as fo many hiUorical truths, firft, all the 
oaths and wilhes for the destruction of the Altar and the 
Throne ; fecondly, all thofe doctrines i'o exactly coinci- 
ding with what has been already extracted from the works 
of the Seâ: ; and, laftly, all thofe abominable oaths and 
horrid trials defenbed by a multitude of authors. Nor 
fhall I be guilty of any calumny when I declare, that the 
fole difference between this Sect and Weifhaupt's lies in 
the ceremonial. Atheif n is as precifely the ultimate ob- 
ject of their theofophy, as it is of Weifhaupt's myfteries. 
Neither will allows that â man of nature can be bound by 
the laws of fociety ; both declare that fovereigns are no- 
thing more than tyrants 5 and both agree, that all means 
of annihilating Priefts, Kings, Altars, and Laws, (howe- 
ever atrocious they may be in themfelves) become meri- 
torious and noble when directed to that end. But they 
excel even the modern Spartacus in their arts for kind- 
lino; and inflaming the zeal of their affafiins and parricides. 
That the means of the former are not to be compared 
with thofe of the latter, let the reader decide on the fol- 
lowing itatement. 

W hen one of thofe unfortunate men who have been 
Jed away by the Sect into all the illufions of their vifions, 
wifhes to be initiated into the art of prodigies, the fci*. 
ence of fciences, in mort into the laft fecrets of the adepts, 
the proportion is made to him to confummate his devo- 
tion to the fUperiors who are entrufted with thefe fcien- 
ces. This will be a new contract, and will make him 

îioftro, had aftnally perfuaded his adepts that he was in pos- 
feffiop ot ar. Elixir of hnmortality ; that he had gone through 
lèverai changes by means of the mitempfychofisj that he had 
already died three times, but that he would die no more ; that 
iince his laft change he had lived fifteen hundred years: — And 
there were dupes wr.o, too wife to credit the eternal truths 
taught by a God-made-man, firmly believed in this metemp- 
fychofis and in the fifteen hundred years of their God St. Ger- 
main ! ! — Neither did they know that that period of time was 
no more than an aliufion to the Mafonic degrees. According to 
the Mafonic fi-ftion, an Apprentice is three years old, a Fellow- 
C ah five, a^.d a Mafter [^vtrr. This age goes on in fuch an in- 
crealing ratio in certain degrees that a Scotch Knight is faid 
to be five hundred years old. When a Mafon therefore comes 
and fays, I am fo many years o'd. it U no more than faying I 
am of lue h a degree. ( Sss Gejchickts der unbekanten on the 
Scotch Degrees.) 


the blind inftrumcnt of all the plots into which he will 
tbon be plunged. On the day appointed for his initiation 
he is led through dark windings to the den of trials. In 
this cavern the image of death, the mechanifm of fpcétres, 
potions of blood, fepulchral lamps, fubterraneous voices, 
every thing, in fhort, that can affright the imagination, 
and fuccefiively hurry him from terror to enthufiafm, is 
put in a&ion, until at length, worn out by fright, fatigue, 
hope, or enthufiafm, the candidate is lb perfectly deprived 
of his reafon, that he cannot help following any impulie 
that he may receive. Then it is that the voice of the 
invifible Hierophant burfts forth from this abyfs, makes 
the vaults refound with its menaces, and prefcribes the 
following execrable oath, which the Candidate repeats af- 
ter him : 

" I here break all the ties of the flefh that bind me to 
€{ father, mother, brothers, lifters, wife, relations, friends, 
" mltireJJ'es, kings, chiefs, benefactors ; in fhort, to every 
" perfon to whom I have promiied faith, obedience, gra- 
" tude, or fervice." 

" I fwear to reveal to the new chief whom I acknow- 
tc ledge every thing that I fhall have feen,dbne>read, heard, 
" learned, or difcoveredj and even to feek after and fpy 
*' into things that might otherwife efcape my notice. I 
" fwear to revere the Aqua Tophana^ as a certain, prompt, 
" and neceffary means of ridding the earth by the death or 
" ftupefa&ion of thofe who revile the truth, or feek to 
" wreft it from my hands."* 

Scarcely has the candidate pronounced this oath when 
the fame voice informs him, that from that inftant he is 
releafed_/~n?/# all other caîhs that he had taken either to his 
country or to the laws. " Fly (it fays) the temptation of 
"ever revealing what you have juft heard; for light— 
" ning is not more inftantaneous than the dagger that 
** fhall reach you in whatever part of the world you may 
« be." 

Thus did this atrocious Seel: form its adepts. Spring- 
ing from the delirious reveries of a Swedenborg, it tra- 
vels from England to Avignon, Lyons, and Paris. In 
this latter town, and as early as the year 178 1, a club of 
this fpecies of Illuminées (to the number of 125 or 130) 

* See the Red Lodge unveiled, Page iijand the Hiftory of 
the AfTaiiination of Guftavus III. King of Sweden, Seel. 4. 


had formed itfelf, holding its fittings in the abeve men- 
tioned Rue de la Sourdiere. Savalette de Lange, the 
Ame man whom we have feen Ço immerfed in the corres- 
pondence of the Committee of the Amis Reunis, pretidci 
over this club. The famous Count St. Germain often 
held meetings at this fame Lodge. Cagliostro was 
invited to it by a fpecial deputation for the purpofe. Hi- 
therto this man's myfteries had only been thofe of anim- 
poffor ; but here he foon learned to be a confpirator. It 
was from this Lodge that he derived that knowledge of 
the revolution which he pretended to foretel in a fort of 
prophetic cant when he made his appearance in London 
after he had been liberated from the Baftille. It was 
thence that he received his miflions for Rome, where 
he was to fow the feeds of Revolution. One of the A- 
depts that had been deputed to him was a Mr. Raymond, 
who had been the mafter of the Poft-office at Befancon. 
He was an enthuiiaft, and his imagination was bewilder- 
ed with Swedenborg's vifions. From him the knowledge 
wa"s derived of this Lodge having had a hundred and thir- 
ty refident members at Paris, and more than a hundred 
and fifty travelling members or correfpondents in differ- 
ent parts of the Globe; that, after the example of Hoi • 
bach's club, they had their compilers and printers who 
were circulating their revolutionary poifons among all 
clafles of the people.* In the perfon of Dietrich, Se- 
cretary to the Lodge, we find svery fpecies of llluminifm. 
Cond'orcet alio was a member; he who needed only 
to be made acquainted with Weifhaupt's plots to belong 
to every confpiring Seel:; though it is not certain, that 
Dietrich had not already put him in direcl: correfpondence 
with the modern Spartacus. — Let the reader mark well 
of what perfons this Lodge was compofed. We fhall 
have occafion to advert to it again for the illuftration of 
many a fanguinary fcene. In the mean time let us take a 
view of other mafonic haunts, that we may difcover all 

* 1 have been informed of all thefe circumftances by a man 
who was fora long time connected with the Poflmafter Ray- 
mond, but who rehired all his arts of feda"ion. I his fame 
perfpos, on whom I can perfectly rely, alio informed me, that 

; y were 
.-^ impoF 
ble for aay but the adepts to read them. 


thefe different Seels, the harbingers of luch horrors, uni- 
ting and combining into one hideous mafs of confpirators 
under the difaftrous name of Jacobins. 

Behde the lodges that I have already named, there ex- , 

ifted two others in Paris, the more remarkable as they 
fhew how the confpirators would as it were clafs them- 
fclves according to the degree of error they had adopted, 
or the views that had prompted them to engage in the 
general confpiracy. One of thefe Lodges was called the 
Nine Sijlers. This was the re-union of the Mafonic 
brethren who ftyled themfelves Philofopheis. The other 
was named the Lodge of Candor^ and was chiefly compo- 
fed of thole Mafons who in the world held a high rank 
and bore titles of nobility, while in the Lodges they trai- 
teroully confpirsd againft Nobility, and more particularly 
againft the monarchy and againft religion. 

The unfortunate Duke de la Rochcjoucault, at once 
the dupe and protector of the Sophiilers, belonged to the 
Lodge of the Nine Sifters. Pafloret was the Mafter of J kf 
it, he who in public appeared to facrifice to rank and h ° ^ ° 
riches, and even to court religion; but whole révolu- sifters, 
tionary career would have caufed lefsfurprize had the ac- 
tive part he had taken in the dark receffes of this Lodge 
been more generally known. The name of Condorcet al- 
io appears here, as it dots in every haunt of rebellion. — . 
Together with him we find a long lift of all the Sophifters 
of the day, fuch as Bfffit, Garat, the commander Dolo- 
mieu,Laccpede, Bailly, Camille Def moulin s, Cerutti, Four- 
croi, Danton, Millin, Lalandc, Bonne, Chateau, Randon, 
Chcnicr, Mercier, Gudin, La Aietherie, and the Mar- 
quis de la Salle, who not finding the Lodge of the Social 
Contract fufficiently philofophized., had come over to 
Condorcet. There was alfo Cham-pfort, who never could 
think that the revolution of Equality and Liberty advan- 
ced with fufficient rapidity, till at length fettered in fts 
chains, he could find no other refource in his Philofophifm 
than fuicide. [Among the apoftate clergy that had flocked 
thither, we find Noel, Pingre, and Mulot. The two lat- 
ter, together with Lalande, were alfo members of the Se- 
cret Committee of the Grand Orient. Dom Gerlcs, in 
company with Rahaud de St. Etienne and Pet ion, came 
and joined the Lodge of the Nine Sillers in the early 
time of the Revolution. Fauchet took his ftation at the 
Bouche de Fer, with Goupil de Pre/tin and Bonneville. 


As to Sycyes, the moll zealous of this brotherhood and of 
the whole revolutionary crew, he had formed a new Lodga 
at the Palais Royal, called the Club of the Twenty-nvo, 
and compofed of the chofen of the Elc<5r. 

Such perfons as with to form a more precife idea of the 
revolutionary fpirit that predominated in this Lodge, need 
only to confult thofe works publifhed by its members, 
when the court, at the inftigation of Necker, imprudent-» 
ly invited all the Sophifters to lay before the public their 
views on the compolition of the otates General. A work 
of this nature, written by La Metherie, being read at the 
hotel, and in prefence of the Duke de la Rochefoucault, 
a French nobleman, who has fince mentioned it to me, 
ventured to fay, that the pofitions laid down in that work 
were derogatory to the rights of the Sovereign and to re- 
ligion. c Well) (laid the duke, a mere dupe of his Sophis- 

* ters), either the court will admit of thefe plans, and 

* then we JJjall be able to arrange matters as we p leaf e; or 

* elfe, the court will rejecl them, and in that cafe we mujl 
c do without a kin g J Such, indeed, was the opinion ge- 
nerally entertained and declared by the fophifticated Ma- 
funs, fuch as Bailly, Gudin, La Aletherie, Dupont, &o* 
They wiihed to eifablifh a king (uhjeded to all their the- 
ory of Equality, Liberty, and Sovereignty of the people j 
but it was only through them that the people were to dic- 
tate the laws} and fome of thefe J ':i-difant fages wifhed to 
annihilate royalty entirely. Sevcvi 1 of them, fuch as Bris- 
tox. and his faction, already fhewea difpofitions to reject 
all terms with the throne ; and reviling it was only the 
prelude to its utter fubverlion. 

There was another fet of brethren, who frequented the 
The Loge de la Candeur ; but, following other plans, they 

Lodge de fought to combine their ambition with the Mafonic E- 
la Can- quaiity and Liberty. There did La Fayette, the difciple 
of Sycyes, lifping the Rights cf Man, and already avert- 
ing that infurretlion was a mojl facred duty, dream that 
he was the rival of the immortal Washington. The Bro- 
thers Lameth, furnamed the ungrateful^ flocked thither to 
punifii the court for the favors conferred on them ; Co did 
the Mm quis de Montcfquiou, Adoreton de Chabrillant, 
and Cujlines, in hopes of revenge for having been flight- 

* See the account given of their works in Vol. II. of thefe 



ed by that fame court. Here alfo were feated many agents 
pf Philio D'Orléans, fuch as his counfellor La Clos^ his 
chancellor La Touche^ Sillery the yileft of flaves, and 
f)' Aiguillon the moft hideous of mummers.* Thither 
alio had reforted the Marquis de Lufignan and the Prince 
of Broglio, whofe youth was about to tarnifti the glory of 
a name that deferved a better fate. The Phyfician Guil- 
lotin is the only brother that I can find in this Lodge who 
did not bear a title. He foon felt the effects of its pow- 
er, when cited before the Parliament to anfwer for a fedi- 
tious publication; he beheld thoufands of adepts flocking 
in on all fides and threatening the magiftrates, who might 
jiow plainly perceive that it was too late to contend againft 
the federated bands of Mafonry. 

Such was the ftate of the Lodges, and of the moft re- 
markable Brethren at Paris, when the Deputies of Illu- 
minifm arrived from Germany. Moft authors make them 
alight at the Lodge of the Contrat Social, Rue Coq-heron. Lod^eof 
I fear that I have myfelf prepared my readers for a fimi- the Con- 
lar error, when fpeaking (in Vol. II. Chap. XIII. of thefe trat So- 
Memoirs) of a Lodge eftablifhed in that fame ftreet. I cial. 
recollect, however, that I particularly mentioned them to 
be the Sophifters adherent to the Duke de la Rochefou- 
cault; and none of thofe belonged to the Contrat Social. 
Though I may have miftaken the ftreet in which they 
alfembled, I was not in any error with refpecl: to the per- 
fons of the Confpirators. The better to diftinguilh them, 
and that I might not confound them with another fpecies 
of Mafons, I made the ftricteft inquiries. Among other 
documents, I procured a very numerous lift of the Bie- 
thren of the Social Contracl.f I therein found men who 
are well known for their attachment to royalty, and not 
a fingle one who had diftinguiftied himfelf by his zeal for 
F f 

* All Paris was acquainted with his accoutrements and 
remembers the hideous ii^ure that he cut on the 5th and 6th of 
O&ober, 1789, in themidft of the PoifTards at Verfaiiles. 

f 1 fhould have given this lift, but that I could not fuppofe 
that fo many Dukes, MarquiiTes, and Barons, would like to fee 
their names made public. Befides, I am not writing the hiftory 
of the dupes, but of the confpinng Brethren. — I think it, how~ 
ever, proper to obferve, that when the federation, of which I 
am about to fpeak, was undertaken, they, (by the advice of the 
queen) admitted lèverai members of a lets ariflocratic turn, leil 
their Lodge mould be iufpe&ed of ariltocracy. 


the revolution. I alfo found that this error (To fcancîalî- 
zing to the Social Contrail) originated in a work called 
Les Mvfques Arrachés publifhed under the feigned name 
of Jaques Le Sueur, which is nothing hut a fcurrilous 
libel on perlons of the higheft refpedtability. This au- 
thor is men whom I have known to be the rnoft 

etit enemies to the revolution into the moft zealous 
abettors of it. He alfo makes the Duke de la Rochefou- 
é Fauchet, Bailly, and La Fayette, mem- 
bei s of the Social Contrait, though they never belonged 
to k. He places it under the direction of the Grand Mas- 
ter Philip of Orleans, whereas it never filiated from any 
Lodge but that of Edinburgh. He paints the ve nerable 
Cardinal of Malines in the falfeft colors, as will evidently 

:ar to every perfon who is acquainted with his high 
reputation for virtue and wifdom. On the whole I do 
, n >t thin:; that this fuppofed Le Sueur can be quoted as 

an authority in any thing, except in what he fays on- the 
reception of the Phitalete Illuminées ; and even there he 
is moft abominable in his perfonalities, and pretends to 
have been an aâôr in the fcene when he is but the plagi- 
ary copyift of Mirabeau. 

I have befides acquired a certainty that Wcifhaupt's 
ciiiif, id not have applied to men more inimical 

to his lyfte.ns, whether Maforric or Anarchical, than the 
members of the Social Contrail, as by their orders the 
>us work written by .Bonneville, Bode's great friend, 
was burnt in open Lodge. In fhort, I have in my pos- 
n the original Utter (or, in Mafonic language, the 
. otten by a man with whom 1 was ac- 
quainted, and on the formal deliberation oi' the Social 
Contract tranfmrtfted to feveral other lodges, to engage 
them to join in a federation for the fupport of Louis XVI. 
againft the Jacobins. It is true, that the royalift brethren 
of this Lodge were the complete dupes of this projected 
federation, for they invited the Lodges to form an union, 
for the maintainin:.r of the King according to the confu- 
tation of 1789- ' Louis XVI. who really wiflied to keep 

oath that nad been forced from him to be true to the 
conitituti mï, was very well pieafed with the lilt of the fe- 
derated Mafôrîs; but Mr. de La Porte, then minifter, 
was of a different opinion. When he few the circular 
letter, and the number of peri 'jns who -had fubicribed it, 
he (aid, " It is impoiiible that thefe perfons can be other 


u than conftitutionalifts, or that they can ever become 
" ftaunch royalifts." — " Let us begin (rejoined the agents 
«' of the Social Contract) by maintain? the king in his 
" prefent ftate, and we will afterwards had means of re- 
" eltabliming the true Monarchy/' This anfwer may ferve 
as a vindication for the members of the Social Contrail 
but their good intentions did not make their delufion the 
Iefs complete. In the firft place, they might have feen, 
but they did not fee, that the greater number of thofe who 
had figned the letter were men who wifhed to continue 
to enjoy their Equality and Liberty under a King redu- 
ced to the condition of a mere Doge to the fovereign and 
legiflative people; and that La Fayette, Bailly, and ma- 
ny other revolutionifts, would have figned this letter, 
without ceafmg on that account to be jacobins and re- 
bels. Neither did they reflect, that many of thofe coi 
tuttonal brethren would have turned againfl the Social 
Con tract , as foon as they perceived the plan for reiniia- 
•ting the Monarch in his ancient rights ; nor that it was 
far more eafy to entice thefe conftitutionalifts into the 
raoft outrageous democracy of the great club, than to 
bring them back to the principles of real monarchy. In 
ihort they had overlooked the vaft number of adepts of 
democracy who would infallibly denounce them as trai- 
tors to Equality and Liberty, which afterwards proved to 
be the cafe. It was to very little purpofe that the abet- 
tors of this federation terminated their letter with the fol- 
lowing words: — " This table is only for your chapter. 
" Make difcreet ufeof it. We have t.tvo [acred intere/is 
" to manage, that of the French Monarchy and its King, 
" and that of Mafonry and its Members." The interdis 
of Mafonry carried the day; for, at the very- time that 
the demi-adepts were fuhferibing the letter, the more pro- 
found adepts were from every quarter denouncing the 
federation to the great club, and the Social Contract w^.s 
itfelf profcribed. 

Certain of this fact, and obferving that the brethren o f 
the Social Contrail positively declare, in the tab 
[which I have before me) that all political and delibera- 
ting clubs fkould befuppr,.ipd; being alio allured, by 
veral Mafons, that it was from the Comrni 
mis Réunis that the invitations were 1 
berate with the Geman deputies, I fin bliged to 

differ with thofe writers.ivho declare the EmifTaries of II- 
luminifm to have alighted at the Social Contract, an* 


who attribute to that Lodge the political committees efta- 
blifhed on their arrival. It may very poflibly have hap- 
pened, that fome one of thefe committees may have taken 
its ftation in the lame ftreet; but certain it is, that fuch 
committee was not compofed of members from the 6V 
cial Contrat. So likewife is it a mere fable that has 
been fpread, with regard to the infcription fuppofed to 
have been written by Philip of Orleans on the door of this 
Lodge, Hither each brings his ray of light. Let it then 
be remembered-, that it was to the Committee of the Amis 
réunis that Mirabeau had directed the illuminizing bre- 
thren from Germany. — Savalette and Bonneville had 
made this committee the central point of revolution and 
of the mvfteries. There met in council, on the days ap- 
pointed, not only the Pariiian adepts, but thofe of all the 
provinces who were judged worthy of being admitted to 
the profound myiteries of the Sect. There were to be 
(csn the Ele£t of the Philaletes, the profound Roficrucians 
and Kniehts Kadofch, the Ele£t of the Hue Sourdière^oî 
the Nine Sijîers, of the Lodge of Candour^ and of the moft 
fecret committees of the Grand Orient. This was the 
landing place of the travelling brethren from Lyons, A- 
vignon and Bourdeaux. The emiflaries from Germany 
could not find a central point better adapted to their new 
myiteries than this committee; and there it was that 
they unfolded all the importance of their miffion. Wei- 
fhaupt's code was ordered to lie on the table, and commis - 
iioners were named to examine it and make their report. 
But here the gates of this fecret fenate are fhut againft 
us. I do not pretend to penetrate the dark recefs, and de- 
fcribe the deliberations that took place on this occafion. 
Many brethren have informed me, that they remember 
the deputation, but they fcarcely recollée! Jmelius-Boôe 
?nd Bayard-Bufche under any other denomination than 
that of the German brethren. They have feen thefe de- 
puties received in different Lodges with all the etiquette 
due to viiitors of high importance ; but it was not on fuch 
occafions that a coalition was debated on, between the 
ancient myiteries of Mafonry and thofe of the modern 
Spartacus. All that my memorials f;iy on the fubject is, 
that négociations took place; that the deputies reported 
to their Aréopage; that the négociations iafted longer than 
was expected ; and that it was at length decided, that the 
, new myfteries fhoulft be introduced into the French Lodg- 
es, but under a Mafonic form; and that they fhould ali be 


ittuminized without even knowing; the name of the Se<5t 
whofe myfleries they were adopting. Only fuch parts of 
Weitbaupt'fl code were to be feleébed as the circumttances 
would require to haften the revolution. Had not the fa<Sts 
that immediately followed this négociation tranfpired to 
t out its effects, we {hould ftill have been in the dark as 
to its great fuccefs; the news of which Amelias and Bayard 
carried back to their illuminized brethren in Germany. 
But, happily for hiftory, fa£ts have fpoken; and it will be 
eafy to fee h'ow far this famous cmbaiFy influenced the 
French Revolution. 

At the time of their arrival, Paris fwarmed with impos- 
tors, all raifing fpirits or conjuring up the dead, in order 
to pick the pockets of the living; or magnetizing and 
tli. owing into a crifis certain knotving dupes., or knaves, 
who well knew the parts they had to a&. Others again 
would work cures on healthy dupes, to fwindle away the 
money of thofe who were really ill. In a word, Meftner 
preiided there in all his glory. I make this observation, 
becaufe the illuminizing deputies pretended that they had 
been attracted from Germany by the fame of Mefmer'' s 
fcience, which had fpread throughout their country; it 
alfo ferves to fliew, that their arrival could not have been 
later than the year 1 7 8 7 , as in the very next year Mefine- 
rifn and its tubs were entirely abandoned, or confined to 
a few adepts, the object of public ridicule, who reforted 
to the hotel of the Dutchefs of Bourbon. Such a pretext, 
therefore at that period would have been as much ridicu- 
led as were Mefmer' s dupes. The Notables, the Parlia- 
ment, Brienne, and Necker, at that time furnifhed the 
Pariiians with more important matter for confideration. 
Befide, my instructions, as well as many perfons the bed 
informed on the fubjeel, even Mafons at whole Lodges 
thefe German brethren attended as vifitors, ftate their ar- 
rival to have taken place about the time of the convoca- 
tion of the fir ft afTembly of the Notables, which opened on 
the 22d February 1787. And, in facf, it is from that very 
year that we may obferve the code of Weifliaupt influen- 
cing French Mafonry. 

in that year we fee all the myfteries of the Amis réunis, The illtt- 
and of the other Lodges that had adopted the pretended ionization 
rnyfticity of thi Martinifts, difappear. The very name ^ em ,, n _ 
oi Phiialete feemed to have been forgotten. New ex- floated by 
planations are given to the Mafonic fecrets; a new de- facts. 


gree is introduced into the Lodges; and the brethren of 
Paris haften to tranfmit it to thole in the provinces. The 
adepts flock to the new myfteries. I have now before me 
a memorial written by an adept, who about the end of 
the year 1787 received the code at his Lodge, though he 
jived at eighty leagues diflance from Paris. According 
to the agreement made with the Deputies, all tne forms 
of Malbnry were prelerved in this new degree; the rib- 
bon was yellow, the badge was a far, and its fejlvvah 
ivere kept at the Equinox; but the ground-work of its 
myfteries was a difcourfe entirely copied from that pro- 
nounced by the iiiuminizing Hierophant in the degree of 
Epopt. 1 he dawn of a great day begins to break upon us y 
when the fecrets of Alafonry hitherto unknotun, foall be- 
t :ome the property of ail free men. In fhort, it contained 
all the principles of Equality and Liberty, and of natural 
religion* detailed in the degree of Epopt; rmd even the 
enthulialm of ftyle was prelerved. The difcourfes pro- 
nounced by the Knights oj the Sun, or Knights Kadofch, 
on fimilar occafions were not to be compared to this. — 
The very Mafon who has given me this information, 
though he had been admitted to all the other degrees, was 
ïo difgufted with this, that he refilled it; but the greater 
part of the brethren of his Lodge were fo much eleCh lfied 
by it, that tb<ey became the m:jt zealous fichiers for the 
revolution. Some have even held confpicuous places in 
it, and or.e actuel'^ became minifter. In this new degree, 
the reader rr.uft remark the very name of Illuminée was 
not mentioned; it was merely a farther explanation of 
(the origin and Lcrets of Malbnry. The French Mafons 
were now ripe for fuch an explanation ; they were in a 
ftate iimilar to that described by Knigge when fpealcing 
of the Brethren who inhabited the proteltant pares of Ger- 
many; they needed no long trials; they were illuminized 
with the fame facility ; the name fignified little ; they 
received the degree, and ran wild with the fame enthufi- 

It was difficult, however, as yet, to judge by the difpo- 

fitions of the different Lodges what turn the revolution 

would take. The Mafons in general «via* 

in tl tution; but the chciLn of tl -dune 

initiated in all the <i; ■•' iheir £»■ 

Liberty. Their myfteries, it istrue^ we'fï 

grees ; but it mult be J(o r»- 


membered, that terror had there much more influence 
than conviction. I was acquainted with Mafons who 
had fwom hatred to kings on their reception to the de- 
gree of Kadofcb ; — neverthelefs Ï have feep them regard- 
lefs of that oath become the {launch friends of Monarchy. 
That fpirit, inherent to the French nation, got the bet- 
ter of the Maibnic' views ; that was the fpirit which was 
to be eradicated from the minds of the brethren ; and a?t 
the fophiftrvand delufions of the ilhiminizing Hierophancs 
were to be practifed for that purpofe. It was in his dë- 
gree of E[>opt that the modern St>artacus had condenfed 
all his potions by which he was to infufë into his adepts 
that frantic rage againft kings, which he had himfelf im- 
bibed. Such alio was the intention and effect of the de- 
gree of the Mafonic 'Epdpfl 

But Illuminifm was not to be appeafed by feeing the 
adepts of the ancient Lodges facrificing at its (brine. — ■ 
The Hierophant tells his difciples, that they are to acquire tj 
Jtrcngth by gaining over the multitude. This is alio the 
period (at the introduction of the new degree, and the 
return of the deputies to Germany) when the Lodges 
are multiplied beyond any former precedent, bor.h in 
Paris and the provinces, and when the fyftem for the re- 
ception of Mafons is changed. However low Mafonry 
may have {looped in queft of candidates, it had not as yet 
been {cci\ recruiting in the fuburbs among the loweil rab- 
ble; aii at once we fee the fuburbs of St. Antoine and 
St. Marceau filled with Lodges compofed of porters and 
laborers, now decorated with the levelling badges of Ma- 
lonry. in the country towns and villages, Lodges are 
opened for affembling the workmen and peafantry, in 
hopes of heating their imaginations witbthe fophifiricated 
ideas of Equality and Liberty and the Rights of Man. — 
At that fame period does Philip of Oi leans introduce to 
the Mafonic myfleries thofe French Guards, whom he 
deftined to the fubfequent attack of the lîaftille and the 
fiormiug of the palace of his royal matter and kinfman. 
Let the officers of thof-* legions be queftioned why the-/ 
abandoned the Lodges; and they will tell you, it was be- 
caufe they did not choole to be confounded with their com- 
mon foljiers in this Maibnic Equality.' 

At that fame period is Paris over-run with an immenfe «r 
number of clubs and literary focieties, on the plan of the 
Germanic union, and fuch as it ha • eibblimed on 


the banks of the Rhine. They are no longer Lodges, 
but Clubs, regulating committeeship! political committees. 
All thefe clubs deliberate. Their resolutions, as well as 
thofe of the committee of the Amis des Noirs, are all trans- 
mitted to the committee of correfpondence of the Grand 
Orient, and thence are forwarded to the Vénérables in 
the provinces. This is no more than that concatenation 
of revolt, invented by Weifhaupt to revolutionize nations 
from the north to the fouth, and from the ealt to the weft, 
at one and the fame hour. The chief committee of thefe 
regulating committees is no other than the French Ana- 
page. In place of Spartacus- Weifhaupt, /^/Va-Knigge, 
Aiariu 5-Her tel, &c. we find, wielding the firebrands of 
revolution in the capital of France, a Philip of Orlca?is y 
a MirabeaUy a Syeyes, a S avait tie de Lange^-à Condor cet , 

ÏV. Scarcely is the construction of this chain of rebellion 

made known to them, before they fet about forming it 
throughout the ftate. Infrructions are fent to the very 
extremities of the kingdom; all the Vénérables are or- 
dered to acknowledge the reception of them, andtofubjoin 
to their anfjoer the oath oj faithfully and punctually exe- 
cuting all commands they may receive through the fame 
channel. Thofe who might heiitate at fuch an oath are 
menaced with all the poignards and aqua tophana that 
await traitors to the Sect.* 

V. Thofe Mafters of Lodges who through fear or difguft 

were unwilling to engage in fo awful an undertaking, had 
no other refource left but to abandon the Lodge and the 
mallet, under whatever pretence their fears could fuggeft. 
Thev were replaced by more zealous brethren, f and the 
orders continued to be tranfmitted until the meeting of 
the States-General. The day of general infurrection is 
fixed for the 14th of July 1789. At the fame hour, and 
in all parts of France, the cries of Equality and Liberty 
refound from the Lodges. Paris briltles up in a phalanx 
of pikes, hatchets, and bayonets; couriers are lent into 
the provinces, and they return with the news of a fimilar 

* See Vol. II. of thefe Memoirs, Chap. XTII. 
* Thefe letters and menaces were tranfmitted during the fît- 
tinc of the States of Brittany, that is to fay, about June or July, 
1788; at leaft it was at that time that a member or thofe States, 
a Mafon and a Knight Kadofch, received his. — The new de- 
gree had been received at his Lodge about fix months before. 


în fur recti on ; towns, villages, nay, the very fields and cots, 
refound with the cries of Equality and Liberty, and are 
thus in unifon with the brethren of the capital. On this 
fatal day the Lodges are diffhlved. The grand adepts are 
now feated in the town-houfes in revolutionary commit- 
tees. As they predominated in the Electoral AiTemblies, 
fo are they now predominant in the aflembly Ityling itfelf 
National. Their cut-throat bands have been trying their 
ftrength,and the barriers of Paris are beaten to the ground; 
the country-houfes of the nobility are in flames; the lan- 
tern ports are put in requisition; and heads are carried in 
favage triumph through the ftreets of Paris. The Mon- 
arch is attacked in his palace, and his faithful guards 
butchered ; prodigies of valor alone could fave the life of 
his royal confort; and the King himfelf is dragged a pri- 
loncr to his capital. Good God! whither ami proceed- 
ing ? — all Europe is acquainted with the dreadful tale — 
Let us return then to the hand that organizes this horrid 
concatenation of villany. 

The Lodges had thus been transformed into a vafrcor- 
refponding fociety; and, through the means of that cor- 
refpondence, France had in a fingle day been overwhelm- 
ed by a million of demoniacs, who with horrid yell pro- 
claimed their Equality and Liberty, while they were com- 
mitting the molt abominable outrages. And who were 
the men that prefided over thefe primitive difaflers ? — » 
Hiftory immediately points to a new den of confpirators, 
holding their meetings at Verfailles, under the title of the 
Breton Club. And who are the members of it? Mira- 
beau, Syeyes, Barnave, Chapdlier, the Marquis de la, 
Cofte, Giezen, Bouche, Petion; in mort, an aggregate 
of the moft profound adepts, both of the capital and of the 
provinces, who fupply the place of the central commit- 
tee, and by means of the eftabiifhed correfpondence fix 
the time and manner of the infurreclion. They are, how- 
ever, but at the commencement of that long career of 
crime and iniquity which they are to run ; they muft 
concert new means, and gain over hands and numbers to 
accomplifh the views which they were proLcuting. The Origin of 
better to direil this horrid çourfe, they impatiently wait jhe appel- 
the day when they may fally forth from their dark recefs- X xon . ? 
es j and it is to the temple of the living God, to the church 
of religious men called Jacobins, that Mirabeau convokes 
the Parilsan adepts ; it is there that he e&ablilh^s himfelf 
G g 


vvitli the very men who compofes the Breton Club. The 
whole confpiring crew flock around him. From that in- 
liant this temple is converted into a den of confpirators,- 
and is only known by the name of Club» the name of thefe 
anticiu religions who heretofore made it refound with the 
praiîcs of the living God, is given to this horde of blas- 
phemers, the re- union of every clafs of confpirators. — 
Soon does all Europe defignate by the name of "Jacobin 
the authors and abettors ot the French Revolution. The 
curie once pronounced on this name, it is but juft and 
prpper that the appellation of Jacobin alone fhould car- 
ry with it the idea of a general coalition of the Sophism 
ters of Impiety cunfpiring againft their God and Chris- 
tianity; pi the Sophijlers of Rebellion confpiring againft 
their G >d and their King; and of the Sopbi/hrs of Impi- 
siy and Anarchy confpiring againft their God, their Kingy 
and all civil fociety whatever. 

Let us now enter this den of rebellion, which may be 
looked upon as the prototype of thofe numerous aflbcia- 
tions v. Inch are foon ipread under the fame name thro 'out 
the provinces. It is thither, it is to that monftrous union 
of every fpecies .of confpin-ng Sedr, that the tafk which I 
undertook at the outlet of thefe Memoirs leads both me 
_, _ and mv reader?, to follow thofe difrerent conlpiring; Seels 

The Uco- - ; . . . , . . L1 ... . r , . o, 

bins and " om t '"' eir on » ,n t0 tueir terrible coalition in this den or 
Adepts i- confpirators under the nâsoe of 'Jacobins. Darknefs may 
H< wically have hitherto encompailed the proceedings of thofe differ- 
the lame; LvX Seels ; and fome readers may have been blind to con- 
jn perlons; v j£j.j on) anc » difbelieved the evidence I have adduced to 
prove that the commencement of this fatal union is to be 
dated from the intrulion of the Sophifters into the Ma- 
fonic Lodges, and the confummation of it from the coali- 
tion of the latter with the deputies of Jlluminifm.' But 
broad day-light will now betray their actions ; behold the 
Sophifters, the Rebels, the Adepts of every clafs aflem- 
bled, all bound by the fame oath, whether Rohcrucians, 
Knights Kadofch,or difciples of Voltaire and Jean Jaques, 
whether Knights Templar, Epopts of Illuminifm, or dis- 
ciples of Swedenborg and St. Martin; here, I lay, all are 
holding council £.nd concerting ruin, devastation, and all 
that meafurelefe chain of revolutionary crimes. 

That impious man, who had firft ("worn to crufh God 
and his Goipel, was no more; but his dhciples were (till 
in life and vigor. We have km them fpringwig up 


/rem their academic meetings, retailing their blafphemies 
in thofe petty aflemblies pretending to the bel efprit, un- 
der the aufpices of the female adepts, fuch as the Dutch- 
efs D'Anville, the Marquife du DefYant,or the Geofrins, 
Efpinaces, Neckers, and Staels. They then framed their 
confpiracies at the Hotel D'Holbach, To fupport the 
illufions of their Sophiltry by the ftrength of Legion-, 
they obtrude themfelves on the Mafonic Lodges; but 
now they have abandoned their pettifogging female adepts, 
their academies, nay, the Hotel D'Holbach and the Lodges 
themfelves are deferred^ the great revolutionary gulph 
has fwallowed them all. Behold them muffled up in the 
red c*,p; the cloak of Philofophy has been call: ail Je; be- 
hold them all, Condorcet, BrifTot, Bailly, Garat, Ceruty, 
Mercier, Rabaud, Cara, Gorfas, Dupui, Dupont, La- 
iande, Atheifts, Deifts, Encyc! oped ids, CEconomifts, in 
fhort, felf-created Philofophers of every fpecies and every 
kind. Here they appear foremoft in the ranks of rebel- 
lion^ as they formerly did in thofe of impiety. Behold 
them intermixed with the dregs of the Brigands and of 
the Lodges, as well as with the leaders of the bands and 
the heroes of the myfteries; with the banditti of Philip of 
Orleans, as well as with his worthy advocate Ckabroua\ 
or his rival La Fayette. Behold them in council with 
the traitors of ariftocracy, as well as with the apotlates of 
the clergy; with the Duke of Chartres, the Marquis de 
Montefqu;eu,and de la Salle, the Counts Pardieu,de La- 
touche, Charles and Theodore Larrieth, Victor Broglio, 
Alexander Beauharnois, St. Fargeau, as well as with 
Syeyes., Perigord D'Autun, Noel, Chabot, Dom Gerles, 
Fauchet, and all the intruding tribe. 

It is not by accident that we fee thefe ancient çonfpîra- 
tors, whether literary or mafonic, coalefcing with the con- 
fpiring brethren of the Provinces, fuch as Barrere, ivïen- 
douze, Bonnecarrere, and Çollot cFHerbois; it is not by 
chance that the Jacobin clubs both in Paris and the Pro- 
vinces become the general receptacle for S.oficrucians, 
Knights Templars, Knights of the Sun, and Knights 
dofch; or of thofe in particular who, under the name of 
PbilaUtes, were enthufuuTically wedded to the myfte 
of Swedenborg, whether at Paris, Lyons^ Avignon, Ë 
dcaux, or Grenoble. The dun having once founded the 
trump of rebellion, where eife (hould we go to iearch for 
thofe zealous Martinifts, Suvaiette cie Lange, Milanois, 


Wiliermoz, and men of their ftamp ? They had impro-» 
ved on ths fyftems of their forerunners the Roficrucians \ 
they will, now that they have entered the great club, out- 
ftrip them with gigantic ftrides. They had coalefced 
with ths illuminizing Spartacus\ and in unifon with his 
adepts they are now become the moft ardent Jacobins.* 
But to whatever caufe people may choofe to afcnbe 
this general reunion of fo many confpirators, and of their 
fyftems, the fact certainly cannot be controverted. It had 
been firft fet on foot on the arrival (of Bode; it was com- 
pleted at the Club of the Jacobins» The lift is public, 

* See a Lift of the principal Jacobins îh a work, entitled, 
" Of the Gaufes and Effe&s of Jacobmifm." 

It is an observation that did not eicape the notice of the Ger- 
man writers, and which 1 repeatedly find in the memorials i'ent 
to me, that the greatetl vifionaries of the Rolicrucian Mafons 
and of the Philaletes are fince become the moft zealous apos- 
tles of WciPaaupt's llluminifnl, and of his Revolution. — The 
Germans particularly mark out one Hulmer, a famous Martin- 
ift of Pruffia, and a George F'q/ler, who in his great zeal fof 
the myfteries of Swedenborg would pafs fifteen days in fall- 
ing ami prayer to obtain the vifion of a fpirit, or todifcover the 
Phiiofopher's Stone. Since that time, however, they have both 
turned out to be moft outrageous Jacobins. — In France many 
examples of this kind mav be adduced: Prunelle de Lierre , 
for inftance, a man heretofore of moft amiable character, and 
a very good naturalift. He firft became a reclufe Martinift, and 
'{bon after as outrageous a Jacobin as F'6j}er.~!±s for Perijfe, 
the bookfelier, he acted the fame part at Lyons for the corres- 
pondence of the Martinifts, as Savalette de Lang did at Parish 
but he did not take the fame precautions. One might fee him 
going to the Lodge followed by his port-folio, which a fervant 
could fcarcely carry, Weiihaupt's code gained admittance to 
this port-folio; the revolution took place; and Perifle, toge- 
ther with his co-adept Milanois, became as outrageous Jaco- 
bins as the reft. — What is there that cannot be faid of the Mar- 
tinifts of Avignon? — Was there ever fuch atrocious ferocity 
fiiown as by the ringleaders of this Lodge? — All this tends to 
cunrirm the pofition, that between the adepts of Swedenborg, 
and the adepts of Weifhaupt, theie was but a flight lhade of 
ieparation. The fuppofed theofophy of the one differed but 
little from the atheifm of the other. Weifhaupt goes more di- 
rectly to the point; but the annihilation of all religion is the 
real object of both their myfteries. It is even worthy of re- 
mark, that the modern Spartucus was on the eve of grounding 
all his myfteries on that very Theofophy where ft re is the prin- 
ciple, and on the theology of the Perfians, as did the Phila- 

!etes and Martinifts. (Sde Knights of the Phoenix t Original 

Writings* Vol. I. L$t. 46 J 


and it Contains the names of all the profound adepts who 
hud hitherto been difperfed among the Lodges. But let 
the reader never forget that it is not a mere local union, 
or an identity of perlons* it is an identity of principles, 
of method, of oaths, and of means; it is the general con- 
cert of thefe confpirators that proves the coalition. 

If we turn to the difcourles delivered in the club (for m princi- 
the brethren now have their journals and their public ar- p^s; 
chives) we mail find that Voltaire andRouiieau are their 
oracles, j uft as they were of the Sophifters when in their 
Literary Societies. In that club do they repeat all the 
blafphemous fophiftry againft Chriftianity which they had 
formerly uttered at the Hotel D'Holbach ; the fame en- 
thufiaftic declamations in favor of Equality and Liberty, 
the grand fecret of thole Sects that had hidden themfelves | n forms j 
in the occult Lodges. Thefe adepts found themfelves 
perfectly at home within this new den of confpirators; 
the cojlume and the fymbols had changed, it is true; but 
in fubftituting the red, or rather the bloody, cap of liber- 
ty for the apron and level, they only adopted a more ty- 
pical emblem of their antique myfteries. The Prefident is 
now the Venerable; the brethren afk leave to fpeak, and he 
grants or refufes it with all the parade of Maibnry. When 
deliberating, the votes are taken juft as in the occult ' 
Lodges. The laws of the Free-mafons for the admifiion 
or expulfion of brethren are the fame. As in the Grand 
Orient^ or at the Amis réunis, and in the Lodges in ge- 
neral, no candidate is received uniefs he be prefented by 
two fponfors, who anfwer tor his conduit and obedience; [ a oaths * 
juft i'o is it in the club. Here the obedience fworn is pre- 
ofely the fame as that fworn in the occult myfteries of 
Mafonry. To be received a Jacobin, as to become a 
Roficrucian or an Illuminée, the candidate is obliged to 
fwear implicit obedience to the decilions of the brethren ; 
and alfo to obferve and caufe to be obferved all decrees 
paiTed by the National Aflembly in confequence of the de- 
tifions of the club. He then binds himfelf to denounce 
to the club any man who fhall to his knowledge coun- 
teract the decrees propoled by the club ; and that he will 
make no exception in favor of his mojl intimate friends, \n govern* 
of his father, mother, or of any part of his family, in ment; 
fhort he will, in common with the difciples of Illuminifm, 
fwear to execute or caufe to be executed all orders ema- 
nating from the privy council cf the club, though they 


Jhouldbe repugnant to his fcntiments and conférence?' 
for the Jacobin club, like the Grand Orient, had its com- 
mittees and privy counfellors. The brethren have not 
abandoned their Lodges, as renouncing all their means of 
haftening, fomenting, and propagating revolutions. They 
have eftablifhed here, juft as at the Grand Orient, com- 
mittees for the reports, for the finances, for the corres- 
pondence, and, laftly, the grand committee of all, the^r 
cret committee; and nearly all the members of thefe dif- 
ferent committees are the very perlons whom we have 
leen flocking from the Lodges to the great club.f 
in pro- I' 1 l his club of Jacobins too is to be found, in common 

icriptions; with the Occult Lodges of illuminized Mafonry the laws 
of exclufion and prolcription. They have the black liji 
and the red lift, and this is a lift of blood, The name of 
a rejected brother is never inferibed on it without effecl. 
Paris has more than once feen fuch lifts pofted up; it has 
alio feen thofe devoted victims perilh, or, at beft, fuve 
themfelves by fiight.t 

Thus, in this den of conl'piratots do we find every 
thing in perfect unifon with the Occult Lodges, to which 
it only fucceeds. Adepts, object, principles, all are the 
fame; whether we turn our eyes toward the adepts of 
impiety, or rebellion, or of anarchy, they are now but one 
confpiring Sect, under the difaftrous name of Jacobin. — » 
We have hitherto denominated fome by the name of So- 
phifhrs, others by that of Occult Mafons, and, laftly, we 
have defcribed thofe men ftyled Illuminées. Their very 
names will now difappear; they wiil in future all be fully 
defcribed by the name of "Jacobin. 

It has been an arduous tafk to collect the proofs of this 
monftrous aftbeiation. When we look back to that day 
when Voltaire fwore to crujh thefuppofed wretch in fup- 
portof his Equality and Liberty j to that day when Mon- 
tefquieu dogmatically aiferted, that all nations fubjecl: to 
a Monarch, and to laws that they had not made, were 
iiaves ; to that day, in fhort, when Roufleau points out as 
a public malefadtor againft mankind the man who had 

* See Memoirs of the Clab of the Jacobins. 

f See the lift of the committees in the Caufes and Effetls of 
the Revolution. — Montjoie on uie Conf piracy of Orleans, Book 

J Ibrd. and Briffoi to his Conflituents, when expelled front 
the Jacobins. 


firft encîofed a field and was prefumptuous enough to de- 
clare that it was his property, and thus became the foun- 
der of civil fociety ; from thofe days, I fay, until the fata) 
period when the difciples of Voltaire, Montefquieu, and 
Rouffeau, in the name of that fame Equality and Liberty, 
flock to the club of the Jacobins, there to repeat their fo- 
phifms againft Chrift and his religion, to profecute their 
mafonic plots againft kings, to propagate the blafphemies 
of the modern Sportacus againft their God, their king, 
their country, and all focial order ; what fyftems have 
we not been obliged to inveftigate, what artifices to un- 
fold, and into what dark and loathfome recefTes have we 
not been obliged to penetrate, in order to trace their pro- 
grefs ! At length we have traced them to their general 
convention of iniquity and rebellion. Hiftory will have 
no further need of my refearches to demonfirate all the 
crimes and difafters of the French revolution that have 
ill ued from this haunt of confpirators. The hiftorian needs 
only turn to the public records, to their own journals, and 
he will fee what crimes of the French Revolution are to 
be attributed to them, I might, therefore, look upon my 
tafk as accomplifned. 

There is, however, a certain order to be obferved in 
the very growth and progrefs of thefe fcourges. In this 
aftociation appears a monftrous wifdom, that directs the 
courfe of the crimes that are fucceffively committed 
and even at appropriate moments. This wifdom has 
taught them how to make their leaft criminal accomplices 
prepare the w^y for the blackeft deeds ; it has taught 
them how to difcard or deftroy thofe agents who, from 
difguft or any other caufe, ceafe to be their inftruments 
and only become obftacles. Thus, in the very club of 
the Jacobins, in the centre of iniquity, there exifts a pro- 
greffton of wickednefs. Each Sect has retained its ulti- 
mate object, each Confpirator his paflîons and his private 
views, juft as in the Occult Lodges* yet they are all 
leagued in one common object, in one common meafure, 
to overthrow the exifting government, and erect their E- 
quality and Liberty on the new order of things. But opi- 
nions will clalh as to the choice of this new order. All 
deteft and hate the God of the Gofpel; but fome will 
have a God according to their Philofophifm, while the 
Philofophifm of others reject all ideas of a God. La Fay- 
ette will have a Doge for a king, fubjecl to the laws a»d 


will of a fovereign people. Philip of Orleans will have 
. no king unlds it be himfelf. Bnfi'ot will neither fubmit 
to Philip as king, nor aflent to La Fayette's Doge; he 
wifhes to exercife the magistracy of his own democracy. 
Mirabeau will be content with any plan, provided he be 
the prime minifter. Dietrich, Condorcet, Babceuf, and 
the higher adepts of Spartacus y will aflent to nothing but 
the man-king of llluminifm, every where his own mafier. 
Crimes then will be graduated by the myfteries. The 
grand adepts will be feen to make the mere novices act. 
Private paûïons will fometimes clog their progrefs; I {hall, 
therefore, attempt to point out in what order the French 
revolution has brought thefe myfteries into action, and ap- 
ply its fucceflive progrefs to the different Sects that had 
lb profoundly meditated and conceived it. 



application of the three Con/piracies to the French Rer 

WHILE I have been unfolding the objec~l and means jj ent ; tv0 p 
of to many infidious plots, my reader has, no f a( ^ s an( ^ 
doubt, made frequent applications to faifls that have ta- plots; 
ken place under his own eyes. He will have faid to him- 
felf, what can be this long chain of crime, deftrudlion, 
and horror, with which the French Revolution has afto- 
ni filed all Europe, but the confequence of the principles 
and plans of thefe confpiring Seels ! In darknefs they were 
conceived^ but in broad day are they executed. Such may 
be the fuccinél hiftory of the Revolution, now that thefe 
plots have been laid open. It is fo evidently demonltrat- 
ed, that it would be a ufelefs labor to defçend to details; 
we will alfo pafs over in our narratiye thofe bloody fcenes 
which might rather ferve to teajf open wounds fcarcely 
clofed, than convince my reader. I (hall, therefore, con- 
fider the French Revolution in its preliminary fteps, and 
in its fucceflive attempts againft Religion, againft Mo- 
narchy, and againft Society in general. But a curfory 
view of thefe attempts will fuflicu for the mod complete 

Let us revert for a moment to that period when the • t p 
confpirators of every clafs were (till lurking in their hid- jjminaries 
ing-places. The difciples of Montefquieu and Jean Ja- of the Re- 
ques had, fo early as 1771, declared that men could on- volution: 
)y regain their primitive rights of Equality and Liberty^ 
and the people their inprefcriptible right of legijlativefo- 
vereignty by means of a general afiembly of national de- 
puties. At that time alfo the fophifticated adepts had pro- 
nounced, that the grand obftacle to thefe pretended rights 
was to be found in the diftin&ions of the three eftates, 
the Clergy, the Nobility, and the third Eftate.* To ob- 
tain, therefore the convocation of the States General, and 
to annihilate the diftindtion of the three Eftates, mull ne- 
. Hh 

* See Chap. IV. and VI. in Vol. II. of thefe Memoirs. 


ceflarily have been and really were the firft fleps of the 

The deficit that Necker had left in the public treafury, 
the depredations and diforders of an age deftitute of mo- 
rals (becaufe thefe Sophifters had transformed it into an 
age of impiety) had reduced a Monarch who fhone forth 
viiblemiflied in the midft of corruption, tofummon the 
Notables of his kingdom, that they might confult for the 
happinefs of his people, which feemed to be his only care. 
The tender vviih that he has fliown is immediately feiz- 
ed on by the confpirators, and ferves as a pretext for them 
to hafteh the convocation of that very aflèmbly where all 
their horrid plots are to be confummated. Whatever 
might have been the wifdom of the Notables, their plans 
are rejected beforehand. Philip of Orleans and his politi- 
cal committees are likewife eager for the convocation of 
the States General. Even the tribunes of the nation will 
rife in judgment againft, and difcufs the rights of their 
Sovereign. Foremoft among the confpirators, Philip of 
Orleans is alio foremoft in action. For the firfr. time does 
he pretend to be zealous in the public caufe ; and the firft 
act of his zeal is to enter a proteff- againft the difpofl- 
tions made by Lewis XVI. to provide for the wants of 
the ftate.* In thefe intrigues againft his Sovereign, he 
combined with the different magiftrates who were then 
noted for their factious behavior, fuch as Despremenil, 
at that time infatuated with the vifions of the Martinifts 
and revolutionary principles; JVIons-abert and Saba- 
TiER de Caeres, the moft ardent enemies of the Courts 
and Fr ete au, who, in the firff. affembly, was to become 
the worthy affociate of the Conftitutionalift Camus. — 
Philip fo completely mifleads this firft Parliament of the 
kingdom, that they at length give the example of à law- 
ful and formal demand for the convocation of the States 
General. Lewis XVI. feeing the general ferment, hesi- 
tates; Philip inftigates the people; pays brigands ; and 
mobs are affembled in Paris. The King at length thinks 
proper to grant the convocation of the States General.-— 
That Sect which was headed by Orleans, now only wants 
a Mirtifter who fhall direct the convocation according to 
the views of their conipiracy; and they turn their eyes 
on that very man who had hollowed out the abyfs, that 

* See the Sceance Royale for the Land and Stamp-Tax. 


Necker, whofe perfidious policy had been the ruin of the 
national treafury. He was the man of the ambitious cour- 
tiers, who led him toward the throne that they themfelves 
might be drawn nearer to it; the man fupported by the 
Princes de Beauveau and de Poix, by the Marefchal Cas- 
tries, by the Due D'Ayen, by Meflrs. Befenval and Gui- 
bert ; the man of the confpiring courtiers, fuch as La Fay- 
ette and the Lameths; the man of the Sophifters of Im- 
piety, whofe plots had been contrived in his own houfe 
and at the hotel D'Holbach; the man, in fhort, whole 
bull was to be carried in bloody and revolutionary tri- 
umph by the fide of that of his worthy co-operator Phiiip 
of Orleans. 

Lewis XVI. might have known this perfidious minis- 
ter; the whole plan of the confpiracy contrived by Neck- 
er and his adepes of Philofophifm had been laid before the 
King; but, alas! he could not be made to believe that 
fuch wickednefs and hypocrify was to be fou:id in man. 
The day came, however, when he forrowfully exclaimed, 
IVhy 'did I not believe it ? Eleven years ago ivas every 
thing foretold that now befalls me. It was to Necker that 
he alluded; for during his firft miniftry, was that man and 
the plots contrived in his houfe, and at the hotel D'Hol- 
bach, formally denounced in a memorial prelented to Mr, 
de Maurepas and to Lewis XVI. But fince that time, 
the Confpirators had founded all their trumpets to his 
fame, and celebrated the fuppofed virtues and talents of 
the Genevefe traitor. Overpowered by fuch intrigue, the 
King was mifled to think that this man would prove the 
Saviour of the liate, and he entrusted him with the con- 
vocation of the States General. He was precifely the man 
to throw the whole of thefe ftates into the hands of the 
Confpirators.* He knew that their hopes were in the 

* I was not fufficiently acquainted with this man's charac- 
ter, when I placed him on the tame line with Turgotand Ma- 
îefherbes. — Let this artful and ambitious intriguer be judged 
by his own words: — A hundred thou fund crowns for you if you 
ivM m ike me Controller Gênerai. — / am Yich, hut cannot 
pf birth; money then mujl fupply the defeclof ahceflry. — If one 
is poffeffed of money f it is not to be J pared when it car: ft .-;■ 
ambition. — Tou talk to me of the people: they may he ufefttl t» 
me, on I I "wilt make a tool of them ; they cannot hart us, and I 
'Mill pi ay upon tvem. — As to religion, tve :: . ••■ ■ for the 

peop e; but not their Chriflianiiy ; we will deflroy that 

Let Meeker come to euquire on whatoccafions.or to whom he 


multitude, and that the diftin&ion of, and voting by e?i 
tates, would prove an obftacle to their views againft the 
Sovereign. He farther faw, that the fpirit of (edition pre- 
dominated in the third eftate, that they were becoming; the 
revolutionary organs of the Confpirators; and, to enfure 
the majority of votes to them, he doubled the number of 
the deputies to be fent to the third eftate. Confident in their 
numbers, they immediately declare themfelves, though a- 
lone, to conftitute the Actional Ajfembly. In vain did the 
clergy and the nobility infift on that right (of far more con- 
fequence to the ftate than to themfelves) of deliberating 
feparately, and thus counterpoising the deliberations that 
might have been too haftily entered upon or guided by 
paffion, intereft, or the faclious pretenfions of party mem 
In vain did the clergy and nobility facrifice all excluiive 
privileges or pecuniary advantages in taxation which they 
enjoyed, in hopes of preserving their rights in delibera- 
tion i for the privilege that Necker* and the other Gon- 

freld this monftrous language, and I will begin by naming the 
perfon who received the hundred thoufand crowns for having 
procured him the poil of Controller General; i will in the next 
place tell him, that he held luch language to the Lady who 
had the courage to upbraid him with it to his face, and in the 
midft of all his glory; to her whom he reproached with fned- 
ding tears over her murdered brother, while fhe taxed him with 
his murder, becaufe he feared her brother would betray his ie- 
cret; to that perfon who refufed to enroll herfelf in that co^ 
hort of flatterers that were to open the way for him, by thou* 
fands of calumnious accufations, invented by himfelf and by 
his emiflaries, againfl perfons holding ftations that he coveted 
For himfelf or his adheients, and which his partizans forward- 
fed to the unfortunate Lewis XVI; to that perfon thro' whofe 
medium lie wifhed to perfuade the King that M de Sa'rtme had 
ftolen twerty-twô millions out of fifty-three entrufted to h'm, 
though the minifter needed only to be informed of 'he plot to 
(how the falfity of the imputation : in fine, to that perfon whom 
he courted as neceffary for his intrigues, who discovered him 
to be a monfter, and who laid open all his plots and iniquities 
to M. de IVîaurepas and Lewis XVI. Let him iearn, that if his 
fecret crimes are to.have a place in hiftory, the proofs of ail 
thefe are not yet loft. 

* In order to fécond the views of her worthy father in this 
vvarfaie on thw diftindion of eftates, while he was intriguing 
at the palace, Madam de Stael was playing the fame part in 
Paris. She had eftabliihed at her houfe a fort of Office of In- 
fenption. La Fayette and the Lameths would bring the traitors 
to her table j and the names of thofe daftards, who would pro- 


fpirators aimed at, was that power of counteracting all re- 
foliations detrimental to religion or monarchy. It was in 
vain that Lewis XVI. with the tendernefs rather of a fa- 
ther than of a king, made thofe facrifkes (which of them- 
felves might be called a revolution, fo much did they cur- 
tail his royal prerogative) in his Declaration of the 23 J 
of June. But this was not the fpecies of revolution fougiit 
by the Confpirators. The fophifters had determined, that, 
to make their Equality and Liberty triumph, it was ne- 
CefTary to deliberate by perfons and not by ejlates; that 
the Nobility and Clergy fhould be confounded among 
the multitude; and that the majority, when deliberating 
by eftates, fhould prove a minoiity when united with the 
great numbers of the third eftate. Lewis XVI. orders, 
that in virtue of the ancient constitution of the kingdom, 
the ancient form of deliberating by eftates fhould be pre- 
served j but his orders are vain; the Confpirators proteft 
againft them; their prefident, Bailly, calls them to a 
tennis-court, and there they fwear to imppfe a conftitution 
on France congenial to their views» They immediately 
fet their brigands in motion; the venerable Arehbifhop 
of Paris is nearly ftoned to death ; the life of the Monarch 
is threatened; the fatal union of the three eftates at length 
takes place, which fubjetfts the two firft eftates to the will 
of the multitude; for the Confpirators were certain of the 
fupport of all thofe apoftates and daftards, who, by their in- 
trigues, had been returned among the deputies of the Nobi- 
lity and Clergy, becaufeNecker had doubled the number of 
the deputies of the third eftate, to enfure the majority of the 
votes in favor of the decrees which the party were to pro- 
pofe. He had organized the States General according to 
trie views and wiihes of the fophifters; he may, it is crue, 
whimper and weep over the difafters and crimes of the 
Revolution; but the hand of time (hall engrave on his 
tomb, that he was the grand agent of them all. 

Having no farther oppofition to fear, and certain of pas- 
fing whatever decrees they chofe, thefe Confpirators pro- 
ceed to declare themfelves a National Affimhly. Th ./ 
arrogate to themfelves the right of making and of pro- 
nouncing the law. The fecrets of the Lodges constitute 
the balls of the Revolution under the title of the Rights 

mife to abandon their Order and pafs over to the Third Eftate, 
were immediately inferibed on her lift. 


tf Man. The firft article declares man to he equal and 
free; that the principle of all fovereignty ejjentially re- 
files in the people-, and that law is nothing more than the 
exprejfion of the general ivill. Such had been for nearly 
half" a century the doctrines of Argenfon, Montefquieu, 
Pvoufleau, and Voltaire. Thefe principles of pride and 
revolt had long fince been the ground- work of the mys- 
teries of every clafs of Sophifter, Occult Mafon, or Illu- 
minée; and now they decorate the title-page of the re- 
volutionary code» 

This equal, free, fovereign, and legiflative people, may 
.will that their religion fhould be preferved in all its in- 
tegrity; and that its monarch fhould be entruifed with 
the nccefïary power to crufh fedition and rebellion. Ve- 
neration for the altar and affection lor their prince ftill 
glowed in the heart of the French. But the Confpirators 
Wanted an armed force, drawn from the body of that fame 
people, docile, and fubfervient to the views of the Seel, 
and that would oppofe the will of the people whenever it 
did not coincide with theirs. This force was entirely to 
overpower the army of the fovereign. Every thing had 
been forefeen ; for the fopbifters had long fmce faid, — — - 
u Oh that we could but once get rid of thefe foreign mi- 
K litary hirelings ! An army of natives might be gained 
" to the fide of Liberty, at lead a part of them; but fo- 
<c reign troops are kept on foot for this very reafon."*-— 
Their army of natives is immediately formed, and it is a- 
gain from the dark receiles of Mafonry that the fignal is 

* See the letter attributed to Montefquieu. — In Vol. II. P. 
94, on the teftimony of the Abbé Pointe, I quoted a letter at- 
tributed to Montefquieu by an Engiifhjournalilt, but could not 
rame the paper. It has fince been diicovered in the Courier, 
or Evening Gazette, oT Auguft 4, 1795. It is there (aid that 
Montefquieu wrote it, a few years before his death, to a prefi- 
dent of one of the Parliaments of France. I could with to have 
feen the perfon named to whom it was written, or in whofe 
priTdHon it is at prefent, for it is of a complexion to change 
our ideas very much as to the moderation of that writer. It 
would immediately clafs him amongtheconfoiringfophillcrs; 
and, to pafs fuch a fentence on this author, the cleareft proofs 
fliould be required. But it appears, whoever was the author of 
thai 'ettsr, rim he was far advanced in the plots of the Se<ft,foc 
he very accurately defences the oonducl of the Jacobins with 
refect to the foieign troops in the French fervice: neither 
does he appear to bs ignorant of the plan for feparating Ireland 
fiom England. 


given. That fame Savalette de Lange who prefided over 
the fecret committee of the Amis réunis, and over the cor- 
refponience, appeared before the Municipality of Paris, 
and fpoke to the following effect: " Gentlemen, I am a 
" Corporal. Here are citizens to whom I have taught the 
" ufe of arms, that they might defend the country. I did 
u not create myielf a major or a general, zve are ail equal, 
" I am limply a Corporal; but I alfo gave the example; 
" command that every citizen fhould follow it. — Let the 
" nation take arms, and Liberty will be invincible." Sa- 
valette, in pronouncing this diicourfe, prefcnted feven or 
eight brigands accoutred as foldiers. The fight of thefe 
few men, and the repeated cries of Let us fave the nation ! 
excited euthufiafm: — An immenfe mob fui rounded the 
Town-hall, and Savalctte's motion was inftantaneouily . 

decreed. The very next day the Parifian army is let on foot, 
and millions are formed into Native Battalions through- 
out the empire.* They are the fworn agents of the Con- 
fpirators] and it is now time that the unfortunate Lewis 
XVT. fhould feel their power. He had driven from his 
perfon the tieacherous Necker; but the Seel; ftill wanted 
his fervices, and it forces the Monarch to recal him.— - 
The King hefitates at fan&ioning the Rights of Man, 
and the force of the people is immediately put in a£tion. 

In fupport of thefe rights all the Confpirators combinej 
and it is agreed, that immediately on his return, Necker 
(hall ftarve the people into rebellion; that the brethren 

* Many authors have fallen into an error with refpeit to the 
fi ft formation of the National Guards; and they ground their 
animons on a refolution of the Committee of Eledors, fent 
from the town-hall to all the Sections of Paris, oidering the 
formation of this guard, and figned Fleffclles, Tallin, Ds Leu- 
tre, Faucbet, the Marquis de la Salle; but it is a certain raft, 
and within the knowledge of every body, rft, That this Nar 
tional Guard was formed only two days after the taking of the 
Baft tile; and zdly, 1 hat Mr. Fleffclles was murdered on the 
day of the taking of the Baltiile. But a faft little known is, 
that the minutes of this refolution, as alfo the minutes of all 
fanfarons that took place at the town-hall during the fir it 
year oi the revolution, were not compiled, till the fecund year ? 
by a man of the name of Verrier, and by the orders of La Fay- 
ette, who, notwithftanding many obiervatiuns made on the 
fubjeel, would not allow any change to be made in what had 
been inferted by his orders, and would have been particularly 
grieved tj lee the real origin of that National Gua'dmaie pub-* 
lie, in the command of which h>î i'o much gloritd. 


{bal! collect al! the harp-'es of the fuburbs to go and de- 
mand bread of Lewis XVI; that Baiilyand his afFelForSj 
feated at the Municipality, (hall order the legions of na- 
tives to follow and fupport them ; that La Fayette at the» 
head cf thefe legions mould march to Verfailles; that he 
ihould furround Lewis XVL with thefe bands under pre- 
tence of watching for his fafety, and then retire to Jleep, t 
Mirabeau, Petion, and Chapellier, Montefquieu,and Du- 
port, Charles Lameth, and Laclos, Sillery, and D'Ai- 
guillon, will then inform the Aflembly that viSlims mujl 
be thrown to the people^ and they avail themfelves of the 
darknels of the night to inflame the populace and excite 
the foldiery. Their hearts were already as hideous as the 
furies: They now allume their cojlitme, to lead their har- 
pies on to the commiflion of crime. f D'Orléans will ply 
his monfters with the beverage of rage and frenzy, and 
will point out the Queen as the firft vidtim to be immo- 
lated. Syeyes, Grégoire, and a multitude of other Con- 
spirators, ftand fpectators of the conteft; but, mould the 
Monarch fall in the affray, they will tender the crown to 
Orleans, as they may be certain of parcelling out its pre- 
rogative according to their Equality and Liberty. Neclc- 
er abfeonds, but his virtuous /poufe^ decorated with her 
nofegays, and accompanied by her infeparable companion 
the Marefchale de Beauveau, will appear in the galleries 
of Verfailles, in the midft of the carnage, and virtuoufly 
exclaim, Let the good people aâl> there is no danger: and, 
in fact, me had none to fear j me had already written to 
her brother Germanic " Patience; every thing will ga 
" ivell\ we can neither fpeak nor write."% 

The night from the 5th to the 6th of October reveals 
the fecrets which this worthy confidant dared to write»— 
Hiftory needs not our labors to paint the horrors of that 
awful night; they are defer ibed in the juridical depofi- 
tions taken by the of the Chatelet. Orleans 
loft courage at the fight of a few faithful Life-guards, the 
only adherents of the King that La Fayette had permitted 
to remain near his perfonj and never was a more heroic 
phalanx formed than by thefe brave men round their roy- 

* See the Sitting of the 5th October, 1789. ~ 

f See the juridical depofitions of witneffes, 157, »>6» *3«» 
and 373. 

X See her letter of the 5th OJlober, 1789. 


al matter and his confort. Though their courage was ap- 
pall d by the orders or" their Sovereign, they were flill pro- 
piga] ot their own blood; they refifted a foreft of pikes,* 
and Orleans could not confummate his premeditated 
crime. Day-light arrives to expofe the horrors of this 
night; the brigand?, his inftruments, are fen to blufh, 
and the National Guards at length reflect that they are 
Frenchmen. They emit no other wifh than to fee Lewis 
XVI. living in the mi.Sft of them at Paris in the palace 
of his forefathers. The unfortunate Monarch knows not 
what men had profited of the natural effufions of loyalty 
of his people to make them emit this wifh. He thought 
that he was entrufting himfoif to the affections of his peo- 
ple, when he was only obeying the diitates of the Con- 
ifpiratorSk He knows not t;;at it is the laft (hi ft of the 
Confpirators, that the crimes of this horrid night might 
not be entirely fruitlefs. The great difficulty they had 
found in making the Monarch (auction the rights of ?nan y 
made them perceive that they would frequently ltand in 
need of the fame brigands to force his acqmefcence to 


* The 6th of October, 1^89» was the laft day of the French 
Monarchy. — Should it ever rift again, let a monument be e- 
recled in memory of thofe brave Knight3 who would have fo 
gloiioufly contributed to fave it, had not their courage been 
chained down by the commands of their King. May their 
names be at Jeafl preferved bv the hiftorian ! 1 could wifh to 
infert the names of the fixty heroes who fo well deferved the; 
appellation of Life-guards an this awful occahun; but 1 have 
only been able to obtain thw following: 

OFFICERS. deMoimandre. 

Duke de Guiche, Captain. Baron Durepaire. 

Marquis de Savonnière, Chef Derniers. 

de Brigade. Moucheron. 

Vicomte D'Ajioult. Chev. de la Tranchade* 

Vicomte de Sefmaifons. de Duret. 

Comte de Mauleon. ■ de Valory. 

Chev. Dampierre. Comte de Mouthier. 

St. George. Bcrnady. 

M.iTrs. Horric, three Brothers* 

LIFE GUARDS. Meff. Mi\àerzt, three Brothers. 

MefTrs. ne Berard, tivo Bro' Chev. RenaHy. 

tkers. de Lam cue. 

Chev. de Huiiliers. de Montaut. 

Marquis de Varicotirt, killed. de Paget. 

Chev. Defhutes, kiUed. 


tHoiê future decrees which were to be grounded on therrf* 
All the decrees that were in fucceflion to annihilate reli-. 
gion and monarchy were to be enforced by an infurrec* 
tion, and the pikes and lantcrn-pofts were to be in per- 
petual requisition, tu conlrrain the votesj to intimidate 
the Monarch, and dilcard all reclamation. In future a 
captive in Pans, Lewis XVi. will be perpetually mena- 
ced by the brigands iffuing trom the fuburbs or from the 
quarries, and paid by Necker or Orleans. La Fayette 
wii! proclaim, that \njurreciicn is a înojï jacred duty y and 
iniurrection will become the {landing order of the dav; — * 
Mirabeau, Barnave, Chapellier, will point out the object 
and fix the hour: Orders $vili be lent from their anti. 
cnamocrs to the Jacobins and the fuburbs, and daily, at 
the hour fixed, wiil the King, the Clergy, the Nobility, 
and ail who may oppoie the decrees in debate, find them- 
selves fiirrounded by a mob that will hoot or aâ exactly 
according M the initructions given by the confpirators.* 
Though they reaped no farther benefit from all the hor- 
rid derd:- of the fifth and lixth of October, yet the confpir- 
ators knew but too well how to appreciate their fucceffes. 
Madame Necker writes again to her brother Germani: 
V We are content, every thing went on well. The arifto- 
" cracy would have hau the uppermoft, and we were oblig* 
w ed to make ufe ôf the rabble. "+ Here terminate what 
may be called the preliminaries of the revolution. Neck- 
er had moulded the National Afiembly according to the 
views of the beet, and had eftabhfned it in the town that 
was judged moit proper for enabling him to work the 
premeditated revolution. We next proceed to the plan 
traced by the Sophifters for crujhing the pretended ivretch \ 
and here begins the war waged againft the God of Chris- 

* Some of the brigands who were in confiant pay for the 
purptile of thei'e infui i tclions were retiring home between ten 
and eleven at night, and 1 heard them take leave of each other 
in the following terms: '' It lias gone on pretty well to-day ; 
" good bye; we (hall txpeit vou to-morrow.— What, to-mor- 

if row? at what o'clock? — at the opening of the aflsmbly. 

" Where do Vie go for orders? To Mirabeau's, Chapellier s, or 
M Barnave's,as ufual." — i own, that till I was prefent at this 
dilcourfe I never could belfert that thofe. legiflator3 hart daisy 
interviews with thefe brigands to fix the nuur and oojsct of 
fuch infui récitons. 

f Letter 8th of Oclober. 


To deftroy religious orders; to deprive the minifters In the de- 
Of the 

Jes and the BeiUropbons : Such (it has been fhown) were fembly 
the means combined by the Sophifters to overturn and 
annihilate the altars of Chriftianity. To fubftitute the 
worfhip of the great architect of the univerfe to that of 
Chrift; the light of the lodges to the doctrines of the gos- 
pel; the god of their pretended reafon to the God of re- 
velation: Such were the moft moderate of the myfteries 
of the occult Lodges of Mafonry. To invent and fubfti- 
tute new religions in place of Chriftianity, and toimpofe 
them on the people till every religious principle could be 
eradicated : In the name of Equality and Liberty to ren- 
der themfelves poiuerful and formidable; then to tie the 
hands y Jul jugate, ao<J /mother in the germ, every thing 
that could counteradt the empire of impiety and atheifm r 
Such were the views and plots of the Epopt, Regent, and 
Magus of Illuminifm. This code and their oaths have 
been laid open to our readers; and of all thefe horrid 
plots what particle has the revolution left incomplete? 

Religious vows were immediately fufpended and foori 
abolifhed; the clergy were pillaged of their propertv, and 
all the polleflions of the church were converted into a fund 
for the fecurity of the affignats; the facred vellels were 
(tolen and prophaned; the churches were not only robbed 
of their gold and filver, but the very brafs and metal of 
the bells were carried away.* All this however is but a 
fir fi eflayofthat war which the revolution is to wage a- 
gainft the Church. Still had the. Church prefçrved irs 
faith, its real treafure, pure and untar uifhed ; but it is ex 
that very treafure that Mirabeau will aim his blows. Hj 
declared, that if the Catholic religion were not deftroyed 
in France, the revolution could never be conlblidatcd.— - 
Immediately after this decifion a code is formed for the 
clergy, of a long fuite of decrees, and it is ftiled the civil 
conjlitution of the clergy. But it was merely a conftitu- 
tion of fchifm and apoltacy. This was no more than thœ 
firft religion, invented as the ftepping-ftone that fhould 
lead the people to a nullity of all religion. Grounded on 

* Dacrees of October tfj, November i, Decembei 19, 1/89 ; 

and February 13 , 1790. 


me principles of Revolutionary Equality and Liberty, it 
con&itutes'the people fovereigns in the fanctuary,juft as 
thofe fame principles had conftituted them fovereigns a- 
round the throne} it endows the. people, with rights that 
the gofpel has referved to the miniflry; it was no more 
than a repetition of thofe errors of Camus, of the apoftate 
of Ypres, and of the (chifm of Utrecht, long iince ana- 
thematized. Notwithstanding the difguifè it h?d a (Turned, 
the clergy of France foon dilcovered its real tendency, 
and at the peril of their lives they refund to take the oath 
at apoftacy. The faithful paftors were expelled from their 
Des and churches, periecuted, calumniated, and r viled in 
the grofieft manner; for the legifiating committee had 
faid to the people, Dare every thing againjl the Clergy \ 
you Jhall be Supported. Soon is the national worftiip con-» 
verted into that of perjury and intrufion, for the true 
priefts of Cbrivt are driven from his altars; at Nifmes 
and Avignon they are flaughtered; and the man who had 
fworn to crufi) Chi iff and his altars, who had declared his 
gofpel to be a gofpel of flaves, together with him who had 
begun the revolution by declaring that France muft be 
dijcatholl%ed- s (decatboiijée) are carried in triumph to one 
of the moll magnificent temples of the Lord, now con- 
Verted into a den of thieves, into the pantheon of the gods 
of the revolution, in (hort, into the burial place of a Vol- 
taire, a Jean Jaques, Rouffeau, or a Mirabeau.* Such, 
were the labors of the fit ft revolutionary legiflators. 
by the fe- A new fet of legiflators fucceed to the firft, and profe- 
cond as- cute iimilar plots agaihft the priellhood» New oaths are 
fcmbly; decreed, which {how in a (till clearer light that apoftacy 
is their object. The confrancy of the clergy exafperates 
them. The apoftates iepreknt their brethren as refracto- 
ry to the laws, and decrees of baniihment are palled a- 
■gainit thofe who would not Av.earro their abominations. \ 
Lut t'neie decrees are only a lignai given for the brigands 
to execute that which thefe confpiring legiflators dared 
not publicly ordain. Their municipalities had taken the 
precaution to flow into different churches vaft numbers of 
thefe valiant ConfelTprs of their faith, thefe clergy who 

* See the fittings of April 10, Auguft 24» 1790; and Janu- 
ary 4, April 4, May 30, Auguft 27, 179*- 

f Decrees November 29, 1791; and April 6, May 16, Au- 
guit 26, z;c2. 


were to be baniihed. The brigands are then let loofe, 
armed with pikes and hatchets, and the Herculsfes and 
Beiifrophons of the bloody September make their appear» 
ance; this is alfo the day on which thofe avengers of A- 
biram came forward, thofc men who in the occuk Lodges 
had been taught to ftrike the victims, to tear out the 
heart, and bear away in triumph the heads of thofe pro- 
fci ibed perfons ftyled prophane. When the hiftorian fhali 
proceed to paint the horrors of thofe bloody days, let him 
not forget the oaths of the Knights Kadofcb, and at whom 
they were aimed. Let him follow into the Lodges thofe 
brigand's that Philip of Orleans had initiated, and his a- 
ftoniihment will be greatly abated at the fight of fo ma- 
ny pontiffs and priefts immolated on the fame day, to the 
hatred of the adepts, and to the manes of their premier 

Contrary to the expectations of the confpirators, the 
people of the provinces refufed to imitate the brigands of 
Pans; and thus did whole hecatombs of victims efcape 
the fate to which they had been devoted. It was in vain 
that the municipality of Paris invited all France to feek 
its fâfety in the death of fo many priefts alledged to be re. 
fractory.f In vain did Lafitte> and the other commnTaries 

* I am forry to fay it, but it is a fa<ft that cannot be hidden ; 
honeft mafons will fhudder at it, but they mull be informed 
of what monfters have iffiied from their Lodges. During the 
\vh.,le of the riots, whether at the Town -hall or at the Car- 
mes, the real figns for rallying and fraternizing with the bri- 
gands were mafonic. During the time of the butchery the mo». 
derers ottered the mafonic grip to the ftanders-by, and frater- 
niZid with or drove them off according as they anfwered or 
miiappiehended it. 1 myfdf faw a man of the loweft rabble 
•who explained to me how they had offered him their hands, 
and that not knowing how to anfwerthe gi ip he was driven a- 
way with contempt, while others who were not ltiangers to 
the fcience were admitted in the midftof the carnage, with a 
fmile. I am even acquainted with a clergyman, who, by means 
of the ligns ot mafonry, efcaped from the bngands at the 
'I own-hall. It is true, that had he not been difgruifed. his 
fcience would have been but of little avail ; for no fooner were 
thofe fame brigands informed that he was an ecciefiaftic, thaft 
they punned him. Neither could the fcience be of any fervice 
to the anftocranc brethren; and this preclusion will fuffice to 
demonftrate to tlie ecciefiaftic and ariftocratic members, that 
they were but the mere dupes of the occult Lodges of the fra~ 

* 'ihe addrefs of the ^d September, 1791, 

' 254 antisocial conspiracy; 

of the confpiring legiflators, range throughout the towns, 
and the country, declaring that the true fpirit or" the de- 
crees meant the death and not the banifhment of thefe 
priefts; die people were not yet ripe for fuch atrocities. It 
was executioners that were wanting to the confpirators, 
and not the good will of the fécond affembly; but it is al- 
io true, that from that inftant they no longer had it in 
their power to confummate that which the firft affembly 
had begun. The former legiflators had ruined and driven 
the clergy from the altar; the latter had made a hecatomb 
of them; and it was in vociferating curfes on thofe who 
fled to other nations, that they beheld them baffling their 
rage, and fubmitting to exile rather than deny the faith of 
their divine mafter. 
w h' 2 Hitherto,however,difFerent pretences had concealed the 

lerabiv" rea ^ mot ' vcs °f tne ' r perfecutions againft the paftors of the 
church. The Roman Catholics, indeed, could no longer 
exercife their religion in Fiance; but '.he çonjlitutional 
intruders^ and the difciples of Luther and Calvin, ll 11 
continued to pronounce the name of Chrift in their tem- 
ples The third affembly now throws oft' the mafk. The 
Hierdphant» of IlluminiiVn had declared in their rnyfteries, 
that a clay would come when reafon would be the fole code 
of man. The adept Hebkrt appears with this code, 
and France recognifes no other worfhip but that of rea- 
fon. It is at once the religion of the Sophifter, vvhofe rea- 
fon tells him that there is a God, as well as of him whole 
reafon tells him that there is no God; it is the religion of 
the Sophifter adoring himfelf, his own reafon, or his fup- 
pofed wildom; as it is that of the vain mortal in delirium; 
nevei thelefs, this is the only worfhip tolerated by the Ja- 
cobin equal ilia free* The wanton devotees of Venus 
appear; one is immediately fet up on the altar and ador- 
ed as the Goddei's of Reafon; and the fumes of inctnfe 
no longer rife but in her worfhip. The infatiabie Guil- 
lotine will now devour whatever part of the clergy had 
hitherto tfcaped; The time is now come for fiijiing in 
the germ every thing that can recal to mind the gofpel, 
the God of Chriliians, his fcafts, or thofe of his faints.—*- 
They are now pioicribcd, and are no longer to be ken 
on the calendars published for the people; thus aflimilaN- 
xng them to thofè that had long imct been in ufe with the 
Sect. The very order of the week?, the months, the year, 
k overturned. " The great day ol the Lord, the Sunday, 

Historical part. *-55 

is aboliflied, for it recalled to the minds of the people the 
exiftrnce of a God and of a Creator; bin leaft the peo- 
ple mould ftill fear the power of an avenging God after 
death, they will read engraved on the tombs of their fore- 
fathers, and on thofe even into which they are to defcend 
themfelves, that death is only an eternal jleep ; and this 
was one of the grand myfterics. The few prietts who re- 
mained, and who ftill adored an avenging God and a 
Creator, were either to abjure the very character of the 
ancient priefthood, or perifh, flowed up in loathfome dun- 
geons, beneath the fatal axe of the guillotine, or irnrner- 
fed in the waters of the Loire, or of the ocean. Such was 
the reign of the conlpirators Hébert; and Robefpierre. 

The tyrants quarrel among themfelves and devour each, 
other; and even the revolution may be faid to have its re- 
volutions. Impiety, for a time, afliimes a different fhape, 
but does not relent in its perfection againft the gofpel 
and the priefthood. One might have been tempted to 
think that it was returning on its own footfteps, for the 
people Would ftill adore a God, notwithstanding this new 
reign of Reafqn ; and Robefpierre allows them, for a time, 
a fupreme being. Next comes ReveilleRE-Lepaux 
with his Tbeopbilantbropic worfhip. This was the fourth 
religion invented by the Sect. It is another tyrant of Is- 
rael erecting a golden calf, to hinder the people from a- 
doring the true God. It is the Magi of Illuminifm in- 
venting religion after religion, and god after god, in hopes 
of difgufting the people with every idea of a god. They, 
indeed, allow this unfortunate people to pronounce his 
name again; but let us proceed to this Tbeopbilantbropic 
meeting. There every perfori who ftill believes in God 
is treated as a man imbued with vulgar prejudices, as a 
fool or a madman. There they make no farther myftery 
of their defigns, that if ever they can infufe their philofo- 
phic fpirit into the people, all this new worftiip fhall be 
banifhed as was the former.* It is always the worfhipof 
cunning and impious rage againft the priefthood of the 
Lord. The Seel appears for a time to have caft afide the 
inftruments of death; but it is only to condemn its vic- 
tims to a more flow and cruel end. It itèVer'ceafcs topro- 

* This is the exael Maternent of an account that I received 
from a gentleman who procured initiation into the myfterje* 
of the nrefeot Tkeophilenthropiftj of I;. 



çîaim its oaths of Equality and Liberty;! thofe two blet* 
fmgs of the revolution^ however, can only be acquired for 
the prieftheod by perjury and apoftacy. But wo be to thofe 
who refufe it; in vain does the citizen offer them an afy- 
lurn in his houfe, domiciliary vifits will foon difcovet them* 
* — Y5o they retire into the forefts, into caverns, they are 
hunted down and banifhed to the wilderneffes of Guya- 
na; and pilots more to be feared than the tempeft are fent 
to convey them. 

Thus do all the different plots of the Sophifters of Im- 
piety, which had been fo long a time contriving in dark- 
nefs, burfl forth into broad day-light, the object of their 
myfteries is accomplifhed; that wifb, that oath of crujh- 
ii.g Çhrift and his religion, with its minifter?, is confum- 
mated. But the reader has not forgotten, that the Sophis- 
iters of Rebellion coalefced with thofe of Impiety. The 
adepts had alio fworn to crufh the monarch and his throne; 
here again my reader mult have got the ftart of me, and 
will immediately fay, " but the revolution has alfo con- 
** fummated their plots againft the throne, as it has thofe 
" againft Chrift and his altars." 
In the de- Here again muft the hiflorian wade through fcenes of 
crées a- blood and horror, and his fight will be blalted by the moll 
gainlt mo- atrocious crimes. If he has the ftrength and patience he 
narciiy; may enumerate them; but, at the fame time, let him ne- 
ver lofe light of the Sect that has foftered them. Let him 
follow its progrefs ; agents may vary, confpirators may 
fucceed each other in the legiflative hall, but they will all 
proceed from one cominon den wherein the adepts have 
contrived their plots. The thread of this horrid catas- 
trophe will always be the fame, though held in fucceffion 
by different hands. Equality and Liberty will always be 
the principle, and the confequences will always ftrike at 
the monarch and monarchy, as they have done againft 
Chrift and his religion. In this revolution of Equality 
and Liberty, crimes againft the church, and crimes a- 
gainft the ftate are entwined together; to-day the church, 
to-morrow the fovereign, the day after proprietors are at- 
tacked, and this continues in a long concatenation which 
always takes its rife, as from its centre, in the club of the 
Jacobins, in the reunion of every fpecies of confpiring a- 
dept. Their firft confpiring Jegiilaiors, fucli as Mirabeau, 

f Decree January 10,1796. 


Syeyes,, Orleans, La Fayette, Lameth, Char 
broud, Grégoire, Petion, Bailly, Rabaud, Chapellier, and 
^11 the deputies of the Mountain, habitually pals from the 
tribune of the Jacobins to that of the manege. There a 
fn it cunftitution was prepared, that was to overwhelm the 
throne as it had done the altar; that was to weaken Lewis 
XVI. and ftrip him not only of his authority, but alfo of 
the affl'&ion of his fubjeâs-; that was to take from hin* 
the command of the army, and deprive him of the iupport 
of his nobility; that was, in fliort, to rob him daily of 
f >me part of that authority which constitutes the monarch, 
Two years were fpent in diifeminating calumnies, in ftir- 
ring up the people, or in paffing decrees as derogatory to 
royalty as they were injurious to religion. This legisla- 
tive rout had formed a code ot laws againft the church, 
that was to leave but the name. of religion to the French 
nation; from the fame clamorous multitude are iflued 
laws againft monarchy, that reduced the unfortunate Lew- 
is XVI. to a mere cypher; a captive in his palace, fur- 
rounded by brigands, he is forced, as the clergy had been, i 
to fanclion thofe very decrees that defpoiled him; the 
clergy had pleaded the duties of the prielthood in oppofi- 
tion to the decrees; the king fets forth the duties of the 
monarch; he claims, as they had done, his liberty, and 
for a moment thinks he has obtained it by his flight to 
Varennes. But the traitor* La Fayette loon djfpelled the 

K k 

* Left public documents fliould not be fufHciently explana- 
tory of the conduct of La Fayette on this oceafion, and as lè- 
verai perfons have v/ifhed to perfuade the public that he was 
perfectly ignorant of the intended flight of the king, I here 
publilh a true ftatement of fads. — \ German woman, man ied 
to a French-nan of the name of Rochereuit, was employed in 
the queen's fervice under the title of Ports cbaift d 'affaires .— 
This woman ha i ihown fo much in hgnation, and had wept fo 
bitterly on the 5th and 6th of October, that the queen, afFecled 
at feeing fuch proofs of attachment in this woman, enttufted 
her with the care of preparing her broth, and lodged her in a 
ro >ra on the ground-floor of her own apartment, which com- 
municated to the apattment that had been occupied by the 
Duke of Villequier. In the beginning of June, the queen, who 
began to prepare for her intended evafion, lodged this Mrs. 
Ruchereuil in another room. She immediately harbored fufpi- 
cions of fome intended plan, and watched the king and queen. 
The great confidence they both had in her gave her the oppor- 
tunity of knowing the whole fcheme of the kind's flight. Oa 


illufion, and only permitted him to enjoy it for anmftant, 
that he might drag his royal mafter back to the capital 
expofed to every outrage, there to keep him a clofer pri- 
soner. Le^- is, a prifoner, at length fanclions thisconfti- 
f'.ition of Equality and Liberty; he ftill bears the title of 
king, when a new band of rufEans or legiflative adepts 
make their appearance to form the fécond National As- 
by the ie- * ne f- conc ^ ailembly finds Lewis a captive in his pa- 
cond as- lace; and they proceed in the wicked career of their pre- 
fcr.ibiy; decellbrs. Each fitting gave birth to new decrees more 
and more derogatory to the authority of the monarch; 
daily were the people itirred up to infurrection againft the 
altar and the throne. At length the day d*ew near whea 
both were to fall beneath their blows. The long lift of 
clergy that were to be immolated had been already form- 
ed L>v the Jacobin municipality, and the Jacobin legifla- 
tois furround the palace of Lewis with legions of bri- 
gands. He is reduced to feek an afylum in the midft of 
that very ailembly that had lent this mob of mifcreants a- 

the 10th of June foe informed MefFrs. La Fayette and Gouvion 
cf what (he had obferved, and lodged an information at the 
Comité des Recherches of the National Affembiy. She had ele- 
ven conferences with them in the fpace of nine days. In con- 
fluence cf thefe denunciations, la Fayette charged thir- 
teen officers on whom he could depend, to patrole every night 
within the interior of the Thuilleries, but with fecret orders to 
favor the evalion. His orders had been given in a fimilar man- 
ner ajorfg the road. Drouet had been infliucled in the part he 
was to act- The remaining part of that fatal journey to Varen- 
res, and the arreft ation of the king, may be all eafily conceived, 
excenting that excels of infolence with which La Fayette ufed 
his victory, and the outrages he heaped on the unfortunate 
Lewis, when dragging him back to his prifon of the Thuil- 

Another anecdore that may furprize the reader is, that when 
the queen had been informed of the treacherous behavior of 
this woman, Kochereuil, and had dihniffed the traitor from 
lier fervice, this wretch had the infolence to preient a memo- 
rial, that a deputy had penned for her, to the queen, requeft- 
ing that flie might be admitted again into her feivice, and Hat- 
ing that in her opinion me could not have given her majefly a 
greater proof of her gratitude and fidelity than by depriving 
lier of the pcflibility of heatkening to the evil councils ot the 
royalifts — I he queen gave the memorial to Mr. Prieur, the 
hiltonographer of France for the foreign department. 'J he de- 
nunciation of this woman is carefully preierved in what are 
ityied the National Archives. 


gainft him} they pronounce his fufpenfion, as according 
to the new forms they would have encroached on the fo- 
yereignty of the people in pronouncing the abolition of 
royalty ; but left he fhould miftake the nature of his crime, 
they proclaim the new sera and the new oath of Equality 
and Liberty^ both of which are to date from this day. — 
They then decree the convocation of a new affembly which 
is to pronounce definitively on the fate of the monarch. 
All thefe decrees are palled in his prefence; for they had 
barbaroufly {hue up him and his family in a tribune ap- 
propriated to the writers of a Newfpaper, left he fhould 
ïofe a fingle word of the outrages and calumnies vented 
againil his perfon, or of the laws pronounced for the an- 
nihilation of the throne. But his death had been already 
refolved; meanwhile he is fent to the towers of the Tem- 
ple to await his cruel deftiny.* 

I /hould be little inclined to in fi ft on the atrocious feats Çonfpira- 
that lignalized thefe horrid triumphs of the fécond afiem- cy or the 
bly, or on the arts employed to prepare them, were it not rol!l °* 
that the true thread of fuch a multitude of crimes has not °^ u 
been properly difcovered. The whole was contrived by 
Briflot. The Seel:, it is true, furnifhed him with agents. 
but he was conftantly the chief of the confpiracy of the 
loth of Auguft. During a whole year he was employed 
in preparing it; he had conceived it even before he was 
named a legislator* Initiated in all the myfteries of Hol- 
bfcck's club, and even contending with Condorcet for the 
precedency among the Voltairian Sophifters, no fooner 
was he deputed to the grand affembly, than he thought 
himfelf called to fulfil the decree which he had long isnee 
pronounced, That the fceptre cf the Bourbons Jhould be 
foivered) and France be trunsjornwd into a republic. \ — - 

* Sittings of Auguft 10, ir,and i», 179a. 

f Lewis XVI. was but a child when Sir Horace Walpole, 
(fince Lord Orford,) after a fliort (lay at Paris, wrote the fol- 
lowing letter to Marefchal Conway on the views and plans of 
the Sophifters. It is dated Oclober 28, 1765. 

" The Dauphin (father to Lewis XVI.) will probably hold 
" out very few days. His death, that is, the near profpeét of 
" it, fills the Philofophers with the greatcft joy, as ir was ftar* 
* ed he would endeavor the restoration of the Jetuits. You 
" will think the fentiments oithe Pbile/bphers very Qddjlate- 
" news. — But do you know what the Pbi'ojôphers are, or what 
" the term means here? In the firil place, :t comprehends ai- 
*' inoit every body; and in the next means men, who, avowing 


Scarcely was he feated among thefe new legislators whe* 
he caft his eyes around him in queft of adepts who 
co-operate in hurling from his throne chat unfortunate 
monarch, whofe power the preceding aflembly bad reuuc- 
ed to a mere phantom. He foon perceived that fa ne ha- 
tred to royalty raging in the breaihof a Petion,a Buzotj 
a Vergninux, a Gaudet, a Genfonné, or a Louvtt, and 
to them he opened his plans. 

According to the plan contrived by the confpirators, 
we [hall fee that France was in the firfr place to be inun- 
dated with journals, all Simulating the people to com- 
plete the grand work of their liberty. By dint of libels 
and moil odious calumnies againft Lewis XVI. and r,ts 
queen; they were to eradicate every feiitiment of affec- 
tion from the heart of the fubjecSr. They next bethought 
themfeivis of ftiiring up the foreign povvers, that Lewis 
XVI. being engaged in war without, might fall an r 

prey to intrigue within. We next hear tne club refouhd- 
ing with that very fentence which Briffot after wardl irrites 
to the generals of his revolution: Europe mail be fet on 
fire at the four corners', in thai ourjajety lies.* jriy means 
of their adepts and clubs they weie perpetually exciting 
the people to infurrection, in order to calf the odium on 
the Icing and queen. Under pretence of taking me&ftlreS 
againir thefe frequent infurrections, and to ward off the 
danger to which they expofed France, they formed in the 
National Alfembly a feCret committee under the tide of 
extraordinary commifjicn, and which was the head of tht 
faction mice called tne Girondins, from the depaitment 

war againft poperv, aim, many of them, at afuhverfion of 
" ad religion, and Jll.l many more at the dejlruftion of regal 
*' power — How do yon know this ? you Will lav: you, who 
" have been but fix weeks in France, three >>f which you h?.ve 
f< been confined in your chambet . — V rue ; but in the In it pe- 
11 riod > went every where, and heard nothing elle) in the fat* 
** ter I have b?en extremely wilted, and have had long and ex- 
" pitch conveifations with many who think as I tel! vou, and 
" with a few of 'the other fide, who are no Isfs perfuaJe.i that 
" there are fuch intentions. In particular, I had two officers 
'* here the other ni^ht, neither of them young, whom I had 
" difficulty to keep from a ferious quarrel, and who. in the heat 
** of the difpute, informed me of much mote than I coulohave 
" learned with great pains.'' f Fol. V.) 

* See Mallet Du Pan's Conliderations on the Nature of the 
Revolution, P. 37. 


•f the Gironde, in Gafcony. It was there that BrifTot,at 
the head of" the Elect, and prefiding in the ccmmijjion, pre- 
pared, in filence, thoi'e decrees that were to confummate 
the plots againil monarchy. He wifhedtogive this revo- 
lution an appearance of philofophy, foliated by an en- 
lightened people tired of its kings, and willing to recog- 
nize no other fovereign than itfelf. He fent his em.iTaries 
into the provinces; but they all returned, declaring that 
the French nation was unwilling to lacrifice its king.—* 
He then founded the legiilative aiTembly, and the opinions 
of the majority alfo coincided with the wifhes of the peo- 
ple. — What he could not accomplifh by his fophiftry, he 
now determined to effectuate by means of pikes and his 
blood-thirfty legions of brigands. — He calls thofe legions 
from the South known by the name of Marjeillois ; from 
the Weft the Jacobins fend up the brigands of Breft; 
Barbaroux and Panis, Carra and Beaujois the intruded 
vicar of Blois, BeJJ'e from the Drome, Gallijfet from Lan- 
gres, Foiirvier the Weft-Indian, General IVeJhrmann^ 
Kiculin "from Strafbourg^ Senterre the brewer» Antoine 
from Metz, and Gorfas the journalift. combined with ths 
Girondins. They hold their councils ibmetitnesat Robe- 
fpierre's, at others at the Soleil d' Or, (the golden Sun,) 
a tavern near the Baftille. Syeyesand his club of twenty- 
tivoy or the occult Lodge of the Jacobins, fécond them 
With all their might. — Marat,, Prudbomme, and Miilin, 
with all the Journaliits of the Partyj daily invent new ca- 
lumnies againft Lewis and his royal Confort. Alexandre 
and the rcnegado Cbab^t i\\r up the fuburbs of St. An- 
toine and St. Marceau. Philip of Orleans contributes his 
money and his party, becaufe he is in hopes of being him- 
felf exalted to the throne, as foon as Lewis XVT. ihal! 
be driven from it; and even though he were not to f'uc- 
ceed in obtaining the throne, he will at leaft have grati- 
fied his vengeance. 

Every thing is agreed on; the Legions are arrived; at 
'ten minutes before one in the morning the alarm bells ring 
the prelude to the terrible iOth of Auguft. The fécond 
AiTembly has now fulfilled its talk; Lewis XVL is de- 
cl; red to be deprived of ail right to the crown. He is 
torn from the palace of his forefathers, and immured with- 
in the towers of r' * Temple. It is there that the third 
Affembly of Legislators is to find him, and are to lead 
hi. j from thence to the fcaffold to fulfil the oaths of the 
Occult Lodges, 


Should the hiftorian hefitate at recognizing this pro- 
greilion of the Seel, to conduct us to the terrible catas- 
trophe of the 10th of Auguft, let him turn to the avow- 
als of the adepts themfelves. — The day is come when they 
envy each other the com mi (lion of fuch crimes; they had 
installed Briflbt the leader of the Jacobins; but Robe- 
fpierre, Marat, and Danton (hatch the fceptre from him; 
he wifhes to wrelt it from them again; and he publifhes 
an addrefs to all the Jacobins of Fiance to fubftantiate his 
rights. His apology, as well as that of his co-adept Lou- 
vet are in fubftance no more than the hiftory of the very 
confpiracy I have juft been defcribing. Should it be ne- 
cefiary, for the conviction of the reader, to turn to any 
part of if, let him hearken to Briffot, when faying, the 
Triumvirs Robefpierre, Marat, and Danton, have accu fed 
me " of being the author of the war, and had it not been 
*' for the war, Royalty would have ftill fubfifled ! Had it 
** not been for the war», thoufands of talents, thoufands of 
u virtues would never have burft forth from obfeurity! 
*' — And had it not been for the war, Savoy and fo many 
" other {rates whofe fetters are about to fall, would ne- 
" ver have acquired their Liberty. — They were fearful 
" of a war conducted by a King— Oh ! (hallow politi- 
"ciansJ It was precifely becaufe this perjured King 
u was to conducl: the war, becaufe he could only con- 
" duel it as a traitor, becaufe this treafon alone would in- 
" faliibly lead him to his ruin; it was for fuch reafons, 
" that it was neceffary to have a war conducted by the 
" King. — *It was the abolition of Royalty that I had in 
" view when I caufed war to be declared — Men who 
*< were enlightened underftood me, when on the 30th of 
" December 17915 they heard me anfwer Robeipierre, 
" who was always talking to me of treafons to be feared, 
w / have but one fear, which is, that we /hall not be be- 
** irayed; ive (land in need of treachery, for our whole 
" fsfety depends on our being betrayed- — F 'or treafons 
tt would ibon make that which thwarts the greatnefs of 
" the French nation difappear, I mean Royalty." 

But while this Sophifter is declaiming fo much ora 
treafons, and gloiying in that which he had for fo long a 
time premeditated againft this unfortunate Sovereign, 
vvhieh he makes his title of pre-eminence in the eyes of 
the jacobins, lie takes care not to mention that he would 
have bet rayed the traitors themfelves, had Lewis XVI. 


had money fufficient to fupply his extravagant demands. 
On the 9th of Auguft, the eve or" the day when all the 
Confpirators were to be put in action, he Tent to alk the 
Kino- tor twelve millions (500,000!.) as a price for with- 
drawing from the Confpiracy and for rendering it absr- 
tive* — What extraordinary men are theie Sophifters, 
and what ideas do they form of their own virtues ! But 
truth impofes on us the difgufting tafk of hearkening to 
this man, while narrating his own crimes. He will boaft 
of the time that he employed in meditating and preparing 
them, and will reprelent the callous indifference with 
which he viewed the canibal fcenes of that bloody day as 
greatnefs of foul. " They accufe me (he continues) of 
« having preiided over the extraordinary commij/ion; and 
« if the able heads of that commiffon had not prepared^ 
«« and that a long while previous to the 10th of Auguft, 
« thofe decrees that faved France, fuch as ûïzfufpcnfion 
« of the King, the convocation of the Convention, the or- 
« ganization of a Republican Almijîry, if thefe decrees 
" had not been wifely combined, fo as to banifh every 
« idea of force or terror ; had they not borne the itamp of 
« prandeur and of cool deliberation, the Revolution of 
« the 10th of Auguft would have appeared to the eyes of 
« all Europe to have been a Revolution of canlbah. — ■ 
* c But at the fight of wildom presiding in the midft of 
*' thefe ftorms,and flaying even the arm of carnage, Eu- 
«< rope then believed that France was faved. Let who 
« will calumniate the 10th of Auguft, the valor of the 
•« federated bands and the deliberate decrees of the Na- 
" tional AiTemby, which had been prepared by the Com- 
" miff on, will forever immortalize thatday."f 

Let us follow this ftrange Sophifter ; for, after fhow- 
ing how he betrayed Lewis XVI. he will now explain 
the manner in which he betrayed both the Nation and 
the Aflembly; how he and his adherents gradually led 
the people, and the majority of the Aflembly to the com- 
million of crimes, of which neither approved. " My opi- 
" nion (of the qth of July) on the depoiition of the King 
** has been much cavilled at. The fame has happened to 
« Vu: gniaux — I here call to witnels my Colleagues, all 
" thofe who were acquainted with the Jl ate of our ÀJfem- 

* See the Memoirs of Mr. Bertrand, Vol.IH. Chap. XXII. 
f Briflbt's Letter to the Jacobins, Oclober a4. 1793. 


" bïy, with the weaknefs and minority of the patriots, the 
** corruption of teiror, the averfion in which theenthufi- 
" afts held the court party. Doubtlefs, it needed no fmall 
u - (hare of courage to rifk that eloquent hypothecs on the 
" crimes of the King in the midir of iuch an affembly as 
" Vergniaux did. And the day after that coalition, which 
" fo much weakened the party of the Patriots, was it not 
ct a tafk that required courage which I undertook, to give 
" a lively defcription of the crimes of the King, and to 
" propofo his being brought to trial. This was blafphe- 
" my in the eyes of the majority, neverthelefs I dared ta 
"fpeak it." 

When defcribing the Girondins, his chief fupport, he 
fays, " perpetually occupied in repairing their faults, in 
" union with other enlightened patriots, they were prepa- 
" ring the minds to pronounce the fufpenfion of the King. 
" — Ihey were far from conceiving fuch a Jlep; and this 
" was my reafon for rifking that famous difcourfe of the 
" 2bth July on the depofition, a difcourfe that in the con- 
u ception of ordinary minds was a dereliction of princi- 
" pie, but in the eves of the enlightened, was only a pru- 
* dent and necejjary manœuvre. I well knew that the 
u Autocratical party vviihed nothing fo much as to meet 
*< the question on the deposition, becaufe they tho't them- 
" felves certain of fuccei>, and becaufe the minds were not 
<; yet >ipe in the Departments — the defeat cf the Patri- 
w ots was therefore inevitable. It was neceffary then to 
tc tack, in order to gain time, to enlighten the public opi- 
" nion, or to ripen it for infurreclion\ for the depofition 
*< of the King could be effected but by one of thefe two 
tc means. — Such were my motives for pronouncing my 
* c difcourfe on the 26th of July, which expofed me to io 
" much reproach, and even ranked me among the fecret 
" Royalifts, while the Patriote Francois (the newfpaper 
" that he publifhed) never ceafed to prepare the minds in 
* c the Departments for thefe extraordinary ?neafures." 

Amidfr the multitude of reflections that mult natural- 
ly arife on the perufaj of thefe avowals, the words it was 
therefore neceffary to tack, in order to gain time, to en- 
lighten the public opinion, or to ripen it for infurreclion y 
prefent us with a great axiom in the theory of Révolu*- 
tiom. They fhow us, that thofe infurrections reprefented 
as the grand movements of a people, as the act of the ma- 
jority of a nation, are merely the efforts ox an united 


fa&ion againft the majority of a nation; that had the 
opinions of the majority of the mtion coincided with the 
vie« s of the Confpirators, they would not have been obli- 
ged to feek the aid of brigands, in order to triumph by 
arms and terror over an unarmed and unfufpeâing peo- 
ple. It may be obje&ed, that France had its National 
Guards; moft certainly it had; but Briftbt carefully 
avoid. d calling on them for fuccor. He had feen them 
il >cking from all parts of France to the federation on the 
14. h oi* J ily ; but thefe truly federated bands had mown 
the greatefr marks of attachment to Lewis and his Royal 
Confort j and it was not to fuch men that the Confpira- 
t>rs dared propofe the depolicion of the King;. What 
plan do the Confpirators adopt ? They aiTemble all thofe 
b'igands called Alarfeiilois, (not becaufe they were in- 
habitants of Marfeilles or Provence, but becaufe the great- 
er part of them had been condemned to the gallies at Mar- 
feilles), and furname thefe brigands of all countries The 
Federated Bands. They oblige the inhabitants of the 
fuburbs to fail into the ranks with them ; they caufe the 
commander of the National Guard to be murdered, that» 
being without a chief, it might have no unity of action, 
and that thofe who had been feduced might join the bri- 
gands. They then reprefent as a general infurreclion of 
the peopi°, as the will of the nation, that which they have 
themfelves demonftrated to have been no other than an 
jnfurrection of their own cut-throat bands againft their 
King and the nation at large. Such has been the whole 
progrefs of die Revolution; all has been done by mobs 
and infurrections, or, as the chiefs ftyle it, by means of 
force and terror, which have enflaved a nation that had 
refitted every means of feduction. 

Similar proofs relating to that atrocious Revolution 
of the 10th of Augult. are to be found in Louvet's dis- 
çourfe; he alfo boafts of his cunning in preparing the 
piots. " We 'Jacobins yyijhed for war, (he fays) becaufe 
" peace muft have undoubtedly killed the Republic — be- 
" caufe, undertaken in time, the misfortunes inevitable 
* c at the fuit outlet could be repaired, and would at once 
u purify the Senate, the Armies and the Throne — Every 
" man worthy of being a Republican loudly called for 
** war. They dared afpire tojirike a mortal blow at Rny- 
" alt y itfelf; to exterminate it for ever, in France fir ft, 

JL 1 


then alludes to the parts a&ed by his accomplices.— 
" Thofé whom you call my friends (he fays to Robes- 
u pierre.) were Roland, who had denounced Lewis XVI. 
" to ail France — Servan, who was involved in the hon- 
" orable retreat of the Miniffer of the Interior, and only 
tC returned into office with him, and that to fave France 
" — Pïtîon, whofe conduce at once vigorous and wife, was 
" wearing out Royalty — Brifjht, he was writing againft 
<c Monarchy," (Condorcet was alfo writing in the fame 
çaufe) — " Vergniaux^ Genfnné. and many others, were 
t; preparing before band the plan for the fuf pen/ion — Gau- 
u det was feated in the chair when the cannon began to 
" roar. — Barbaroux was advancing at the bead oj the 
« Ma jciiiois for the loth of Augufl; and lucky it is for 
" you that he headed them — / (Louvetj was writing the 
" Sentinelle ; and your eternal vaporings oblige me to fay, 
" that my journal contributed much more to the Revolu- 
" tion of the ioth of Auguft, than your Defenfeur de la 
" Corifiitution (written by Robefpierre)."* 
By the Thus have thefe fanguinary Legiflators furnifhed the 

thud as- Hiftorian with the proofs of their own guilt, and of their 
iembly. crimes againft their Sovereign. Let this Republic then 
appear, this Republic of Equality and Liberty, fo long; 
chei idled by the Sophifters, and nurtured by the adepts 
in their Occult Lodges ! Lewis is no longer feated on the 
throne ! Let not Lewis, nor any Bourbon, nor any living 
Trance de- creature afpire to it in future. Royalty is abolijbed, and 
dared a France is proclaimed a Republic. This is the firft de- 
Republic, crée of thofe Confpirators ityling themfelves a Convention^ 
and fucceeding to thole who had called themfelves the fé- 
cond National Aflembly (September 21, 1792). The 
better to effablilh Equality, every mark of rank, even 
the common marks of civility as well as the title of King 
arc profcribed ; and Citizen is in future the fole appella- 
tion allowed (October 29). Left the very fight of a faith- 
ful fubject ihould acal the idea of a King, death is pro- 

* See houvet 's Addrefs to Robefpierre. Should the reader 
uifh for any more of thefe avowals and vapourings of a multi- 
tude ot adepts on the art with which they prepared the f.m- 
Ruinary fcenes of that day, let them read Robefpierre' s Letter 
to hh Conflituents ; Petioti's Ohfervations o?i that Letter; the 
Annales Patriotiques, by Carra and Mercier, 30th Nov. 1792 ; 
the Chronique de Paris, by Miiliû,, and hts threats on the jth 
of Auguit, 179a, &c. &c. 


nounced againft every Emigrant who fhall dare to fet 
foot on the territories of the Republic (November 10). 
The fame puniftiment is pronounced againft any man 
who fhould dare propofe the re-cjîablijhment of Royalty 
in France (December 4). 

The Seci now proceeds towards the completion of Lewis 
its myfteries. Lewis, who had been feated on the throne, xv ^- is 

exifts; and it was not in vain that the adepts had __, 




been taught in the caverns of the Knights Kaclofch to death. 
trample on crowns and ftab Kings. To the atrocious 
games reality muft fucceed ; Ro hefpi erre advances ; but 
let him and his hangman range for a time on the field j 
he is no more than a wild beaft that the Seel: have let 
loofe. He is not the wretch that devours the captive 
Monarch; it is the Seel. Even in Lewis are two dis- 
tinct perfons in the eyes of the Jacobins. They would 
perhaps have loved and revered him in private life; but 
he was King, and they foam with rage at the very idea ; 
his head falls on the fcaffold ; their relentlefs vengeance 
even ftrikes the ftatue of the beloved and great Henry 
IV.; every monument that can recal the idea of a King 
falls beneath their blows. It was not at Lewis, it was at 
Royalty, that thefe modern Vandals aimed. They decla- 
red Lewis XVI. to be a tyrant ; they continue to proclaim 
it; but they have their own interpretation; they ityle him 
ib, juft as the Sophiflers ftyled every King a Tyrant. — i 
They knew well, that Lewis XVI. had during a reign of 
nineteen years figned many a pardon, but had never figned 
a fingle death-warrant; and that certainly is not the cha- 
racter of a tyrant. They knew well, that the firft a£t of 
Lewis on his coming to the throne was to releafe his fub- 
jects from the tax cuftomary on fuch an occalion ; he abo- 
lished thecuftomof thçCorvées (or bind days) ; neither the 
accufed nor even the guilty, could be put to the torture 
during his reign; and do fuch edicts befpeak the tyrant ? 
They alfo faw him relinquifh in favor of his (ubje&s all 
the feudal rights in his own domains, that he might ob- 
tain by example that alleviation for his people, which he 
could not eftablifh by authority without making an at- 
tack upon private property. They knew well that Lewis 
XVI. was entirely free from thofe vices which are either 
odious or burdenfome to nations; he was religious, an 
enemy to orientation, companionate and generous to the 
poor; they had feen him layifhing Lis privy puife to 


Warm, to cloath, to feed the indigent; feen him even car- 
ry in perfon fuccor to the frienukfs cottager; they had 
Teen the poor railing the mow into a pyramid, and fha- 
ping it out into a monument of gratituJc to Lewis XVI. 
mitigating the rigors of the winter. They knew wul, 
that the giatituue of the poor is not fo iiidufrrious 10 
fhew attachment to a tyrant. In vain they will upbraid 
him as a defpot or a tyrant; for they can.iot deny, that 
never a Prince was (eated on a throne more zealous in 
his application to his duty, or lefs jealous of his lights 
than Lewis XVI.; confluence and love feem to be his 
leading features 5 and if ever he fpoke in that peremptory 
way which denotes the determination of being obeyed, it 
was, when fui rounded by allaiïins, he fo often repeated to 
his guards, If it be necejjary to Jhed but one fmgle drop of 
blood j or my jafety*, Ijorbid it to be Jhed \ and fuch are the 
orders of a tyiant ! ! ! Should calumny obifinately periifl, 
let it read thele laffc fentiments of Lewis: u I pray all 
" thole whom I may have offended through inadv rtency 
u (for I do not remember to have offended any perlon 
w knowingly ), or thofe to whom I may have given b<.d 
M example, 01 fcandal, to pardon whatever injury they 
tc may think I can have done them." Let the regicide 
judges read (for it is to them he fpeu£s and fa>s) " I 
" paidon with all my heart thole who have conitnu.ed 
" themfeJveS mv enemies without my giving them caule, 
" and I pray God that he will pardon them." Let them 
follow him to the fcaffoid, and there contemplate if tluy 
dare, that ferenity of his countenance, in the midft of his 
executioners, which fo well denotes the tranquillity or 
his (on) : and they dare not hear his laft words: Dru :> 
are beaten and trumpets founded to drown his voice; for 
they are confeious that he has neither lived nor is aboui to 
die the death of a tyrant. 
Real mo- Thefe con fpi ring legislators, however, knew it long 
tives of his before they fat in judgment on their King; ror if you afk 
condemn.» them, when in the very acl of regicide, of what crime 
■nou. Lewis XVI. has been guilty? They will anfwei, Lewis 

was a King, and our wnti is the death of every King.— ■ 
Hearken to the Jacobin Robert : when he comes to voie 
Le fay?, "I condemn the tyrant to death; and in pronoun- 
" cip.g this fentence, / bave but one regret^ which is, that 
u my power does not extend over all the tyrants, to con- 
u demntbem all to the Jume jate :" Hear, again, tne j-co- 


h\n Carra; <c For the injlruclion of nations, in al! tirneSf 
" and in all places, and for the coniternation of tyrants* 1 
c ' v tte for death:" — -Or the Jacobin Hoilcau; " Nations 
" accuflomed to conftder their Kings as facredobjecli will 
" neceflàrily fav, * the heads of Kinjs, however, cannot 
" be fo facred, iiuce the axe can ftrike them, and that they 
" rail beneath the avenging arm of juftice.' It is thus 
" you are launching nations into the career oj Liberty; I 
" vote for death."* 

Should the real caufe of the deith o f " Lewis XVI. not 
fu/ficiently appear in fuch language, let the reader revert 
to that club Of the Sophifters where Condorcet was learn- 
ing that a day would come when the Sun would /hi ne on 
none but free men, and when Kings and Priejis jbonld 
have no exijlence but in hi/lory or on the Jlage. Tu m 
bacK. to thofe confpiring dens haunted by the Occult Ma- 
fons, and doubt for a moment, if you can, of this hittori- 
cal truth, that Lewis periihed upon the lcaffbJd becaufe 
he was King; that the daughter of the periihed 
becaufe Jhs zuas ^jteen ; and never was the more defer- 
ving ox chat exakod itation, than when fhe (bowed fuch 
undaunted courage and greatnefs of foul in the midft of 
her murderers. Madame Elizabeth periihed, becaufe nei- 
ther virtue, innocence, nor magnanimity, could efface the 
ftain, indelible in the eyes of the Jacobins, of being the 
daughter and filter of a King. Philip of Orleans crouch- 
ed into wickednefe and infamy, and facriftced his immenfe 
fortune to the Sect; he cowardly and bafely votes fur the 
death of his roy.d relation to pleafe the Se£t; he takes tne 
name of Equality, abandoning rank and birth, and even 
denies his father to court the SrdV, but no fooner are hi* 
crimes unneceffary for the progrefs of that Se<5r, than he 
is dragged away to the fcaffold becaufe he is of royal de- 
fcent. But the conspirators are fearful, that if they (truck 
at that model of virtue and goodnefs theDutchefs of Or- 
leans, the axe would fall from the hands of the execution- 
ers. The numerous facrifices made by the Dutchcfs of 
Bourbon and the Prince of Gonti proved to the confpira- 
tors that thefe remnants of blood-royal were little to be 
feared; neverthelefs they are obliged, with every pcrfon 
of royal extraction, to flv the territories of the new Re- 
public. To cement this hatred for Kings, the day on 

* See the Moniteur, Sittings of Jan. a, and following, 1793. 


which Lewis XVI. was murdered on the fcaffold is de- 
clared a perpetual feftival for this people equal and free ; 
on this day the oath of hatred to Royalty is to be folemn- 
\y fworn by all the Magiftrates; and this oath is to be in 
future a neceflary qualification for the enjoyment of the 
lights of Citizen in this new Republic; fuch are the re- 
gulations decreed; and death is pronounced, as we have 
already feen, againft whoever dares propofe the re-efta- 
blifhment of Monarchy. 

Notwithstanding the rivers of blood that flowed in 
France, to confummate thefe plots againft Royalty, the 
Se<5t and its agents behold thefe horrid fcenes with all the 
The atro- brutal exultation of cannibals. The guillotine is declared 
«ties of permanent in Paris, and ambulant in the Provinces in 
re Revo- q Ue ft of Royalifts and Priefls. New words are even in- 
tecTfo a" 1 " vente d to denote the butcheries that now take place, for 
the Seel. our forefathers had not even formed an idea of cruelties to 
fuch an extent. Whole hecatombs of victims are (hot 
in mafs, and this was ftyled Fufillades*, hecatombs alfo 
were drowned, and that fpecies of murder they called 
Noyades.* Is it the Sect then that thus hardens and bru- 
talizes the hearts of the Jacobins ? Are we to turn back to 
their leflbns to explain both the number and the choice 

* Another fpecies of cruelty not mentioned, is that which 
the canniba's or Nantes called Des Marriages Patriotiques. — ■ 
The reader will fcarcely believe me when 1 tel) him, that wo- 
men were comprehended in thefe abominable butcheries. Ne- 
verthelefs, as a refinement of cruelty, when any young royalift 
was fuppofed to have an attachment for anv young woman, they 
were tied together, hand and foot, previous to their being 
tL:own into the Loire, that they might pafs in Charon's Bark 
together ; or they would tie fome venerable old clergyman to 
a young woman, that he might be provided with a young wife 
in the next word. Such were their Patriotic Marriages ; fuch 
the cruelties that muft furprife the reader, were he not ac- 
quainted with thefchcol whence they proceed. At Arras Le 
£an would guillotine by ,'Jrects ; and one night returning home, 
a little drunk, he thought an execution by torch-ligbt would 
have a Patriotic ejjecl. The Count de Bethune, who had been 
brought totrial in the morning and acquitted, was immediate- 
ly named as the viflirn ; but Le Bon was informed that he had 
h, en tried and acquitted ; no matter, we will try him again, 
(fays the Commihary); and the poor Count was condemned 
and executed becaufe he was fbupçpnnê d'etre fufpcé}. This, 
perhaps, is the moft extraordinary crime on record ,J}fpec?ed 
ng afufpuiotu charafter for Ariftocracy ; neveithelefs, ma- 
ny hundreds periihed uu the fcaffold for this crime. Tranf. 


of vi£tims, the cool wicjcednefs of the adepts, the atro- 
cious joy of the executioners ? Yes, al! you who feek the 
caufe eifewhere, forget the myfleries ; I am obliged to 
call you back to the true parent of this fanguinary tribe; 
yes, it was the principles of the Seel that made Barnave 
at the fight of heads carried on pikes, ferocioufly fmile 
and exclaim, Was that blood then fo pure that one might 
not even/pill one drop of it ?' Yes, it was thofe principles 
that made Chapellier, Mirabeau, and Grégoire, when 
they beheld the brigands furrounding the palace of Ver- 
failles in languinary rage, thiriting after murder, and par- 
ticularly after the blood of the Queen, exclaim, The Peo- 
ple inujl have viùîims. It was tnofe principles that even 
(mothered the affection of Brother for Brother, when the 
adept Cb enter ■; ieeing his own Brother delivered over tu 
the hands of the public executioner, coolly laid, If my 
Brother be not in the truefenfe of the Revolution, let hi in. 
be facrificed't that eradicated the feeling of the child for 
his parents, when the adept Philip brought in triumph 
to the club of the Jacobins the heads of his father and 
mother ! ! This infatiable Sect calls out by the mouth of 
the bloody Marat, for two hundred and feventy thoufand 
heads, declaring that before long it will count only by 
millions. They know well, that their iyfrems and lait 
rnyfteries of Equality can only be accomphfhed in its full 
extent by depopulating the world ; and, by the mouth of 
Le Bo, it anfwers the inhabitants of Montauban, terrified 
with the want of provihons, u Fear not; France has a 
" J efficiency for twelve millions of inhabitants : All the 
" reft (that is the other twelve millions) mufl be put ta 
" death, and then there will be no fear city of kread."* 

We wifh to caft the odium of fuch horrors on a Marat y 
a Robefpierre, or fome fuch wretches ; but Ba rnavc pre- 
ceded Robelpierre; and the oath of the Seel: to de- 
nounce father, mother, friends, brothers, and fiflers, and 
to look upon every perfon as profenbed who mould not 
adopt the revolutionary principles, did not originate with 
them. Such was the oath of the Lodges long before the 
exiltence of the Jacobins. It was not from Robefpierre, 
but in Holbach's club, that Condorcet learned to ex- 
claim as he did in the legiflativc aflembly, Let the world 
perijh, rather thanfacrifce our principles of Equality ! 

* Report of the Comité du Salut Publique, Auguft 8, 1795. 


It would not be the brigands alone, but Syeyes, Carat, 
the eleit of the Sophifters, and the club of the twenty-two^ 
that would {mile at the horror we had conceived at fuch 
deeds. Thus did Syeyes anfwer Mallet du Pan, when 
he expreflcd his deteftation of the means employed in the 
revolution; You are nix ays talking to us of the means 
employed ; but, Sir, it is the End, it is the Objeff, the 
Ultimate f'iew, that you mujl learn to confider : And this 
very principle, that confoles fuch men as Syeyes for fuch 
a multitude of atrocities, is to be difcovered in the Code 
of the Illuminized Lodges, whence it found its way into 
the Jicobin club.* 

A day may come when hiftory will be more accurately 
informed how and in what haunts this blood-thirfty Seét 
pointed out its victims, and taught its adepts not to be 
ftartled at the number of them. Meantime I have pro- 
mifed to lead my reader back to that which held its fit- 
tings in the Rue Sourdiere, where Savalette de Lange 
preiîded; where the illuminées were received; and where 
Dietrich, who was one of the firft that brought the mys- 
teries into France, was feated. The following anecdote 
may guide the hiftorian in his refearches on that fubjecr. 

At the time when the brigands were put into requiii- 
tion, when the caftles of the Nobility were being confu- 
med by fire in the provinces, when the heads of the No- 
bility were being carried in triumph on pikes, the Abbé 
Royou, well known for his zeal againft the Sophifters, 
was obliged to fly from Paris to eicape the fury of the 
Palais Royal mob. He had wandered for fome time from 
village to village, when he privately returned to Paris, 
and called upon me about four o'clock in the morning. 
On my queftion'mg him how he bad-paiTed his time du- 
ring his flight, H I lived, (laid he) chiefly with the cu- 
" rates, and was very well received by them, but could 
** not make any long ftay with them, left 1 Ihould expofe 
" them to fimilar danger with myfelf. I foon began to 
v- fufpect the laft curate with whom I took refuge when 

* I leave to Mr. Mallet du Pan himfelf, the talk of revealing 
\yhat he heard in that club, and the horror he conceived on the 
occah\>n. He may alio inform the reader with what indipnation 
he received the invitation of tht tiuenfy-tivo to become a mem- 
ber of their club. Hut it was from the mouth of that juftly celer 
btated author that 1 learned the anfwer which Syeyes made to 
his reproaches. 


** I faw him receive a letter from Paris. He opened and 
f* read it with fuch an air, that my fufpicions were great- 
*' \y increafed. Strongly fufpecting that I was the object 
" of this letter, I watched the opportunity when he was 
" gone to the church, to enter his room, where I found 
** the epiflle couched in the following terms : Tour letter, 
" my dear friend-, was read in prefçnce of the whole club. 
11 They were furprized to find jo much pkilofophy in a vil- 
tl lage curate. Be tranquil, my dear curate, we are 
li three hundred; we tnark the heads and the fall j only 
" keep your people ready; difpofe your parijhioners to ex- 
* c ecute the orders, and they Jlmll be given to you in time, 
(Signed) f Dietrich, Secretary." 

To the many reflections that muft naturally arife ot? 
the reading of fuch a letter, I mall only add, that the club 
to which thefe three hundred belonged had transferred 
the place of its fittings to the fuburbs of St. Honoré, and 
that it aflembled there for a long time without being ob- * 
ferved by the court ; when a fcene of drunkennels appri- 
sed the king of the fafe that awaited him. At the conclu-* 
ilon of one of thofe banquets fqcred-ta fraternity, all the 
brethren made a puncture in their arm and received their 
blood in their glarTes ; they then drank the to< ft Ùeath ta 
fiings, and thus concluded the fraternal repair. Tijis an 7 
ecdote will eafily fuggefl of what fpecies of men the legion 
of twelve hundred, propofed by fean de Brie to the 
Convention, was to be compofed, who were to be dis- 
perfed over the whole globe to murder all the kings of 
the earth. 

Thus did the Sect, under the name of Fraternity, by 
the -frenzy of its Equality, by the very nature of its prini- 
ciples, and by the horrid rites of its Lodges, io degene- 
rate the hearts of its adepts, as to form (like the old man 
of the mountain) clubs of three hundred afTarfins at a 
time. Thus do the myfteries explain the ferocious joy of 
a Marat, of a St. Juft, of a Le Bon, of a Carrier, of a 
Collot D'Herbois, and the Hill more ferocious ferenity of 
the Sophilters of the revolution in the midit of maffacres 
and rivers of blood. 

But the vengeance of that God who has permitted fo 
heavy a fcourge to befall France, now appears to have 
taken another turn. In that country the altar of Chrift 
is overturned, and the throne of its kings annihilated.— * 



Thofe who had confpired againft the altar and the throne 
now confpire againft each other. The intruded ctergy, 
the Deifts, and the Atheifts,. butchered the Catholics,-— 
The Intruders, the Deifts, and the Atheiftsnow begin to 
cut each other's throats. The Conflitutionalifts drove 
out the Royalifts, and are in their turn put to flight by 
the Republicans. The Democrats of the Republic one 
and indivifible, murder the Democrats of the federative 
Republic; the faction of the mountain, guillotines the 
Girondin faction, and then fplit into the faction of Hé- 
bert and Marat, of Danton and Chabot, of Cloots and 
Chatitnette, and in fine into the faction of Robefpierre^ 
v ho devours them ali, and is in his turn devoured by the 
faction of Tallien and Freron. Briflot and Genfonné, 
Gaodet and Faucher, Rabaud and Barbaroux, with thirty 
more, are condemned to death by Fotiquier Tinville, juff 
as th-y had condemned their King; Pouquier is himfelf 
fent to the fcaffold, juft as he had lent Brfffot and Co. 
Petion and Buzot perifh with hunger in the forefts, and 
are devoured by the wild beads; Perrin dies in prifon; 
Valazé and Labat flab themfelves ; Marat falls beneath 
the arm of Charlotte Corday ; Robefpierre dies on the 
fcaffold, and Sveyes alone furvives, becaufe the cup of 
vengeance is not yet exhausted on miferable France. — » 
Pentarfues (or the government of five), with a two-fold 
fenate, are now become a new curfe on this unhappy 
country. A Revvbeî, Carnot, Barras, Le Tourneur, and 
a ReVeillière Lepaux, allume the command of its armies, 
erive away its deputies equal and free, fulminate its Sec- 
tions, and rule it with a rod of iron. Every thing trem- 
bles before them : when they grow jealous of each other, 
they plot deftruciion and drive each other into banifh- 
rneat; but new tyrants fucceed and unite together; and 
at this prefent time the ruling Deities in France are ba- 
riiihment, ftupor, fear, and the Pentarques. Tenor has 
impofed filence throughout the Empire, and this vail pri- 
fon contains twenty millions of flaves, all fkulking into 
obfeurity at the very name of a Merlin or a Rewbel, or 
at the threat of a journey to Cayenne ; fuch is the Ma- 
jejly of that people fo frequently declared Equal, Free y 
and Sovereign. 
The Sett ' jr^e rea( ] er> perhaps, may think that in the midft of fuch 
Slots ? US mîlff " cres > fo&ions, tyrants, and terror, the See* muft have 
gainftPro- ^°ir. the thread of all its plots ; but it has never loft fight 


of them for a moment. The Pentarques are more than perty and 
ever ftimulated by itagainft the Clergy and the Nobility; Society; 
while the ultimate mylteries threaten the Pentarques 
themfelves. In vain fhall they attempt to preferve a fuf- 
iiciency of the Social Order to keep them in pofleflion of 
that authority which they have erected on the ruins of 
the throne. The Sect, has thus far proceeded fuccefsful- 
ly toward the accomplifhment of its myfleries ; but it will 
not ftop here; has it not fworn to annihilate Property as 
well as the throne ? During the firft aflembly, did not 
thofe confpirators, now calling themf elves Conjtitutional- 
tjh, annihilate the property of the clergy; and the next 
aflembly that of the nobility, under the pretence of emi- 
gration, while thofe who remained in France were pilla- 
ged under pretence of confutation ? Then come the adepts 
jBruijfart, Robefpierre, and the two Juliens; and th. 7 
write that the favorable moment is now come to extir - 
pate the mercantile aristocracy, as well as that 
of the Nobles, in their fecret correfpondence, juft as 
Weifhaupt does in his mylteries, they declare that mer- 
cbantifm (negotiantifm) muji be crujlied. That wherever* 
a large number oj rich merchants were to be found, there 
were Jure to be found as many cheats, and Liberty could 
not ejlabliflo its empire there.* Accordingly, fpoliations 
and requilitions have robbed the merchants and citizens 
of their property, juft as the Clergy and Nobility had 
been robbed before them. But even this is not the ac- 
complifhment of the grand end, of the ultimate views of 
the Seel, againft all property, againiè all fociety whatever. 
Even under the iron reign of the Pentarques, let us attend 
to the addrefles publilhed by the adepts Drouct, Bat 
and Lancelot : 

$Lxtracl from the Addrefs to the French People, found in 
Babœuf's papers. 

" People of France, — During fifteen centuries you 
** lived in flavery, therefore unhappy, It is fcarcely lix 
<l years lince you began to breathe in expectation ■; 
u dependence, of happinefs, and of Equality. I\ : 
w and in all places men have been lulled with fine words; 
" never, and in no place, did they obtain the thing with 
" the word. From time immemorial has it been hy 

* See Papers fotind at Robefpierre's, ani printed by order 
•f the Convention, Nos. 43, 75, 89, 107, &o. 

276 antisocial conspiracy; 

<c critically repeated, that men are equal; and from time 
" immemorial the molt monftrous inequality has info- 
tc lently preffed on mankind. Ever fmce the exijlence of 
<r - Civil Societies, the fineft appendage of man has undoubt- 
u edly been recognized, but has never been once reali- 
" zed. Equality bas never been any thing but a noble 
w and Jlerile fiât ion of the laxv. Now that it is called for 
cc with a louder voice, they anfwer us, Wretches hold 
" your peace ! Equality in deed is a mere chimera ; be 
c; contented with a conditional equality. You are all equal 
11 before the law, ye rafcals ! What more do you want ? 

tc — What more do we want ! Te LegiJlators,ye Go- 

K vernors, ye Rich, ye Proprietors, now hearken in your 
u turn : 

" We are all equal. — That principle is inconteftable. 
(i - - - Very tvellf We mean in future to live and die as 
K ztee arc born. We will have real Equality, or death.— • 
a That is what we want, and we will have that real equa- 
tc Jity, coft what it will. Wo be to thofe whom we fhall 
" meet between it and us ! Wo to the man who fhall 
"dare oppofe (o poiitive a determination ! The French 
K revolution is but the forerunner oj a revolution greater 
li by far and much more Solemn; and which will be the 
« lajl. - - 

" What do we afk more than the Equality of rights ? 
" Why, we will not only have that Equality tranferibed 
" in the declaration of the rights of man and of the citi- 
*' zen ; we will have it in the midtf. of us, under the roofs 
<c of our houfes. We confent to every thing for the ac* 
*' quifition of it, even to clear decks-, that we may poiTefs 
Ci it alone; Perifh the arts, if requifite, provided we do 
" but preferve real Equality ! 

" Legislators and Governors, Proprietors, rich and 
<c boweUlefs, in vain do you attempt to paralize our iacred 
u enterprize, by faying, vje are only re-producing the A- 
" grarian law that has been fo often allied for before. 

" Calumniators ! hold your peace in your turn, and in 
" the hlence of confuiion hearken to our pretentions, dic- 
M tated by nature, and grounded on juftice. 

" 'J he Agrarian laiv, or the equal partition of lands^ 
u was the momentary tvijh of a few ibldiers vyithout priri- 
o: ciples, of a hw clans actuated rather by inf'tincT: than by 
" reafon. We aim at Jomcihing far more fublime, far 
"more equitable; GOODS IN common, or THE COM- 


tc MUNITY OF estates ! No more individual proper* 
K ties in land, for the earth belongs to nobody. IVe demand 
" and will enjoy the goods of the earth in common. The 
5* fruits belong to all. 

" Difappear now, ye difgufling di/iinflions of rich and 
u poor, of higher and lower, of majler and fer v ant, of 
tc governing and governed ! for m other diftinclion 
*■<■ Jball exi/l among manhind,than thofe of age and sex."* 

The authors of this addrefs were certainly too hafty in 
their publication ; but every reader will lee that their lan- 
guage perfectly coincides with the Man-king of Illumin- 
iiin. France, it is true, was nut yet fufHciently prepared 
for this laft plot* but it is necefl'ary fometimes to detach 
certain adepts to found the way, tbo' afterwards the Seâ 
fhould find it neceffary to difavow and lac; ifice its off- 
spring. Though Babceuf may have bsen facriiiced to the 
myfteries, his accomplices {till livej their legions impofed 
upon theiudges and on the Pentarques themfèltfes, and 
they dared not condemn Drouet. Is it to be fuppofed, 
that after completely pillaging the Clergy and the Nobi- 
lity, after fuccefsfully dcfpoiling many merchants, trades- 
men, and citizens, in the fame manner as the Seat had 
pillaged the two firft Orders of the State, a fingle defeat 
fhould fufSce to check its views ? or can we fay, that it 
will not one day proclaim that Equality in deed which 
which lhall baniih from the earth ail thofe diflivMions of 
rich and poor, of higher and lotver, of majler and javant, 
and ultimately of governing ûw/governed ? 

Some perfons may flatter themselves that our fciences agaînft 
uuy protract the day of barbarifm, when men are to roam ^v 3 and. 
in cLns without laws or magift rates ; hut have we not Sciences; 
fecn in the myfteries, that our fciences, in the eyes of the 
Seift, are no other than the prime caufe of our misfor- 
tunes, of the alledged flavery of fociety ?f And if fails 
did not fpeak clearly enough, if the monuments of art 
falling beneath the blows of the Jacobins did not fufn- 
ciently denote the veneration it oears to the productions 
of genius; if any apparent relpecl: fhould flill be fhown 
to the fathers of letters, let not the reader conceive that 
the adepts have really blufhed at the fight of thefe modern 
vandals : Fire and lword have only hailened thatprogreis 

* See the Papers feized at BaboeuPs, 
•J- See the Degree of Regent. 


which they fo much extol; it was not Babceuf alone that 
would exciaim, Perijh the arts, if ' requijite, provided we 
do but prcferve real Equality ! The Jacobin Philofophifr, 
if fincere, will have no difficulty in faying what the legis- 
lators have fo often proclaimed from the tribune, " What 
need have we of all your colleges, academies, and libraries ? 
Needs there fo much ftudy and fo many books for learn- 
ing the only true fcience ? Let the nations know the rights 
cj ma;i, and they will know enough."* 

i know that a mufeum and a national infritute are held 
out as objects of magnificence, in which the revolution 
would appear to infufe new vigor into the arts and fcien- 
ces ; but let the fage in the midft of this vaft mufeum re- 
flect for a moment. Thuoderftruck at this immenfe aflTem- 
blage of theft, pillage, and robbery erected into trophies, 
will he not exclaim, Do thefe men then barefacedly fcofF 
at every idea of property who thus difplay the fruits of 
their, rapine and extortion? After having pillaged and 
deftroyed every thing within their own country, they fet 
off to defpoil the neighboring States tranquilly repohng 
on the banks of the Scheldt, the Meufe, or the Tiber. — . 
'They divide the gold they haveftolen among themfelves, 
and they exalt to public view what they have robbed for 
the State. Within this temple of the arts, therefore, the 
idea of property is as much blafted as within the Occult 
Lodges of thofe adepts who had fworn to annihilate the 
facial compact. 

And what is this national Lyceum, where we find the 
Geometrician La Place, the Aitronomer La Lande, the 
Poetailer Chenier, the Commentator of the Zodiac Du- 
puis, the Hiftorian of the mountains La Metherie, all con- 
Iterating their ftudies and their fcience to prove that God 
does not exiit ? Behold the Sect fmiling at their labors \ 
for it is aware, that Atheifm will foon annihilate arts and 
fciences, as well as property and fociety. Little does it 
concern itfelf whether the greater part of the literati ftop 

* I do not exadly remember the particular na "5 of the De- 
puties who wouid hold forth fuch language at the tribune ; I 
can affirm, however, that the ibphifticaterj Legiflator Rabaui 
de Si. Etienne frequently held fuch language in company, 
which has more than once given rife to a good deal of debate. 
Once, in particular, he and Mr. Defile t, a man of letters, al- 
moil quarrelled on the iubjecl; and that was quite at the be- 
ginning of the Revolution. 


&ort in the career of the myfteries ; for they are forward- 
ing the views of the Sect without knowing it, even where 
they have made their ftand. Its degrees arc progreilive, 
and it well knows that the fophilticated and atheiftical 
Jacobin will beget the diforganizing Jacobin. In the 
Lyceum, or adhering to Baboeuf and Drpuet, it beholds 
its offspring laborious Atheilts profefling its principles, 
and, in fhort, true Jacobins ; and though this name fhould 
for a time be rejected with contempt, it will not forget 
that the principles, and not the name, conftitutes the dis- 
ciple. Some are difgufted with the firft confequences 
flowing from thefe' principles, and they ftop; while others 
complacently proceed to the laft. The Sect will therefore 
fix the former in its firft degrees; the latter are initiated 
in its ultimate rnyfteries ; and whether its agents are lite- 
rati or brutes, it is of no conlequence to the Sect. In the 
French revolution it has always had the art to diftribute 
the different parts as it does its degrees, and to vary them 
without ever lofing fight of its ultimate object. 

In its attack upon God, we have (ccn its intruded Cler- Progrès- 
gy, its Dsifts, and its Atheifts. The firft overturned the uor > obf«r» 
altars of the Catholic religion; the fécond, of the Luthe- VH In 
ran and Calvinift church, and of every religion adoring aR( j p arts * 
Chrift; and the third blafphemoufly proclaimed the non- a&ed in 
exi Hence of a God. therevo* 

In the attack on monarchy the Seel: has had fucceffive- lotion. 
]y its Neckerijh, its Fayetifts, its Conflitutionalifts, its 
Girondins, its Gmventionijts. Herein it is that the rea- 
der may o'oferve the Sett varying and gradually diftribu- 
tins; its parts to wind up the horrid fcene to the bloody 
cataftrophe. Here we fee thofe different actors faithfully 
fulfilling the parts that had been distributed to them.— 
Syeyes pronounces that the tyrant (hall die : this tyrant 
is Lewis XVI. Necker feizes on him and, delivers him 
over to the legiflative confpirators of the third order ; La 
Fayette and Bailly, with the Conltituent Affembly, leave 
him but the (hadow of a fceptre and his royal robes rent 
afunder. They then deliver him up, after having taught 
the people to drag him ignominioufly from Verfailles to 
the Town-hall of Paris, from Varennes to the Thuille- 
ries. The unfortunate monarch is now furrounded by 
banditti armed with pikes. BriJJot and his Girondins pro- 
ceed in that career begun by Neçkeï and La Fayette, and 
End that with a mere breath the throne can be overturned ; 


Lewis is then dragged from the Thuilleries to the Tow- 
ers of the Temple. Robefpierre, Petion, and Marat, are 
the next that feize on his royal perfon ; and from the Tem- 
ple they hurry him to the fcafFold. In this long concate- 
nation of feditions, rebellions, and treafons, to the very 
confummation of the regicide, I fee various actors ; but 
the guilt of all and each is equal. They arc all agents in 
the confpiracy of Equality and Liberty; all proceed from 
the fame tenebrous recehes; all are Jacobins. 

In the confpiracy againft property and all fociety the 
fame gradation and principles are to be obferved ; and 
with a limilar conftancy does the Seel tend toward the 
grand ultimatum* The irreligious Sophifters of every 
clafs defpoil the Clergy; the Sophifters commoners plun- 
der the Nobility ; next comes the fophifricated banditti, 
who lay violent hands on the riches of the merchant or 
the wealth of the commoner. Meanwhile the conquer- 
ing Sophifters difplay the fpoils of foreign nations; and 
the atheiftical Sophifters at length break the laft tie of 
fociety. The former had only admitted one part of the 
myfteries ; the latter are willing to confummate them all, 
They will that property fhall not exift, either in the 
church, the nobility, the commoner, or in any mor- 
tal whatever. In virtue of their Equality, the earth is to 
be the property of none, the produce the property of all. 
In virtue of their Libertv, Condorcet refutes to obey a 
God, Briflbt to recognize a king, and Baboeuf to fubmit 
to a republic, to rnagiftrates, or to any governing power. 
And whence do all thefe men come ? All proceed from 
the Jacobin club; they are the offspring of Holbach's 
club, of the A^afonic Lodges, and of the Illuininizing 
Myfteries, Their natural parents are Voltaire, Jean 
Jaques Roufîeau, the Knights Kadofch^ and the Bavarian 

Thus do we trace the difciples of the Seel: perpetually 
aiming at the accomplifhment of its myfteries ; whether 
in their crimes and fuccefs againft their God or againft 
their king, whether in their eflays againft republics or the 
Iaft veftiges of fociety; every ftep in the French revolu- 
tion demonftrates the activity of its adepts, brigands of 
every degree, purfuing its ultimate views. Indeed it has 
not yet accomplifhed all its defigns ; and may God grant 
that they may be foiled in the attempt ! But let the mind 
of man calculate, if it be able, the crimes committed by the 


Sec"l, and the difafbrs that have already befallen France; 
and when it fhalihave fucceeded in this calculation, will 
it dare venture to explore thofe entailed on futurity ? Let 
the father of every family contemplate, and infcribe on the 
threlhold of his houfr, tnat threat of the adepts contained 
in the following fentence : The French Revolution is but 
the forerunner of a Revolution greater by far ^ and much 
more folemn. nations may be awakened to their danger, let us 
fliow them that they are all without exception, menaced 
with furjilar misfortunes to thofe that have befallen France. 
Such is their fate decreed by the SeCl in its Myfteries; 
for their views are not confined to any particular people, 
but aim at ail nations whatever. To faclis therefore, I 
will once more appeal; and my reader fhall fee how per- 
fectly they coincide with the Code of the Sect on the ex-» 
tent and univerfality of its confpiracies. 
N n 



UnVUérfàlîty of the Succefs of the Seal explained ly the 
Univerjality of its Plots. 

Succefs /~\^ a ^ f ^ e P^œnomena of the French Revolution, 

l< Hie Ja- V_/ perhaps, the molt aiîonifhing, and, unfortunately, 
cobms; the uioft inconteftable, is, the rapidity of thofe conquefts 
that have already revolutionised a confiderable part of 
jiuroptyanJ menace the remainder of the univerfe. No- 
thyja; cart be more furprizing than to fee the facility with 
which' JaCbbinitrft has erected its ftandards, or planted 
the tree of Equality and disorganizing Liberty in Savoy, 
Belgium, Hoiland, on the Banks of the Rhine, in Svvit- 
Z,erland, on the other fide of the Alps, in Piedmont, in 
the Milanois, and even at Rome. When 1 come to ex- 
plain thefe phenomena, I fliall not allow myfelf to be car- 
ried aw.-.y by fyftem or by prejudice. 1 will- confefs, that 
genius, bravery and talents, have frequently wrefted the 
pal n of victory. I candidly confefs, that many of their 
triumphs are due to men who by their courage and ta- 
lents were entiiled to ferve a better caufe» I will not dis- 
pute their glory with them; let them entwine their lau- 
rels with the red cap; let their glory mingle with remorie 
at the light of thole viie Jacobins, and tyrannic Pentar- 
ques, in whofe defence they have rivalled their ancestors, 

its fir. pi- vvno tho.'ie in the days of Henry IV". or Lewis Xi V 

lariiy ; Neverthelefs, in the career of their con&uefts many points, 
and a large (hare of their fucceiles, are to be attributed to 
other Cdufes than to their valor. We have feen chiefs 
deftkute of experience or merit bafrlinj the wifdom and 
talents of heioes confummate in the military art. We 
have feen the Carmagnole Bands, foidiers of a day, make 
their triumphant entry into whole provinces, while all the 
difcipnne of the combined legions of Aurtria, Hungary, 
and Pruilia, could not impede their progrefs. The mili- 
tary fcience acquired by thole veteran bands in camps and 
under the tuition of the greater! captains, appears to have 
been ufelefs. In (p-ite or the arts of a Cohorn or a Vau- 
fean, citadels have iAlca at the light of the new conquer- 


crsj and if a battle is fought, one only victory, or even 
a defeat, will acquire whole provinces to their new do- 
minion, that would have coll long and painful compaigns 
to a Marlborough or a Turenne. Another prodigy prefTes 
Oil our notice. Thefe Jacobin conquerors are received 
like brethren by the vanquifhed nations, and their legions 
are fwoln in the very places where thofe of any o L her 
power woull dwindle into nothing. They impofe the 
har/heft of yokes 011 their new fubjecls, are guilty of eve- 
ry fpecies of extortion, devaluation, and facrilege, over- 
turning all laws human and divine, yet are nevertheless 
received with as loud acclamations by the multitude, as 
if it was their Saviour that approached. Thefe certainly 
are phenomena that the hi ft priais would in vain attempt 
to illuftrate were he only acquainted with the viiioie ar- 
mies of the Seel. To unfold thefe mylleries, let us bold- its eenera! 
]y declare it} the Seel; and its plots, its legions of fecret caufe. 
emilTaries, have every where preceded the armies and their 
thunderbolts of war. It had infeited liâtes with its prin- 
ciples long before it fent eicher its PLhegru's or Buona- 
parte's to attack thern. Its means once prepared, traitors 
were to be found in the fortress to open the gates, they 
were to be found in the armies, and in the councils of 
Princes, to render the plans of attack or defence abortive. 
Its fubterraneous Clubs, Lodges, Correfponding Socie- 
ties, Journals, and Propagandas, had already difpofed 
the populace and prepared the way. The day will come 
when nations {hall have written the hiflory of this age. 
Does it not already appear, that each of them wili have 
to dedicate many pages of that hiflory to unfold the trea- 
sons of which it has fallen a victim, to enumerate the 
traitors that it has been obliged to punii'h, or to defcribe 
the means employed to avert the threatening ftorm. In 
order to point out the main-fpring of all thefe machina- 
tions, I fhall turn back to thofe days when the Preach 
Revolution was firft rifmg into exi Hence. 

The adepts of revolutionary Equality and Liberty had Manifes- 
buried themfelves in the Lodges of Maf.mry. At the* of the 
commencement of the Revolution a maniféfto is i fitted ,l r ' m r 
to all the Mafonic Lodges, and to all the Directories ( who p^Jg . 
are to make the proper uie of it among all the brethren 
of Europe)^ by the central Lodge of France, the Grand 
Orient of Paris, the fécond Aréopage of liiu.ninilrii. By 
this manifefto, and in virtue of fraternity, " all the Lodges 

co bin Wri 

234 ANTISOCIAL conspiracy; 

« are fummoned to confederate together, to unite their 
w efforts to maintain the revolution; to gain over to it, in 
t£ all parts, friends, partizans, and protestors; to propa- 
tc gate the flame, to vivify the fpirit, to excite zeal and 
" ardor for it, in every ji ate, an. 4 by every means in their 
« power" This is an indifputable fa£t; it was fenteven 
into England, where the Lodges were leaft difpofed to 
fécond it. It was difperfed throughout the Lodges in 
Germany, aid Jofeph II. got pollefiion of one hgned 
Philip of Orleans* 
its effeft, Never did any government publilh an edi£t fo effica- 
and union cious. Immediately all the adepts in their public prints 
of the Ja- begin to cry up the revolution and its principles. In Hol- 
land Paulas publifnes his Treatifc on Equality; Paine s 
in England, his Rights of Man ; Campe, in Germany, 
his French Citizen; and PhUo-Km-çL^e even outdoes 
himfelf in his Profejfion of Political Faith.f In Italy 
Gorani appears; in ihort, every nation h^s its apoftle of 
Equality, Liberty, and Sovereignty of the People. Thefe 
incendiary productions, with thouf aids of Others, are dis- 
tributed among the people, and are even thrown by fteakh 
into the cottages. Thde were but the general means of 
the Seel:. Men who defpif- the powers of opinion, or of 
public error, may fmile at fuch revolutionary means; but 
great confpirators knew too wJl how to appreciate them. 
The title of French Citizen now becomes their fole title 
of Nobility, and Campe, Paine, and Cramer, with many 
others who diftinguiihed themielves by their incendiary 
writings, are thus rewarded for their villany. Oblcure 
writers, but fanatic Illuminées, are called from the bot- 
tom of Germany, fuch as N'unis, Dorfch^ Blau, to com- 
pile in Paris periodical paper?, that are to lpread the re- 
volutionary enthuiiafm beyond tne R->ine. They are 
furrounded by a Leuchfenring, a Rebbmann, a Hoff* 
man, with many other adepts, who fi xxed to contrive 
the treafons that were to extend their conquefts in thofe 

* See Hoffman's Avis Important, Vol. I. Sea. XIX. 

j- This work alone might fuffice to prove, th»t if Philo- 
Knigge did really abandon the Order of the Illuminées, he con- 
tinued at lead: to propagate their principles. Should the reader 
willi for a more linking proof, he will find it in the hiftorical 
■Eulogium upon him, wiitten by the jacobin George Frederic 
Rebhmctnn,\'iho alio wrote the Eulogy of RoSefpierre. (See hit 
Schtldvachte, Vol. I. Art. Knigge, and It kahce, page Z9J 


countries where the other adepts were preparing the opin- 
ions. So well did they know the importance of being 
matters of the public opinion, that to conquer it by means 
of their Propagandas, Journalists, and other writers, they 
fpent no lefs than thirty millions of Livres during the 
firit year of their incurlions and during 1797; they la- 
vifhed twenty-one millions for the fame purpole.* 

Let us then follow the army, and combine its marches Plots that 
with the progreis of the Sedl and the motions of its apos- '.-répare 
ties. Let us follow them into Germany, into Belgium, thefucceli 
Holland, Spain, in fhort, wherever its arms have triumph- arms :„ 
ed ; and we fhall then fee whether the revolution does Germany. 
not owe the progrefs of its arms as much to the occult 
adepts, as to the courage of its victorious bands. 

Of all the French Generals no one, perhaps, was more 
inflated with his luccefles than Cuftim:, and certainly 
he had little reafon to expect them, as he was deltitute 
of thofc talents and that intrepidity which the 
great General. Neverthelefs, Europe with atloniïhment 
beheld him in one campaign making himfelf matter of 
Worms, Spire, and even Mayence. But when Europe 
ihail know how thefe conquefts were prepared, its afton- 
. ifhment wiil fubfide, andits indignation will arife againft 
the treacherous offspring of Spartacus+WeiCkauat. 

Condorcet, Bonneville, and Fâuchet, had marked out 
ecch department of for their propagan- 
dists. Strasbourg was the center, or directory for the 
union and communication between the German and 
French adepts. The Chiefs of lllutninized Lodges, 
Stamm and Ilyeropbiles-HERMAHti', who, together 
with the Illuminée Dietrich, has juftly obtained the 
furname of the Guillotiner of Alface, had diftinguifhed 
themfejves in that province and at Strafbourg. Beyond 
the French frontiers the corresponding adepts for Worms 
ani Spire are the Calvinift min;(ter Endeman, the Syn- 
dic Besi/hrius-PETERSONy the Canon Cyril (of Alexan- 
dria) SCHWEICKARD, Zeno (of'lharfes) KoBLER^Lu- 
tius Jpuleius-jANSOîi) t'irgilius-HuLLktï) the Canon 

* With refpecî to the 30,000,000 fee Dr.mourier's Memoirs, 
affir for the 31,000,000, thac are included in the accounts of 
this year, the ule to which they were put, was betrayed by 
one of thofe deputies whom' the Pentarques wiflied to bsmifti 
to Cayenne. 


Wincklemann, and particularly the profeflbr Boh- 
Jvier at Worms. Thefe adepts are in dole connection 
with the club at M.yence, headed by a man on whom 
the defence of the t »wn was chiefly to depend, the Lieu- 
tenant- Colonel of Engineers Eicke.mmayer, together 


Biau, Hauser, ^'orstlRjHaupt, and NiMiS. h is 
with regret ta. I fuly the page of biitory with fuch names; 
but proofs a e necflary, and perhaps no one more appo- 
iite can be adduced, than to ihow tnat the very nanKS of 
the vileft traitors are known.* 

Long before this had all thefe adepts been occupied 
with the plan of delivering up the left bank of the R line 
and the fortrefs of Mayence to the jacobins; they had 
been difpofing the minds of the inhabitants of the towns 
and country towards the revolution by the encomiums 
which they were continually pronouncing on it. Nofooner 
does Cultina take the field, than his Aid-de-Camp, fince 
become his hiftorian, defcribes him as placing all the confi- 
dence in Stamniythe famous adept of Strasbourg. Soon af- 
ter a deputation of the principal Illuminées invite Cujiine 
to advance into the country, and allure him that by fo do- 
in<z be will meet the wijhes of the majority of the inhabit- 
ants', Theyaddedjthat^otfW^ be uneafy as to the means cf 
jurviounting certain apparent dijjictdiies^they could afjure 
hint, that they and their friends had power enough to en~ 
gage to remove them ail; that they were the organs of a 
numerous fociety entirely devoted to him, and aéiuated by 
the greatej} zeal for his fuccefs.f At the head of this 
deputation is the adept Eohmer; and, together with Stamm, 
be is entrufted with the whole confidence of the Gene*. 
raj. Thefe adepts, in conjunction with the fubordinare 
deputies, now take the whole direction of the jacobin ar- 
my; they lead it into Worms, and propofe next to carry 
it againit Mavence. Cuitine is in a tremor at the idea of 
fuch an enterprize ; the adepts inhtt, and he at length re- 
çoives to let his army proceed againft this buiwarlc of the 
empire. But at the very fight of its ramparts his fears 
fcizehim again; the brethren iboth him, and diétate the 
fummonS that he is to fend General Gimnieh, The an- 
f.Vvr he receives makes him prepare for his retreat even 

* See fio&Ban Avis Important, Seâ. XV. 
f Cuitine's Memoirs, Vol. I. Page 46, 47. 


before be had thought of an attack, when,lo ! during the 
night a leltef from the brethren in Mayence to the adept 
B'ohmer transforms his fears into hopes of fuccefs. This 
letter ffoted, that the friend who enjoyed all the confi- 
dence of the com man Jer was determined to employ all his 
influence ta perfuade hi.n of the impejjibiiity of defending 
the place > that the brethren had io xvorked upon the in- 
habitants, that it would only need to add a fe-w more 
threats in the next fu nmons that was made. Faithful to 
his inftructions, Cuîline affames the tons of a conquer- 
or, who has prepared a general affault, and is on the eve 
of delivering Mayence over to piWagë and all the fu- 
ry of the fjldiery in enfe of refinance. The illuminized 
friend, or the Lieutenant-Colonel of Engineers Eicken- 
?}uyer, who enjoyed the whoie confidence of the Com- 
ntandeff, and the Baron Stein, the Pruitian Envoy, join, 
in their efforts to prove to the Council of War that it 
was i npomhle to defend the place (and this againft an 
enemy Wiio had not the means to attack it, and who was 
aclu-ily determined to take to flight fhould he meet with 
rdidance), The other brethren fpread the alarm among- 
the inhabitants. The brave Auûujar and his eleven 
hundred Au-ftrians are indignant, but in vain; the capi- 
tulation is figned, and Cufhne, with an army of iS,00O 
men, deifkute of heavy artillery, trembling left he fhould 
not be able to make his retreat with fufheient fpeed ihould 
he bu: meet with reft fiance, obtains pofieffion, within 
the (pace of three days, and without firing a (hot, of thole 
very ramparts that had (truck him with fo much terror. 
Li fuch a manner ate towns taken in which the SecTt pre- 

Lee :he hiftorian follow Cuftine and his fucceiTors to 
Frankfort, and he will find in the neighborhood of that 
town a principality of Ifenbourg ; he wiJl there learn how 
the S::c can protect its adepts. Every part around this 
fcnall principality had been ravaged; but this little town 
was trie feat of the Council for the Illuminées, where 
Pitfch prefided. It was from this place that all the ne- 
ceiiary iaitruciions were fent for the jicobin army, which 
in return revered the faiictuary of Ifenbourg, an 1 evm 
the lure of pillage could not attract the foldiery. Hue 

* Ibid. Vol.1. Pa^eo*. and Defidoard's Hifbry of the 
French Revolution, Vol. I. Ej^k II. No. 24. 

288 ANTISOCIAt conspiracy; 

wVn Pitfch and his council difappear, the charm ceafes, 
and the fertile plains of Ifenbourg are ravaged.* 
Confpîra* The armies are overthrown and driven from May- 
cv f"i ;lie encej but the union of the brotherhood does not fuffer, 
C!9 Khe- ant j the S e £{- p re p ares new means of fuccefs for the revo- 
na-ie ic- Jucionary army* Some of thefe Confpiring adepts difap- 
pear fora time, and then return to Mayence, while others 
are received in Paris, there, in conjunction with tberen- 
tarques, to devife new means for retaking that town, 
which now appears to bid defiance to all the Cuftines of 
the revolution; and foon after Europe, with aftofiifh- 
menr, learns that Mayencc with the whole left bank of 
the Rhine is once more fubjecled to the revolutionary 
power. At firft it is the Cis-Rhenane Republic, then it 
becomes the funple department of the Parifian Republic. 
B h the adepts are to be recompenfed for having effected 
by their black arts of Illuminifm, that which the Pen- 
ta. ques mult have defpaired of, notwithstanding the bra- 
Very of their troops. The profefTor Metternich had been 
employed as Di: eevtorial CommifTary at Fribourg. Hoff- 
man is iuw intf:alled Reiver General on the Rhine, 
with a (alary of fifty thoufand livres. Rebbmann, the pa- 
negyrift of Robefpierre, is created head of the Cis-Rhe- 
nane judicature. We next find acting in concert with 
the above-mentioned, the Privy Counfellor to the Elec- 
tor of Cologn KcmpiS) and his co-illuminees the Profes- 
for Gerhard\ the Advocate Watterjal, and the Ariift 
Conrad; and that my reader may know by what men re- 
volutions may be brought about, I will name the taylor 
Brizen-y the cobler Theijjen x the grocer Fiiigel, the hair-. 
dreffer broches, and the alehoufe-keeper Rbodius.f 
Confpîra- Other plots of the Sect will bring us back to Germa- 
cy m Bel- n y again; but in the mean time Dumourier triumphs 
S Ium * over the ftationary hero of Verdun, and flies to take pos- 

fi.ffion of Belgium. Let eternal darknefs hover round 
the machinations that gave this General more time to 
collect his fcattered troops than was fufficient for a victo- 
rious army to proceed to Pari?, and deliver the unfortu- 
nate Lewis. Let no reader pretend to aifociate the reign- 
ing Duke of Brunfwick with the brotherhood of the mo- 

* Appendix to the Ultimate F*te of Mafonry, Page 17, and 

f Memoirs on Mayence* 


dern S part a eus. I have pofitive proof that he detefts 
them ; I alio know, that Frederic William III. has given 
various proofs, notwithstanding he may have been play- 
ed upon by another fpecies of Illuminées, that he ha- 
ted and abhorred the diforganizing jacobins. But his 
councils are under the direction of other councils. Bis» 
chofswerder was at Berlin; Lucbejini held correfpond- 
ences ; the adepts are in the Dicajieres (the Offices.) — . 
Their influence is mort formidable, and the Seel has al- 
ready declared, that it will be far Jlrongcr when once in 
poffejjion of the Offices and Councils under tbe Prince^ 
than if they bad initiated the Prince himfelf. The day 
may come will explain the enigma of this famous 
retreat made at the time when all Europe was at the 
height of expectation, and daily awaited the lad: accounts 
of its triumphs; meanwhile I (hall proceed to unfold 
myfteries that, hitherto unknown, have led us to view 
Dumourier as conquering Belgium in the fields of Je- 
mappe. Here at leaft the laurels are to be divided, for 
the confpiring Sect has borne a larger (hare in this con- 
queft than his armies ; and it was in London, rather 
than at Jemappe, that the Auftrian Netherlands were 

The Seel: had its Lodges in Brabant, and Fandermol 
had brought over his party to them. He knew that the 
brethren fought to reprefent the French revolution in 
fuch colors as to make the people eager in its caufe ; he 
was alfo acquainted with thofe Lodges that had addreffed 
the National Afiembly, humbly petitioning for their re- 
volutionary Equality and Liberty. Vandernoot was then 
in London, under the name of Gobelfcrôïx. An emiflàry 
from the Parifiari club, he was profecuting his plots, to- 
gether with Çbàùvelin, P 'erigord Z)' ' Jutun, Noel, Bomet y 
and eight other adepts, fent to fpread the revolutionary 
principles in England. Vandernoot entrufted himfelf ta 
perfons with whofe principles he was not fuiFiciently ac- 
quainted ; but they knew him well ; he betrayed his ie- 
cret, and thus the whole myftery is come to light. Dur- 
ing the difputes, and even warfare, carried on between 
the Belgians and Jofeph II. the greater part of them 
certainly had not the moft diftant idea of fubj edging their 
country to the revolutionary principles of the Jacobins; 
but the Seel: had its partizans, and thefe adepts left no 
means untried to perfuade the people that the fole refourcc 
O o 


rcovering their liberty was to unite with the French, 

u 1 was well acquainted with thefe plans (laid Vander- 

" noot to his confidant) ; no fooner were we informed of 

" what had palled between the Duke of Brunfwick and 

'* Dumourier, than we immediately wrote to Paris and 

" to the army. The meffengcr brought us back the plan 

u of the campaign, and a copy of the manifefto that Du- 

" mourier was to publiib on his entry into the Low 

tt Countries. I faw that the plan had been exactly copi- 

" ed fro'.n that followed by Cuftine in his extortions in 

" Germany. Ï forefaw that fuch a plan would appal all 

" the efforts of our people,. and would only ferye to league 

w the inhabitants againft the French, whereas if they 

'■• would but follow my ideas, derived from the know- 

u ledge I had of that people, and of their difpofitions, I 

u would anfwer for their feconding the French in vail on, 

u and that it would infallibly turn out fuccefsful. At the 

" requeft of Chauvelin and Noel, I drew up the plan to 

. be followed, and wrote the manifefto tbat was to be 

" publifhed, framing it according to the local knowledge 

" and experience I had acquired j and the whole was im- 

" mediately lent off to Paris. They were both adopted 

a on the Ipot. Dumourier did not change a fyllable of 

" tne manifefto that I had written in Portman Square, 

" The people, gained over by our agents, and by this 

" manifefto, threw themfelves into our arms, and Flanders- 

" was taicc-n. ; ' 

No reader can expecl that I fliould name the perfon? 
to whom Vandernoot had thus opened his plans ; of this 
much, however, I can allure the public, that the v.hole 
was laid before the miniftry, who fora time luffered No- 
el, Vandernoot, and their accomplices to remain in Lon- 
don, but keeping a dole watch over them until they were 
fent elfewhere to confpire and profecute their vile machi- 
nations, againft nations that they dared not meet in the 
open field. 
InîToî- Next to the conqueft of Belgium came that of Hol- 

land, land; and with equal aftonilhment has Europe {ton the 

formidable bulwarks of that republic failing at the ap- 
proach of the Jacobin armies. Here again we muft re- 
fort for the caufe to the dark rectfles of the Seel. The 
apo'Ues of llluminifm had been laboring in Holland ever 
ii nee the year 1781.* The immenfe liims of money 

* Original Writings, and Philo's Report- 


cr£wn from thofe countries were not the only fuccefles 
of the Seel. The Stadtholder had already learned, to his 
coil, how much they could envejio.n faction and l'édition ; 
the French revolution then game to raife their expecta- 
tions and ftimulate their lahors. The Low Countries 
had for a fécond time received their Jacobin conquerors. 
The Engliih army fell tnclc to the frontiers of its an- 
cient ally to vindicate its liberties from the attempts of 
<he enemy. Its efforts, however, are ufelef:, for Holland 
no longer wills the liberty of the true patriot, it wills that 
of the Jacobin. Its ihali foon be complied with 5 
the brethren of Paris {hall dictate the law in Amtlerdam, 
and (hall feize on its riches ; the commerce of Holland 
fhall be annihilated ; its colonies wrefied from it; and 
foon (hall it rank among the powers of Europe, only as 
the firll flave of the Gallic Penurques. No matter. Let 
Pichegru approach, tor he is the object of their wifhes ; 
;-nd the defenders of their true liberty may feek their fde- 
ty in retreat; for the countries they wilh to defend are 
replete with plots againfl them and confpiracies in favor 
of the revolution. In Amfterdam alone the Sect has no 
lefs than forty clubs, and each club has the direction of two 
hundred revolutionists. The elect of theïè clubs form 
two committees, the central and the correfponding com- 
mittees; and this latter holds correfpondence with bre- 
thren both within and without the territories of the re- 
public. Thefe are fubject to a fupreme council, the true 
Areopagites, whole refolves are tranfmitted to the difpers* 
cd brethren. Perlons who watched over the public wel- 
fare have acted the parts of aifociates in hopes of diving 
into the myfteries; but the fcrutators at Amtlerdam were 
as crafty as thofe of Munich, and thefe adepts could nev- 
er penetrate beyond the firfl myfteries, while other clubs 
were compofed of men well known by the Sect to be the 
firmed advocates for Jacobin Equality and Liberty. 

Deputies from Leyden are delegated to the central 
committee; and the brotherhood at Leyden had made a 
greater progrefs in proportion, both in numbers and fe- 
dition, than it had at Amilerdan. The adepts of U- 
frecbt were flill more ardent revolutionifts than either. 
The vigilance of government, and the neighborhood of 
the armies, had put them to flight; the chiefs, hovvever, 
aiiembled together in country-houfes, and their deliL 
fions were tranfmitted to the Aréopage at Amtteiur.n. — • 


Rotterdam appeared to be neuter; but it held a neutral- 
ity that only waited the propitious moment for declaring 
in favor of Jacobinifm. The minifler and adept Mareux 
had made the conqueft of three fourths of the inhabitants 
of Naarden. The commifiary Alglam would have been 
reftlcfs had he known of a tingle inhabitant of Haarlem 
that was not devoted to the adepts of Arniferdam.* 

The better to conduct the proceedings of the faction, 
the French convention had fent a fecret agent of the name 
of Malabar to reiide at Amfterdam; he had two aco- 
lytes, called V Archevêque and Aiglam. At once enjoy- 
ing the confidence of Pichegru (then advancing with his 
victorious army) and of the rebels in the interior, Mala- 
bar never apppeared but at the meetings of the Areopa- 
gites, where he dictated the refolves. & Archevêque and 
Frefme were employed in carrying on the con efpondence 
with Pichegru. in Amfterdam and Haarlem, Aiglam was 
infpe£lor-geaeral of the fubterraneous arfenais whither 
the brethren were to flock for arms on the fignal given. 
■ — Should they {land in need of the protection of the ma^ 
gulracy, the adept Dedelle was burgo-rn after. If funds 
were wanting, the counting -houfes of lexier, Couder r, 
and Rottereau, are open to them, befides the treafures of 
the Jew Sporfas, a moll vehement revolutionist» Among 
the clubiiis the adepts Gulcber and Lapeau diftinguifk 
themfelves, as do Latour and Perijfe au>o;ig their ar- 
mourers. Next in queftof enthufiaits who ihall declaim 
to the populace, we meet the adepts 'lermacbe, Lekain, 
Mi'dlner, Schneider., and many others. On their general 
roll-call they count 40,000 men ready to march out to 
meet the advancing jacobins, or to charge in the rear the 
armies of the allies, and thofe legions that might ftill re- 
main faithful to their duty. Nothing now was wanting 
but a general capable of directing their march; and Eu- 
fcace was fent from Paris* — On a fudden the vigilance of 
the Englifh minifter and of the Duke of \ ork feemed to 
have counteracted this confpiracy, that had been fo well 
concerted ; and the government was informed of the whole 
plot. Malabar, the hero of the myfteries, La Ton ", Fre- 
fme, and about thirty more confpiraiois, were arrefted; 
even Eujiace was among the priioners, and all true citi- 

* Extratf of a Secret Memorial, written a few mouths be- 
fore uie înyafion of Holland. 


fcsns thought themfelvcs delivered from the Jacobin, 
feourge. Proclamations were ifïued, forbidding any meet- 
ings of clubs under any pretext whatever; but, in defi- 
ance of the magistrates, the ciubiits pubiifh a counter- 
proclamation, inviting the brethren to take arms and 
rather to die than abaucon their clubs. In vain does the 
Englifh general demand that thefe perfous (houlJ be de- 
livered up to him, that he might fecure their perfons ; the 
Seel: even fucceeded in getting the American minifter to 
reclaim Euftace, under pretence that he was a fubjecl of 
the United States. The others are brought to trial, and 
are condemned to be exiled into thofe very towns by 
which the Jacobin army was to enter the republic, and 
Willemffcadt, Breda, Berzenopzoom, Nimeguen, Gor- 
cum, Utrecht, and Amiterdam, fall, juft as Mayence had 
done before them. Moil certainly, had Pichegru no other 
claims to military glory than this conquetl, he might, 
with Dumourier and Cufline, write, * / came, I Jaw, 
and I conquered; but it was becaufe, in place of enemies 
to combat, I found none but adepts to embrace.'* 

Means of another fpecies will explain the triumphs of In Spain, 
the Seel in Spain. The brave Ricardo had reftored 
rhe Caftilians to their ancient valor; he had threatened 
to retaliate on the captive Jacobins, for the cruelties ex- 
ercifed on the French emigrants that fell into their hands. 
The Aqua Topbana immediately liberates the Sect from. 
fo fierce an enemy ; he dies by poifon. The bulwarks of 
Spain fall like thofe of Holland at the approach of the 
legions of Equality and Liberty. R.EBDELEQN fells the 
fortrefs of Fizueras for a million of livres. He values his 


treafon too highly, and going to Paris he receives his mil- 
lion in affignats, then only worth 48,000 livres. He 
complains, and in compenfation is fent to the guillotine, 
for the Seel need not buy traitors at fo exorbitant a 
price. His treachery, however, left Spain at the difcretion 
of the Jacobins. Tnat unhappy country fought to buy 
peace, and for a time it is fuffered to enjoy a truce; buc 
every thing fee ms to denote, that the brethren have made 
a fufficienc progrefs to leave the tafk of eftablifhing the 
1 of Equality and Liberty to the adepts of the inte- 
rior, withouc reforting to arms. 

in Portugal the adepts dare not as yet throw off the Tn Partu» 


* Extract of a Secret Memorial. 


mpfk ; but at fome future day the Court may judge prop- 
er to publiih the correfpondence found among the pa- 
pers of the Brabanter Segre. This propagandist had 
been thrown into the priions of Lihbon. The brethren 
had not forgotten the doctrine of the patet exitus ; they 
fend a mattrefs to the prifoner, and a razor is concealed 
within it. Thé wretched Segre underftands the meaning 
of the S.d, and the next morning is found weltering in 
his biooa on this very mattrefs. 

it tranfpired, however, that the confpiracy in which he 
had engaged aimed at nothing lefs than the deftruction of 
the royal family, and the total overthrow of the ftate. It 
v. as further aiTerted that a correspondence between him 
snd the Prince of Peace was found among his papers, 
find that the Spanilh minifter, informed of his arrell im- 
mediately claimed it; but the court of Portugal returned 
for anlwer, " That ilnce God had in his goodnefs pre- 
1< ive,l the ftate from the greateft misfortune with which 
it had ever been threatened, her fvioft Faithful Majeity 
would only treat of this buiinefs with his Catholic Ma- 
jefty hjrnfetf." But even ihould this fail be well authen- 
ticated, are we not fufiîciently aware of the intrigues of 
the SeCt? Does it not frequently procure fecret commis, 
fions from rniniircrs, and then, under pretence of tranfact- 
ing the buiinefs of that itate, profecute the moil viilanous 
plots ? It is fufttcient for us to have fhewn the Se£t con- 
spiring in Portugal; the public papers defer i be it as con- 
fpiring in like manner at Turin and at Naples. „ 
AtNapks. Here again the fecrecy of courts has debarred us from 
the details. At Naples atteftations were taken refpecting 
the guilty, and the proofs were acqtn'red. By the orders 
of his Majefty, ali the documents relating to the confpira- 
cy had been collected and compiled by a magiltrate of great 
merit and known integrity, Mr. Key, the fame perfon 
whom Lewis XVI. had intended for minifter of the po- 
lice of Paris. From thefe it appeared, that many noble- 
men had been led to join in a confpiracy againft the royal 
family, while the occult adepts of this confpiracy were to 
make away with thefe fame noblemen, immediately after 
the deftrucho'i of the royal family. The King and the 
Queen of Naples bath chofe to fhow their clemency to 
i bjef confpirators, and rather let them prefervc life in 
confinement, than fend them to the lcaffbid which muffc 
have bca the inevitable confequence of a public trial.— 


The policy that has buried in darknefs the details of this 
confpiracy, has not, however, deprived us of tnis proof of 
the univerfality of the confpiracies of the Seel:. 

In purfuic of its plan?, the Sedl marches triumphantly j n a |j rta- 
to Milan, Venice and Rome. Its armies entered Italy !y, arid in 
with Buonaparte, even more deditute of every thing that the armies 
canenlure victory, than thofe which had entered Germa- °* P ancc5 « 
ny under the command of Cuftine. But numerous le- 
gions flocked to their ftandard»; and tiie banks of the Po, 
if we except Mantua, are as well prepared for the revo- 
lution as were thofe of the Rhine. This will ceafe to be 
a matter of of furprife to thole who will refleél that Wéi* 
fbaupt had lent his apoirles thither, and that Knigge and 
Zimmerman had loiig fmce boallcd of the progrefs of 
the illuminizing recruiters in thofe parts. If we turn 
back to their reports, we (hall find that the Mafonic 
Lodges had, like thofe of Germany, been initiated into 
the lait myfteries; and the triumphs oï Buonaparte will 
be found to be not more afton lining than thofe of Cus- 
tine. Were it neceffary to explain how the valor of the 
Archduke Charles, or of the veteran bands of Auftria, 
was rendered fruitiefs when in prelence of the Jacobin 
troops; whence it arofe that the faftneffes of countries 
could fcarcely ibrve the wifdom of a prince ia worthy of 
being the leader of heroes; it would not be fufficient to 
fay, that the adjutant-general Fijber was accufed of hav- 
ing received one thoufand pounds a month from the Pe-n- 
tarques; or, that, to ftifle all profecution, and baffle any 
attempt that might be made to induce him to difcover the 
number or quality of his accomplices, he had recourfe to 
that grand means of Illuminifm the Patct exitus, and 
poifoned himfelf. No; the reader mult reflect, that the 
Seel: had long lince been educating its adepts for the ar- 
mies, procuring poflefiion of the Dicajleres, and thus 
preparing for a future day, when they forefaw that trea- 
chery and cowardice would feive them in the armies of 

* Jnft as this fheet was point* to the prefs a publication , en- 
titled, Les Nouveaux Intérêts de l'Europe, fell iûto my lartds, 
and the following pr.ff.ige appeared to me lb very applicable to 
our fubjeft, that i have extratted it: " The Emperor ha? % t^n 
*' blamed for figning the preliminaries of Leoben, on the i8'h 
" of April, 1798. This certainly appears to have been done 
•' precipitately: but are thofe who blâme hi ai acquainted with 


At Rome. Need we explain why the revolutionary legions pro- 
ceeded to Rome? Certainly but little refiftance could bo 
made there. An aged pontiff raifing up his hands to hea- 
ven, offering up his prayers for the peace and welfare of 
the faithful, makes every facrifice that of his faith except- 
ed, in hopes of mollifying the obdurate hearts of thofe bar- 
barians. Buonaparte, no ftranger to his virtues feigns a 
veneration for them. Eut Pius VI. is the chief of that 
religion of Chrift which the Se£t has fworn to crufh, and 
Rome is the centre of it.* From the veiy firil moment 

" th? reafons that induced him to take that ftep? The Fmpe- 
*' ror ha>i been informe I by his Brother, the drchduke Charles* 
" of the ba i difpqfition of a great part of the officers of ois ar- 
"' 7 of Italy. He knew that both at Verona and Padua they 
" affeclsd to ithitate the French in their difcourfe, manner s t 
" an i fentiments ; itfeemed as if they needed but the tri-colonr- 
«' ,> ; - make trefetnb'ance complete. He was aware 

'* tbû i in the violi critical moment of an aclion ; fi that* 

"yifpiteofexc tera.s t of a well appointed ' flaff> and qf 

" the, braveft nun, he was always obliged to retire. He may, 
" p. e conceited that he was betrayed by thefe fame 

*« ojffi it is well known, that Buonaparte, in an unguard- 

*' ed m iment, declared, that the Aujlrian army cojihim more 
«' than his own." Trams- 


were e;u*er that this nation fhould not give credit to an author 
Who was about to iay open the tenebrous ramifications of tins 
Wniverfal confpiracy •, others again were made to believe, that 
the Se<5> only aimed at reforming what they chofe to ftyle the 
errors of the Church of Rome. I here call my reader's atten- 
tion to an eventthat hasjult taken piace.and be may theo judge 
whctht-i rhe author/was correct when hefaid, that the total 
'overthrow of ChrifUanlty was the objecl of the Seel. In the 
Propagateur, 6 Brumaire, Tear 7 (or 15th Oftober 1798), we 
read, " The following is the diftribution of the edifices (of 
*' worlhip) <or the ufe of the citizens of Paris, as determined 
" by tli" central adminiftration of the Seine." Paris is divided 
into twelve Wards, in lieu cf parishes, each having the fallow- 
ing churches annexed to them, and which are in future to be 
called Temples : " Ift. Ward— The church of St. Philip du 
" Roule confer ated to Concord. II. The church of St. Roche 
" to Genius, ill. St. Fur) ache to Agriculture. IV. St. Germain 
♦' L'Aoxerrois to Gratitude. V. St. Lawrance to Old Age. 
,5 VI. St. Nicholas in the Fields to Hymen. VII. St. Merry t» 
" Commerce. VIII. St. Margaret to Equality WLiberty. 
*' IX. St. Gervais to 2'outh. X. St. Thomas of Acjuin as 10 

historical part. 297 

e>f the revolution the adepts had made no fecret of their ha- 
tred againft Rome and its pontiff. I was prefent when 
Gerrutti infolently accofted the Secretary of the Nuncio at 
Paris, faying with a I'neer^ " Take good care of your 
" Pope* take good càre of this one, and embalm him af- 
" ter his death ; for I tell you, and you may be certain of 
" the fact, that you will never have another." This pre- 
tender to prophecy little thought that he would be the 
firft of the two to appear before the tribunal of that God 
who had promifed that the gates of hell fhould never pre- 
vail againft his church. But the Knights-JïWa/l-^, who 
had fworn the death of Kings and of the chief Pontiffs, 
ftill furvived; as alfo that multitude of adepts who had 
long iince been fmoothing the way for the legions of im- 
piety. Long fince had Rome b^en the obje£r. of their 
conipiracies ; adepts of every fpecies flock thither; and, 
in fpite of every authority, the pupils of Caglioftro open 
their Mafonic Lodges in that capital. The Illuminées 
of Sweden, Avignon, and Lyons, there unite in the moft 
fecret and moft monftrous of Lodges, and form the moft 
terrible tribunal for Kings ; that, in fhort, which pointed 
out the Sovereign that was to fall, named the aûaflin, 
prepared the poilbns, or fharpened the dagger.* 

Many of Weifhaupt's adepts were alfo to be found in 
Rome who had been initiated by Zimmerman; and the 
reprefentative of a King féconds their efforts againft the 
altar. The Spanifh Monarch is tottering on the throne, 
at the very time when the public papers defcribe Dom 
Azara, his amballador at Rome, felicitating the Jaco^ 

" Peace. XI. St. Sulpice^ Viflory. XIT. St. James -du-hauN 
*' pas to Benevolence, St. Medard to Laoor,and St. Stephen on 
" the Mount to filial Piety." This needs no comment, when 
in the hands of a Chriftian reader. Trans. 

* Should the hiftorian of the anamination of Gufta-vus of 
Sweden not be a fufficient voucher for the exiftence of this tri- 
bunal (Seel. IV.) it is, however, an undoubted raft, that the SecT: 
had moft powerful advocates at Rome ; for the Nuncio at A- 
vignon, having ordered the Illuminée Pernetti and his adepts 
to leave the country in the fpace of one month, they procured 
from Rome a counter-order (real or forged) permitting them 
to flay. This bufinefs was followed up at Rome by the arreft- 
ationof an adept, which threw the adepts of Avignon into fears 
that were only removed by the revolution. 


bins on their coming to drive the Sovereign Pontiff from 
his capitai. Buonaparte may fend his Lieutenants ; their 
triumph will be eafy, for fhame alone could impede their 
progfefs ; but they have Rifled every feeling, and feoff at 
the very idea of the rights of nations, as well as at the 
overwhelming with affliction an aged paftor turned of 
fourfcorc. The upright man and companionate heart 
might fhed tears at fuch a fight; but the Jacobin, cal- 
lous to every feeling, will leap with joy, and thePentarques 
will compare their ignominious conqueft to the ftorm- 
fng o! ancient Rome by Brennus and his Gauls. Next 
in the feries we ihall turn our eyes to a conqueft long 
fmce announced in the Lodges of the Templars, Rofi- 
crucians an ; Knights Ksdofch, who had all fworn ven- 
ge ; ift M iita ; and the fatal day is now come. 

At Malta. Left indignation might caufe their fecrets to be difco- 
'.. fche crofs of .VLïltahad for a long time been a badge 
of exclujioto for thoie bold Knights fro7n the threshold of 
the Mafonic Lodges. New arts will be now employed 
to ren r courage ufeleft. The adepts have made 

ufe of the feme artifice againff. Malta which they had em- 
ployed againfl the church. So far, faid they, from break- 
ing off all connection with thefe Knights, let our adepts 
become members of the Order; through their means we 
fhall become maftefs of that Ifland that would proudly 
bid denance to our combined hoflile efforts both by fea 
and Laid. Letters from the virtuous and honorable part 
of that community had already prepared us for thecatas- 
»he that has fince befallen them ;• they had complained 
that falfe brethren, partie uiarly of the Spanifh and Italian 
tongues, hud gained admittance among them. In the per- 
fbfls of Dolomiev.y Bofredon^znà the cowardly Ho7npefcb. i 
may the Se£t be faid to have reigned. Buonaparte ap- 
pears ; and, as if the Se£l wifhed to (hew Europe how it 
can carry the moil aftonifhing works of nature and art 
by iieafon alone, it did not even give the confpirators a 
cloak for their treachery by the femblance of a fiege.-— 
The adepts of the exterior uarcrnize with thofeof the in- 
terior, and thus do we learn that the fecret arms of the Seel 
are more terrible than the fire of the embattled legions. 
Let the hero of Malta (et fail for Alexandria: There he 
find adepts that aw'ait his arrival: Then will the 
Subît ne Porte learn how to value thofe rich prefents fent 
by the revolutionary tribe, all itolen from the royal trea- 


fury of the crown ; it will underftand why fuch immenfe 
funs of money were fquandered in its, to buy the 
neu.rality of the Divan, and thus to enable the Se<5fc to 
wreft from its dominion its more diftant provinces : it will 
learn that the Apoftles of the Seel were, during its politi- 
cal lethargy, (pealing along the coaits of Africa, and pene- 
trating even into Afia. 

It was at Conftantinople particularly that the Se£t was At Cnr- 
to be careful in the choice of its adepts and propagandas, " ant,n "". 
and to adapt each perfon's million to his talents. To || je ^ a £>_ 
fpread the doctrines of Equality and Liberty throughout 
the ftates that had long fince been fubjeched to the do- 
minion of the Crefcent- it was neceflary to find men well 
acquainted with the language, manners, interefts, and the 
various mtercourfe of thofe different nations. In the per- 
fon of the author of the lableau de l'Empire Ottoman^ 
or M-mradgea d? Hibfon, a Greek by birth, formerly in- 
ternuncio, and ■fince ambafudor from Sweden to the Sub- 
lime Porte, the Seit found ail the requifites for fuch an 
undertaking. ^\t firft, he did not appear to be -fanguine 
in their caufe ; large fums of money, and penfions then 
at the dilpjfition of the Committee of P,ub}ic Safety, (as 
we are informed by our Memoirs) at length difpel any 
further mow of reluctance : Oil his return to Conftanti- 
nople, Mouradgea places hirnfelf at the head of the Jaco- 
bin miffionaries for the EafL He was greatly indebted 
for the acquirements that had thus pTepared him for this 
new revolutionary career to a Mr. RuJJin, who com- 
menced his career as a teacher of languages in Paris; was 
afterwards an alloc i a te with the Baron Tott in Crimea; 
then attached to the French embafly at ConftançinOple ; 
afterwards employed in the Admiralty at Verfeillesj and 
finally become Profeflbr of the Oriental Tongues at the 
College Royal. For a long time Mr. Fjtiiflin relill.-J eve- 
ry temptation to betray the Royal caufe; for he was in- 
debted to the king for his education, and for his elevation 
to be Knight of the Order of St. Michael. Similar in- 
ducements, however, make him fofgethis obligations to 
his king, and he becomes the co-adept of Mour 
Conftantinople. ^ejfeps a young man, and ■ few 

furvivors of La Peroyfe, was alfo animated by (èntirnei 
of gratitude for Lewis XVI.; but, feduce : twqi 

apoftles, he joins them, and, under the direction of this 
triumvirate, one part of the fubaltern agents did lin 

300 Antisocial conspiracy; 

their doctrines among the people of Conftantinople, while 
others fpread themfelves throughout Afia, travel into Per- 
fia, and to the Indies. Others again preach their rights 
of man in the Levant, while the united forces of the Seel 
make their defcent on the coaft of Egypt, and teach the 
Ottoman court the fatal effects of having neglected to 
crufh the firft dawnings of the Seel:. 

But a very few years prior to the French revolution, 
the Turks abominated Mafonry, as much as the inhabit- 
ants of the Eafl did the Manichaeans for many centuries. 
The Ottoman court would not have fuffered any French 
Religious to have remained at Jerufalem, had it not known 
that it was their confiant rule to refufe to admit any per- 
fon known to be a Free-mafon to vifit the holy places 
that were under their care. There was even an agree- 
ment between the Sublime Porte and the Court of France, 
by which the Superior of thefe Religious might and was 
obliged to difmifs from the Levant any French Conful 
that fhould dare to erect a Mafonic Lodge; and f have 
learned from a Religious who was on that miffion for 
{even years, that the Superior had fometimes exercifed 
this authority. But the revolution has annihilated fuch 
precautions, as well as many others. The Propagandas 
have crolTed the Mediterranean with their new-fangled 
doctrines ; they have found brethren in the French mer- 
chants, who, under pretence of meeting with friends in 
all countries, themfelves initiated in the myfleries, 
and hence they needed not Lodges to be recognized. 
in Africa; The fuccefles of the brotherhood in France inflamed 
the zeal of the brethren in Africa; and the very manner in 
which the Directory announced the progrefs of Buona- 
parte in Egypt fufficientiy denotes the arts that had been 
employed by the emiffaries of the Seel previous to his 
arrival. Should he not (like Pichegru) fall a victim 
to the jéaîoufy of the Pentarques, or (more lucky than 
Kruey>) efcapethe purfuits of a fécond Nelfon, he will on 
the coait of India meet with other brethren, who, in the 
Malabar tongue are circulating the Rights of Man., E- 
qual and Free, and thofe of the Sovereign an J Legijla- 
th-e People. The Englifh General who took Pondicherry 
feized both the types and preffes employed in dillemin-» 
ating the principles of the Seel: and their revolutionary 
produit ions. 

As the plague flies on the wings of the wind, fo da 


their triumphant legions infect America. Their apoflles 
have infufed their principles into the fubmiffive and labo- 
rious negroes j and St. Domingo and Guadaloupe have 
been converted into vaft charnel houfes for their inhabit- 
ants. So numerous were the brethren in North Ame- 
rica, that Philadelphia and Bofton trembled, left their r/-> 
fing conjlitution Jhould he obliged to make way for thai of 
the great club; and if for a time the brotherhood has 
been obliged to fhrinlc back into their hiding places; 
they are Itill lufficiently numerous to raife collections 
and tranfmit them to the infurgents of Ireland; thus con- 
tributing towards that fpecies of revolution which is the 
object of their ardent wifhes in America. - God grant 
that the United States may not learn to their coft, that 
Republics are equally menaced with Monarchies; and 
that the lmmenlity of the ocean is but a feeble barrier 
againft the univerfal confpiracy of the Sedl ! 

The triumphs of the brotherhood at Geneva, at Ve- 
nice, in Holland, and at Genoa, are demonftrative proofs 
that it is not at Monarchs alone that the adepts of the 
Seel arm their blows. Nations mull alfo learn, that, whe- 
ther Monarchies or Republics, they are all to be com- 
prehended within the revolutionary vortex; and that nei- 
ther fri^âdfhip, alliance, nor the molt paflive obedience, 
can makethe lavage confpirators relent. 

In vain did the Swifs Cantons in fome fort forget the inSwitzer» 
dignity of their ancellors ; they were filent under the hu- land; 
miliating treatment of their brethren at Aix, the butche- 
ry of their troops at Paris, and the violation of the moft 

* See Irifh Report, No. XiV,— At Qn*bec, July 7, 1797, a 
man of the name or David M'Lean was tried and condemned 
to fuffer on the 21ft of the fame month , being con vicled of hav- 
ing come into Canada, under the difguife of a merchant, with 
a view of railing the people againft the Government, and to 
deliver over the colony to the French. He had taken all the 
neceflkry fleps ; the oath of fecrecy, pikes, and other arms, 
were to be delivered to the people. The brethren at Montreal 
and Quebec were by the next fpring to prepare the way for an 
army of 10,000 mea that was to be brought over in a French 
fleet, and attack both thefe towns at the fame time. Mr. \- 
dct, the French minifter at Philadelphia, was implicated in it ; 
thus do the Pentarques convert their embafladors into the ring- 
leaders of the confpiring bands wherever they are received; 
this may be faid to be one of the marking features of Jacobin- 


facred treaties even on their own territories. They bor« 
with refignatiorj the infults perpetually offered to them by 
the Jacobin dictators, who would fometimes deign to 
mingle aiTurances of fraternity and prornifes of peace 
With their outrages. While the armies of the Se£t were 
ravaging the neighboring countries, it would lull the cre- 
dulous Swifs into a fatal fecurity by their cant of frater- 
nry and affection; but in the mean time the adepts were 
laboring in the mountains. Weifhaupt had made many 
converts in thofe parts; and a fwarm of Illuminées flock- 
ed thither from the Univerfity of Gottingen^ ail ready to 
profecute the views of the Sect. Fehr^ curate of Nidau, 
and after him Buggy correfponded with the brotherhood 
In Germany; and the moment was approaching when 
he was about to receive the price of his zeal by being 
elected chief of the revolutionized Canton of Argau.*-— T 
At Lucern Pffer, at Berne IVeifs^dX Bafle Ocbs, prefi- 
ped over the clubs of Equality and Liberty. By various 
artifices, the Jacobins had formed a party of ninety-two 
in the great council of Berne. The Pentarque Rewbel 
fent as auxiliaries from Paris, Maingaud, Mangourit, and 
Guyot; and in Switzerland (as in Holland and at May- 
ence) fecret correfpondencc and fecret iocieties were pre- 
paring the way for the armies of the Seel. Thus was the 
fate of Switzerland to be fimilar, and an equaWfiiare of 
glory to redound to the victors. f 
in Sweden; Yet there are monarchies ftill in exiftence, notwith- 
flanding all the efforts of the Sect. True ; but, if we 
except Denmark, whofe neutrality appears to be of too 
great fer vice to the Sect, for it to think of deftroying that 
kingdom at prefent, what other country is there in Eu- 
rope that has not been expofed to the machinations of the 
Sect? Guftavus III. fell beneath the blows of an An- 
karftroem ; but this affafKn had come from the great Pa- 
rifian club. Thofe very perfons who wifh to ilulate this 
murder tell us, that adepts had declared, that they knevj 
cj the projected murder of Guftavus beforehand, and that 
all Europe knew of it. Who are thefe men that were fo 
well informed throughout Europe, if not thofe adepts to 
whom the Se<5t has made known their determinations 
againft a Prince whole activity could give them little 

* Private Notes on Switzerland. 

t See the Hiftory of this Revolution by Mallet du Pan. 

Historical part. 303 

Ibopas of retrograde movements when he was about to 
fight the enemies of monarchy ? When thofe fame wri- 
ters caff, fufpicions on the Duke of Sudermania, they 
ground their attack on his being Grand Majier of the 
Swedijk Lodges^ as Orleans was in France. They fur- 
ther fubiiantiate their charge on the multitude of iilumini- 
Zcd Mafons that are fpread all over Sweden-, and on the 
horror of their myfteries. Is not that telling us, that 
Ankarftroem was but a mere inftrument of the S?ct, 
which, in recompence for his regicide, erected ftatues to 
him in the Club of the Jacobins? I will hereafter fhow 
that the adepts had previous knowledge of this foul deed, 
and that it had even been clearly expreiled in the public 
papers. But at preterit let us turn our eyes toward Ruiîïa, 

On the deathof Lewis X vT, the Emprefs of Ruffiaor- In RufSaj 
dered that ail the French within her dominions fhould take 
the oath of fidelity to the lawful heir of the Bourbons, 
and renounce all connection with France until monarchy 
was reftoredj but this was a fruidefs precaution. The 
Seat had many adepts in Ruffia, whom it had taught to 
feoff at oaths;* and they only took the oath of fidelity to 
the monarchy, that they might the more eafily annihilate 
the Ruffian diadem. The confpirators were headed by 
Genet, heretofore the agent for the cabinet of Verfailies, 
but now become the agent of the Jacobins. The zeal 
With which he ferved Ins new maiters had already filled 
Peterfburg with clubs compofed of that fpecies of men 
who, having no homes in their own country, travel to fo- 
reign parts in hopes of gaining a livelihood. Hair-drefs- 
ers, Cooks, Valets, Bankrupts, Teachers of the French 
Tongue, and Street-porters from Paris, all v/ere com- 
bining together to prepare a pike revolution. The moft 
artful and moft violent of the confpirators daringly held 
meetings in the Hotel of Sir Charles Whitworth, the 
Kngliih Ambaflador at Peterfburg, They met there once 

* Knigge's apoftles in Coitrland and Livonia had. douhtlefs, 
extended their million ; and a Kuilun gentleman informed itk, 
that one of the great adepts prefided over an academy at Mos- 
cow where the young Nobility were educate'.'. Every ihing 
feemed to denote an excellent fchool, when by degrees it was 
ohferved, that the illuminized Rights of Man was the ground- 
work of the fecret leffons of this great teacher. They were 
obliged todifmifs him, as the only means of reitoring his pupils 
to the true principles of religion and fociety. 


a month by means of three French fervants, who had been 
recommended to Sir Charles by foine of the party as moft 
excellent characters. Public fame, and foon after the Am- 
baflador, informed the Police of this meeting. On mak- 
ing enquiries after the adepts, and on feizing their papers 
that had been carefully hidden, it was diicovered, that 
their plot had been contrived according to the general 
plan and views of the Se£t. At Rome, the brotherhood, 
had made ufe of an Ambaffador of the King of Spain; in 
Ruffia, it is the Secretary of EmbafTy and Chargé d' Af- 
f aires from the Court of Sardinia, a Mr. BoJJi, who is im- 
plicated in their foul projects. The adepts were banifhed, 
according to the laws of Ruffia. The diplomatic charac- 
ter of Mr. Boffi faved him for fome time from a fimilar 
difgrace; but no fooner was the Czar Paul feated on the 
throne, than he received orders to quit Peterfburg in twen- 
ty-four hours, and the territories of his Imperial Majefty 
with all poihole fpeed.* 
în Poland. I ihall not dwell long on the labors of the Seel: in Po- 
land. Among the number of its Apoftles, I might name 
iionneauy who was fent to Siberia; Duveyrier, who wrote 
the Procès Verbaux at Paris for La Fayette, and who was 
difcovered at Copenhagen on a fuppofed million for buy- 
ing corn, while his real obje£f. was to vifit the brethren of 
Poland and Ruffia, to ftimulate them; and our Memoirs 
inform us, that on the road he was to make an attempt on 
the life of the Count Artois, juft as the German adepts 
have fince done on that of Lewis X VIlI. Duveyrier was 
accompanied by one Lamarre, and that Cajiella fince ar- 
refted in company with Setnonville when proceeding to 
Conftantinople with the plunder of the French crown, in 
hopes of bribing the minifters of that country. But to 
give my reader an idea of the multitude of miffionaries 
employed by the Se£t in Poland, it will fuffice to advert 
to CamborCs report, where he owns that it has already coft 
France Jixty millions of livres to fupport the brethren at 
Warfaw. This avowal fhows how the Seâ employs the 
public revenues, little caring whether the creditors of the 
interior are paid, and fending its vilible legions to live on 
contributions levied on the exterior, while it largely pays 
that crowd of invifible adepts and fecret emiilaries who 
prepare the way for its triumphs. 

* Extrad from a Memorial on Ruflia> 


This alfo demonftrates what great ftrefs the leaders of 
the Seel laid on the projected revolution in Poland; and, 
indeed, had they fucceeded in revolutionizing that coun- 
try, the Jacobins might have made a ftrong diveiTion on 
the very territories of the moft formidable powers that had 
entered into the coalition. Equality and Liberty would 
have infufed itfelf throughout Ruflia with much greater 
facility. The Pruflian and Auftrian brethren began to 
{how themfelyes more openly. Their hopes already feem- 
ed to be crowned with fuccefs; Kolkiufko had excited to 
revolt Warfaw, Wilna, and Lublin. The bifhop of this 
latter place, with many other gentlemen, had been hang- 
ed; in vain had the unfortunate Poniatowfki endeavored 
to allay the ferocity of the revolution; Poland was advan- 
cing rapidly towards its end, and it finiihed by lofmg both 
its king and its independence. My object is not even to 
hint an opinion on the conduct of the powers who have 
divided that country among themfelves, but to point out 
the univerfal confpiracy of the Sect. Germany, which 
gave birth to the moft profound adepts of the Seel, has 
already feverely felt the effeiis of its treachery, but has 
not yet met the fate which the Sect is preparing for it. 

Jofeph II. lived long enough to deplore his miferable ïnAufhi», 
policy. He was lamenting his philofophifm, and that de- 
teftabiVpolicy that had induced him to trouble the inha- 
bitants of the Low Countries in the enjoyment of their 
religion, thus breaking the moft folemn treaties and driv- 
ing to defpair fubjects who deferved a better fate, when 
the manifefto of the Grand Orient came to teach him, that 
his policy had been juft as erroneous in protecting the 
Mafonic Lodges. If credit is to be given to Kleiner's Re- 
pott, or at leaft to the extract from it given nie by a no- 
bleman of undoubted veracity, it was in of 
this manifefto that Jofeph II. gave orders to Kleiner to 
get himfelf initiated into the illuminized Lodges, and by 
this means acquired certain knowledge of the Occult 
Myfteries of the Sect. He then learnt, that the Swediili 
adepts had precifely the fame object in view as the off- 
fpring of the modern Spartacus; and the Mafonic Lod- 
ges were the cloaks for both of them. I have learned from 
a perlbn who was frequently in company with the Empe- 
ror, that nothing could equal his vexation, when he law 
that he had been fo ftrangely impofed upon by men whorrv 
he had favored, or when he difcovered that, fo far from 


having himfelf named perfons to the different charges of 
the ft 'ate, he had only adopted the choices made by the Seel, 
He then openly declared, that the Free-mafons were no- 
thing more than a fet of fharpers and jugglers; he went 
i'o far as to attribute all the thefts that had been committed 
on the treafury of the ftate to the Occult Mafons ; he de- 
termined to exclude them from every employment civil 
and military; he was indignant at feeing an imperium in 
imperio rifing in the ftate. He would have followed up his 
indignation too, had he not learnt that many of his moft 
faithful fubjects, and fome even for whom he had the great- 
eft regard, fuch as the Prince Lichtenjtein, were Mafons. 
The greater part of thefe, however, renounced Malbnry. 
Jofeph had undertaken to deftrov the Lodges and repair 
the errors of his philofophifm, when a premature death 
put a period to his reign. 

Leopold his fuccefior, wifbing to be informed of the 
nature and progtefs of the St£t in his new territories, ap- 
plied to Profeflor Hoffman. No man was better able than 
he was to give the defired information, for he had been 
tampered with by the Seel, who, writing to him in the 
moft high-flown phrafes, endeavored to feduce him over 
to the caufe of the revolution; but, on the other fide, 
lèverai Mafons, a/hamed of having fallen a prey to thefe- 
du£lion of the Illuminées, had difcovered mo/i important 
fecrets to him, and joined with him in baffling the views 
of the Seel:. He had learned from them, u that Mirabeau 
<c himfelf had declared to his confidants, that he carried 
« on a moft extenfivc correfpondence with Germany, but 
ïC in no part fo extenfwe as at Vienna, He knew that the 
" revolutionary fyftem was to be extended throughout the 
" univerfe; that France had only been chofen as the fcene 
" of a firft explofion; that the propagandas were bulled 
" in difieminating their principles throughout every clim- 
tc ate; that emiflaries were ciifperfed through the four 
" quarters of the globe, and particularly in the capitals; 
" that they had their adherents, and were particularly ac- 
" tive in ftrengthenine; their paity at Vienna and in the 
" Aiiflri an dominions. — In 1 79 1 he had read, as lèverai 
u other perfons alio did, two letters, the one from Paris, 
" the other from StvzC'oourg,defcriling in cypher the names 
" °f f even commiffaries of the Propaganda then refdent 
" at Vienna, and to whom the new commiffaries were to 
" apply, as well for the wages of their labor s, as jor in- 


*Jiruclions how to proceed.— *He had alfo feen feveral of 
!" thofe manufeript news-papers that were fent weekly 
*' from Vienna, replete with the moft abominable anec- 
*' dotes againft the court, and with arguments and prin- 
" ciples impugning the government. — Thefe papers were 
" to contribute toward the diffemination ofjacobinifm 
u throughout the towns and villages of the empire,and even 
" in foreign countries, as they were fent poft free, and with- 
" out even the fubfcription being afked for. He had even 
" tranfmitted fome of thefe letters to government. He had 
u difcovered the objecl of the frequent journeys of the U- 
c< luminee Campe to Paris, and his correfpondence with 
u Mirabeau and Orleans. He had acquired certain know- 
" ledge of the plans of the German Mirabeau," that is to 
fay, of Mauvillon, who had been Mirabeau's Infinuator, 
and the fame perfon who had written thus to the Illumi- 
née Cuhn [the letter is preferved in the archives at Bruns- 
wick:] a The affairs of the revolution go on better and 
a better in France; I hope that in a few years this fame 
" will be lit up every ivj/ere, and that the conflagration 
" will become univerfal, • Then our Order may do 
" great things."* Mr. Hoffman alfo knew that this very 
Mauvillon u had drawn up a very explicit plan for the 
" revolutionizing of all Germany; that this plan had been 
" tranfmitted to the greater part of the Mufonic Lodges, 
" and to the clubs of the Illuminées; and that it was cir- 
" culated among the Propagandists and emiffaries, who 
" were aJready employed in exciting to revolt the people 
" on the out-pofts and frontiers of Germany. "f "While 
this zealous citizen was thus unfolding to Leopold the 
intrigues of the Sect, he conefponded with the Great 
Zimmerman of Bern, who was ever revered by the 
learned, beloved by all good citizens, and only hated by 
the illuminizing Jacobins, becaufc he no foonèr became 
acquainted with their myfteries than he warned the Soci- 
ety of their dangerous tendency. This learned man was 
alfo employed in compofing a memorial for the ufe of the 
emperor, on the means of curbing the proçrefs of the re- 
volution ;£ but the Jacobins were aware or the hatred that 
Leopold had conceived tor them. They knew that tne 

* June 179L 

f Important notice by Hoffman, Vol. I. Seâ. tq. 

X Hoffman's Letter in the liudemonia, Vol. VI. No. t. 


chief inftigator of the treaty of Pilnitz was as much to be 
feared as Guftavus; and they were determined to jhoix) 
that even an Emperor Jhould net oppofe their plots with 

Juil at the time when the two fovereigns were mak- 
ing their preparations, the King of Pruffia had recalled 
from Vienna his ambafiador, the Baron Jacobi Kloefl, who, 
as the Sc6t fuppofed, was favorable to their caufe. — The 
Count Haugwits, who was more decidedly a friend to the 
meafure of the treaty, was fent in his ftead. The journal- 
ifts of Strasbourg announced this news with the follow- 
ing comment: u Hence politicians pretend, that the uni- 
c; on between the two courts will be confolidated. They 
" are certainly in the right to make the French believe foj 
" but in defpotic countries, in thofe countries where the 
11 fate of J ever al millions cf men hangs on a bit of pajle, 
" or on the rupture of a Utile vein, one can calculate on 
" nothing. Let us fuppofe that the court cf Pruflia is a£t- 
<c ing honeftlv in concert with the court of Auftria (which 
K is difficult to be believed), 04 that the court of Auftria 
" is a&ing fo with that of Pruflia (which is ftill more in- 
tc credible), afingle indigefiion, or a drop of blood forced 
"from its proper veffels, will be fujfeient to diffolve this 

" brilliant union." This comment in the Courier of 

Strafoourg, No. 53, was dated from Vienna, the 2.6th of 
February, 1792. Leopold died (poiibned) on the ifl of 
March following, and Guftavus was afiaifinated in the 
night between the 15'Jî and 16th of the fame month. f 

The firft precaution taken by his young fucceflbr was 
to difmifs all the Italian cooks, that he might not be ex- 
pofed to the fame fate as his father, and fall a victim to 
what is called the Naples broth. More zealous in the caufe, 
Francis II. not only oppofed the Sect by force of arms, 
but, in order to attack illuminifm in its dark recedes, he 
applied to the diet of Ratifbon in 1794, for a decree to 
fupprefs all fecret lbcietics, whether Malons, Roficrucians, 
or Illuminées, of every fort. They had powerful fupport- 
ers in this firft council of the Empire, and they intrigued 
againft the proportion of the Emperor. They pretended 
that thefe bodies of Illuminées were nothing more than 
little aflbciations of fchool-bqys, that were very common 

* Important notice by Hoffman. 

f Travels of two Frenchmen >« the North, Vol. V. ch. 1». 


in the Proteftant uni vera" ties. — Through the organs of 
the Pruliian, Hanoverian, and Brunfwick miniftets it was 
objected, that the Emperor was at liberty to forbid thefe 
different Jodges within his own ftates; but that, with re- 
fpedt to all others, they could not attempt to curtail the 
Germanic liberty. All that the Emperor could obtain was 
a decree for the abolition of thofe alTociations of lchool- 
boys. This decree not only left the great adepts in full 
polleflion of their lodges, but was alfo unattended to in 
moft of the colleges, wnere Illuminifm continued to make 
the moft awful progrefs,* 

* So late as February laft (1798} the magiftrates of Jena, 
were obliged to puniih about a dozen fcholars, who, fotmed 
into an afîbciation calling themfelves dmicifls, were under the 
direction of the adepts. To prepare thefe youths for the mys- 
teries of Illuminifm, their fecret fuperiors reprefented the oath 
appropriated to this alTociation as the moft facred engagement 
that could be taken and the lead: violation of it as being imme- 
diately followed by the moft terrible punifhments. — They were 
then questioned, whether they were fufficienily enlightened to 
believe that they could, without fcruple, break the oath which 
they had fworn to the Superior of the college, never to engage 
in any fecret fociety; — whether they believed themfelves fufh- 
ciently virtuous to accufe themfelves alone, and no other per- 
fon, in cafe the magistrates mould puniih them for a breach of 
that oath ; — whether they thought themfelves Sufficiently cou- 
rageous to continue in the alTociation, though they ihould be 
compelled to abjure it. — The Illuminée who had queftioned 
them, if latisfied with their anSwers, gave them the Code of the 
jimicifls, and therein they learned that they and their affbei- 
ates formed a Jiate within the fate ; that they had I anus of their 
man according to which they judged of affairs that nuere beyond 
their fphere ; and this required the molt profound fecrecy; that 
Should lèverai of them hereafter meet in the urns town, they 
Should eftablifh a lodge, and do all that lay in their power to 
propagate the fociety ; that if they were perchance to change 
their place of habitation (which fhouid be only done in fome 
extraordinary cafe), they ihould then correfpond with their 
own lodge, while the iecretary was to hold correfpondence 
with the other lodges, making his return of the name, quality, 
and country of every new candidate ; that they would obey 
the fuperiors of the Order, fuccor their brethren, and procure 
advancement for them ; in fhort , they were to be ready to fact i- 
fice their lives a-nl fortunes for the Order. 

Several of thefe young Anrcijls, which of all the different 
affociations was fuppofed to be the moft innocenr, rerufed to 
give the lift of the brethren, left they might be inculpated. — 
They- however, declared that the Order comprehended manv 
men of quality and cf high honor , magiflrtfes and perfons in of 


While the young Emperor was thus endeavoring to 
counteract the plots of the Seel, it was confpiring in the 
very heart of the Auftrian fiâtes to overturn the govern- 
ment. By the death of the Chevalier de Bom the Sec~l 
had loft at Vienna one of its chief adepts; this gentle- 
man was powerfully rich, yet at his death nothing but im- 
menfe debts appeared, in confequence of the fums he had 
fpent on the propagandifts. Two other adepts, as zeal- 
ous at the leaft, and far more enterprizing, had fucceed- 
cd him, Hebenstkeit the Lieuteuant déplace at Vi- 

Jtce. (Seethe Minutes of the Judgment t br the Staats un gelehrte 
zeitung of Hamburgh, No. 45, 13th of March. 

Suppofing that the reader may wifh to know in what Rate 
young men came from thefe Lodges and Colleges, I will here 
quote an an example from the notes I have received from Ger- 
many. ''At the time I am writing this (July 13th 1794) at 
" the Baths, four leagues from Hanover, there refides here a 
" young man who arrived a few clays fince from the univerfity 
" of Jena, where he was educated. It is the reigning Count 
*' Plattenberg, one of the richeft noblemen of Germany, aged 
** 24, of Catholic parents, and a nephew of Prince Kaunitz, 
* the niinifter. In confequence of the principles imbibed by 
" this young Count at the univerfity of Jena, he drefles in the 
" complete ftyle of a democrat, and affects the uncouthnefs of 
*' their manners. He would have his fervant fit next to him 
*' at the table d'hote but it was not permitted. This young 
• " Egalité goes about fmging the Ca ira and Marfilleis Hymn % 

** with other youths whom he gathers together. Don't let 
*' this be taken in the light of an anecdote only relating to a 
" thought lefs individual. His is the reigning folly of Jlu- 
" dents in all the uviverjities of Germany ; and this folly is the 
" produce of thofs doctrines taught by the prcfejjbrs , while go- 
" vemments pay no attention to them.'' 

The fame notes (and they are written by a Proteftant) re- 
prefeot the univerfity cf Halle in Saxony, where the greater 
pan of the King of PrufKa's fubjecls go to finim their educa- 
tions, as in a ftate flrnilar to that of Jena. In April 1794 the 
chiefs of the commiffion of religion of Berlin, M. M. Hermes 
and Hilmer, went, bv order of the King ofPrufSa, to vifit the 
Lutheran college at Halle, and theydiiapproved of many things 
that were going on. The ftudents received them with the cry 
of Per ear; t (let them periJh), and obliged them to feek their 
f;-fety in flight. 1 heir miniilers of religion are expofed to fimi- 
lar infults. Dogs are fet at them when preaching, and indecen- 
cies take place in the churches that would not be fuffered in 
the (treejts. " The Illuminées themfelves publijlj thefe abomina~ 
" tions, that their pupils the Amicifls may be induced to aft 
" in a fimtlar manner/' Such is the education of youth where 
the Seâ predominates. 


entra, was one; and the other was Mehalovich, an ex- 
capuchin of Croatia, whom Jofeph II. had imprudently 
taken from the cloifters, and had given him a living ia 
Hungary, in recompence for the difpofitions he had fhovvn 
to fécond the Emperor in his pretended reforms in the 
church. A number of other adepts had joined thefe two 
confpirators, among whom we may diftinguim the Cap- 
tain Billeck, mathematical profeflbr at the Academy of 
Neuftadt, the Lieutenant Riedel> the profeflbr of philo- 
fophy Branjîàter, the ftupid, but rich merchant, Hackei, 
and finally Woljlcin^ one of thofe adepts whom the Seéfc 
had contrived to fend on a revolutionary million through- 
out Europe at the Emperor's expenfe, under pretence of 
acquiring knowledge in the veterinary art, of which he 
has fince been created profeflbr. 

The reader may judge of the number and importance 
of the confpirators by the plan that was agreed upon ia 
1795. Thro' their influence at court, they found mean;; 
of forming a garrifon in Vienna of fubftantial and honed: 
citizens little accuftomed to bear arms. They had felecl- 
ed them from this clafs, and had got an order to compel 
them into this fort of duty, under pretence of the immi- 
nent danger of the State. Always pretending that they 
had the orders of the Emperor, they treated, thefe new- 
raifed corps with unheard of feverity, in hopes of indis- 
pofing them againft the court by the time that their re- 
volutionary plots {hould be ready for execution. The po- 
pulace was in their hands, and daily became more attach- 
ed to their caufe, in confequence of their being excluded 
from the new-raifed corps, and by making them partake 
of the large fums diftributed among a banditti who were 
to be put in pofleflion of the arfenal on the day of infur- 
redtion. On that day the infurredtion was to be general, 
during which Hebenjtreit, followed by a banditti, was to 
fecure the perfon of the Emperor; other detachments of 
the banditti were to take pofleffion of the arfenal, and poft 
themielves.on the ramparts. The perfon of the Emperor 
being in their bands, the confpirators were to oblige him 
to fign the Code of the Rights cf Man; that is to fay, 
certain edicls ready prepared, by which the rights of all 
nobility and great proprietors were to be annulled; all 
were to be declared equal and free; and the fovereignty 
of the people proclaimed, Thefe edicts were to be feut 
into the Provinces in the name of the Emperor, jull as if 


he had enjoyed his liberty. Every outward appearance of 
lefpecT: for his perfon was to be preferved; in fhort, he' 
was to have been treated juft as the gaoler La Fayette had 
treated the unfortunate Lewis XVI. It is not known, 
whether the Aqua Topbana was to be adminiftered in fuch 
a dofe as to kill y or to Jlupif y \ it even appears, that the 
young prince was to be kept as a hoftage; but in all cas- 
es, he was only to be reftored to his freedom after the peo- 
ple had been well accuftomed to the new reign of Equa- 
lity and Liberty, and had acquired poflèflion of the eftates 
of the Nobility in fuch a manner that all restitution of pro- 
perty, or revival of the ancient conftitution, would be ren- 
dered impoffible. All the preparatory fteps had been tak- 
en ; the Catechifms of the Rights of Man, and the moll 
incendiary performances, had been profufely difperfed in 
the villages and cottages. Female adepts in the ftyle of 
the adepts Necker and Stael made their appearance. The 
Countefs of Aiarchowich dittinguifhed herfelf by the zeal 
fhe fhowed in distributing the new Catechifin. The fa- 
tal day was drawing near, when a mod fingular circum- 
ilance led to the difcovery of the whole plot. 

While the ex-capuchin Mehalovich was out one day, 
a domestic playing with one of his fellow-fervants, took 
into his head to put on the capuchin habit which his mas- 
ter had preferved among his cloaths, when all on a fud- 
den Mehalovich knocked at the houfe-door. The fer- 
Vant, who did not understand the nature of the habit, 
could not get it off again, fo fent his comrade to open the 
door, and hid himfelf under the bed. Mehalovich came 
in with Hebenfreitzna Hachcl\ they thought themfelves 
fecure; the lervant overheard their whole converfation ; 
it related entirely to the confpiracy that was to break out 
in three days. Hebenitreit renewed the confpirator's oath, 
on his fword. Mehalovich took five hundred thoufand flo- 
rins, which were hidden in a harpfichord, and gave them 
to him for the execution of the plan; and no fooner did 
they leave the room, than the fervant got from under the 
bed, and difcovered the whole plot to the Ministers of the 

The councils were immediately called in confequence 
of fo important a difcovery, and the chief confpirators were 
arrefted on the day preceding the intended explofion. — 
Hebenftreit was hanged at Vienna ; Mehalovich, with fe- 
ven Hungarian gentlemen, his accomplices were behead- 


ed at Prefburg; and many others were condemned to ex- 
ile, or to perpetual imprisonment. 

The King of Pruflia had fimilar confpiracies to guard InPnifia. 
againft at Berlin. The papers of Z.*w//*r-Leuchfering, 
which had been feized, had already warned William III, 
of the confpiracy that was brewing in the Lodges; but 
in the mouth of November, 1792, a new plot was con- 
triving. The fignal agreed upon for the general infurrec? 
tion was, the fetting fire to two houfes in different quar- 
ters of the town. On the day appointed the two houfes 
were really fet on fire. The brethren expected that the 
troops in garrifon would be immediately fent, as was cus- 
tomary, to extinguifh the flames and keep order. While 
abfent from their pofts the rebels were to feize on them, 
and let their banditti loofe. Happily the Governor Ge- 
neral MollendorfF had been informed of the plot. He 
commanded the troops to remain at their pofts; thecon- 
fpirators, finding their plans had been difcovered, did not 
dare to fhow themfelves. The incendiaries were arretted, 
the plot failed, and William III. preferved his Crown. 

Having acquired certain knowledge of the views of the 
confpirators, and of their connection with the French Ja? 
cobins, this Prince, as every reader would fuppofe, ought 
to have (hewn more conftancy in the caufe of Royalty 
againft Jacobinifm. Court jealoufies, and differing inte- 
rests, that perpetually keep the cabinets of V ienna and 
Berlin at variance, may have led him to agree to a paci- 
fication with the fworn enemies of every power; but, on the 
other hand, it isdifficult toaccountfor the great fway which 
thofe very men muft have had in his decifions, whofe dis- 
organizing principles he fo much detefted. The reader 
has feen the adepts of the modern Spartacus concealing 
themfelves in the Lodges of Mafonry; he has obferved 
PAZ/a-Knigge promifing difcoveries that would give the 
Sect fovereign fway over credulous minds. L T nfortunate- 
ly for Frederic William III. he had become a member of 
one of thofe Lodges which the Illuminées, under the cloak 
of Roficrucians, had converted into one of their theatres 
of impofture; and the following is an account given me 
by a learned Proteftant Minifter, who had had frequent 
conversations with his Pruflian Majefty on the fubje£t of 
Freemafonry. He informs me, that to divert: his Majefty 
of any refpecl he might have for the Scripture, thefe Ro- 
ficrucians fucceeded in making him believe that the Bible 
R r 


and Gofpel of the Chriftians were deficient; that a far 
fuperior doctrine was to be found in the facred books of 
Enoch and oj Seth^ fuppofed to be loft, but which they 
pretended to have exclusively in their pofteffion. Had it 
been poflibie to undeceive the king, the demonftrations 
adduced by our learned correspondent mull: have donefo, 
imce he invited his Majefty to read thofe pretended books 
of Enoch and Setb, or thofe apocryphal rhapfodies which 
thefe irnpoftors ottered to him as fo precious, fo fecret, and 
fo rare, but which had long fince been printed in Fabri- 
cius's Cdleèïion. His Majefty feemed to be convinced of 
the impofture of thefe empirical myftifiers; but curiofity 
is weak, and the Roficrucians regain their afcendency un- 
der the pretence of apparitions. So notorious was the cre- 
dulity of the Pi uflian Monarch on this fcore, that in 1792, 
at the fair of Leipfic, were fold waiftcoats called the Ber- 
lin fefus waijucats (Berlinifche y ejus wejlen) y m me- 
mory of the brethren having on a fudden announced the 
apparition of Chrift; and the King afking how he was 
di died, they anfwered, in a fsarlct waijicoat, with black 
facivgs, and golden trejfes. If I am to credit what I have 
learnt through the fame channel, William III. deferved to 
be impoied upon in fo humiliating a manner; for the great 
influence thefe impoftors had acquired over his mind, not 
only proceeding from their magic arts, but from their flat- 
tering his pallions and propenlity for the fair fex. They 
carried their impudence fo far, as to tell him, that Chrift 
had granted him pennijflon to have twelve wives at once. 
The moft famous ot his miftreffes was a Madame de 
Reiz, afterwards created Countefs of Lichtenau. Had 
the matters that appeared on her trial been made public, 
fpme light might have been thrown on her fuppoied un- 
Geritanding with the French Jacobins, from whom fhe is^ 
faid to have received rich preJents, and with Bifchofstver- 
• tler, who is now occupied, as we are told, in very differ- 
ent projects. We might then have learned how to recon- 
cile that real hatred which William had conceived for the 
Jacobins, and die peribnal courage he has fhown in com- 
bating them, with the peace he made precifely at the time 
when his armies could moft efficacioufly have co-operat- 
ed for their deftructlon. But his fucctiTor has thought pro- 
per to commit to the flames the minutes of this trial, fay- 
ing, that he would not read them, left perfons, who might 
Jiill be ujejul to him, ihould be implicated in thefe in- 


frîgues. Some princes might have thought it prudent to 
read them, that they might learn who were the perfons 
that could trill do them much mifchief. Without pretend-. 
ing to comment on the deftroying of this monument of 
hiftory, we are happy to fay that William IV. has inhe- 
rited from his predeceflbr all his hatred for the Sect, with- 
out any of his weakness. The Freemafons of Eerlin 
went fo far as to afk to have their Lodges confirmed by 
letters patent ; but the King difmifTed them, faying, that 
in fhowing fuch a marked favor to them, he would be 
wanting in his duty to his other fubjects, and that they 
would find protection as long as they did not trouble the 
public peace. The Mafons, we maybe fure, in return, 

proinifed to be moft faithful fubjecls to his Majefty 

They made iimilar promifes during the reign of the late 
king ; yet I have feen very honeft'Mafons in London who 
were much alarmed at the language they heard in the 
Pruffian Lodges, and that but a fhort time before the 
death of William III. By their account the language of 
the Mafons was as frantic to the full as that of the Paris 
Jacobins : " When mail we be delivered from the tyrant ? 
* c When (hall we follow the example of our brethren at 
C£ Paris ? Is it not high time for us to (how ourfelves wor- 
" thy of Equality, and Liberty, and true Mafons ?" Such 
expreifions, with many others far more offenfive to the 
dignity and perfon of the king, were not in the mouths of 
fo ne i'ew brethren only; but whole Lodges were feized 
with the phrenzy, which raged moft violently among the 
adepts who were connected with the French. Nor is it a 
trivial circumftance, or to be overlooked, that has ta- 
ken place in the Lodge of Berlin calling itfelf The Roy- 
al Tork. — -Public fame has informed the world, that this 
Lodge has eftabiifhed within itfelf a Dircclory, a Se- 
nate of Ancients, and a Senate oj Younger s, modelled on 
the aclual Government of France. How far this revolu- 
tion in the Lodge is to contribute towards, or denote the 
impatience with which the members third: alter the uni- 
verfal revolution which the Pentarques are endeavoring to 
operate, I (hall not pretend to ascertain; but this much I 
can pofitively aflert, that the auxiliaries of the Paris bro- 
therhood are not confined to the Lodges. They have their 
brethren, fent from Paris, in the Prulîian armies. On the 
one hand, thefe foldiers are paid by his Pruflian Majefty 
to maintain his throne; on the other, they arc paid by the 

316 antisocial conspiracy; 

Pentarques to corrupt the Pruffian regiments, and teach 
them to revolt againft the throne. The generofity of the 
Jacobins is fo great, that the wives of thefe difguifed apos- 
tles are penfioned in Fiance. Every one knows, that the 
arch-confpirator Syeyes is gone to Berlin in a diplomatic 
character. Should his mifliun be ever accomplifhed, thtn 
will the hiftorian have to exphin conquefts fimilar to thofe 
of Italy. Germany would certainly have long fince fallen 
a prey to Illuminifm had the plots formed met with fuc- 

Tired of fuch partial treafons, that only threw a fingle 
town or a province into the hands of the enemy, the ie- 
nate of the adepts, at that time holding its lutings at Vi- 
enna, had, as early as 1793, either digcfted a plan them* 
felves, or received one, in thirty articles, that was to re- 
volutionize the whole empire at the fame inftant. — Let- 
ters, poft-paid as far as iEgra, were already difpatch^d for 
Gotha, Weimar, Drtfd n, and a hundred fuch towns, 
fixing the day of general infurrecTion for the firft of No- 
vember, inviting brethren and citizens to arm on that 
great day, though it tvere only with knives; to affbmble 
in the fquares of the towns, or in the fields without; to 
form into centuries, and to elect chiefs; to feize en the 
public revenue, on the arfenals, on the powder magazines, 
and 07i the members of government. In compliance with 
the fame plan, a National Jffembly zuas to rear its bead 
in fame tozvn of the empire on the fame day, and the breth- 
ren in infurrection were to fend their deputies to it. Thefe? 
letters were fent during; the month of October; and hap- 
pily for theftate, a fufficient quantity of them were feiz- 
ed to counteract the effects of the confpiracy. The Sect 
confoled itfelf in the idea that ten years would not elapfe, 
as iVfauvillon had declared, before all Germany would be 
revolutionized. The adepts, indeedj are fo very nume- 
rous, that it is alrhoft incredible that the revolution has not 
already taken place; and the only way of accounting for 
it, is by confidering the inert difpoluion or the people, 
who cannot be eafily thrown into that ftrong effervefcence 
neceffary for an explofion. 

The letters from that country complain bitterly of the 
progrefs of Illuminifm. To give my reader the means of 
judging how it comes to pals, that princes, who are the 
beft acquainted with the views of the Sect, continue to 
tolerate them, I will tranfcribe the following pafiàges from 


the memorials which I have received from Germany, and 
which have been confirmed by feveral well-inform jd per- 
fons: " One of the Sovereigns of Germany, who has the 
" moft wit, the Duke of Brunfwick, has iufTered, under 
" the aufpices of Campe, Mauvillon, and 'Irapp, three 
<* famous Illuminées, both his capital and his ftates to be- 

u come the public fchool of irreligion and Jacobinifm - 

" This might lead us to believe, that the prince was him* 
*' felf tainted with thofe principles, but it would be ca- 
" lumny to fuppofe it, for he only tolerates theft rafcals 
« that he may not fall a victim to their plots. Suppofing I 
" was to fend them aivay, faid he, they would only go elfe- 
" where and calumniate me. A league ought to be enter- 
" ed into by the German prinas, to fuffer them in no pai t 
*' of the empire." 

Meanwhile, till fuch a league is agreed upon, there are 
other governments, in that country, that permit the larfc 
myfteries of Uluminifm to be taught publicly. " At Jena, 
tt in Saxony, for example, a profelTor is permitted to teach 
" publicly, that governments are contrary to the laws of 
" reafon and of humanity j and, confequently, that, in 
" twenty, fifty, or a hundred years time, not a govern- 
« ment will exinV'* 

To go ftill fartherj hw of the German princes will 
permit writers to combat either the Seel: or its doctrines. 
A fociety of men of unblemifhed principles, (if we mav 
judge by their publication, the Eudemonia, right genius) 
had confecrated their labors in that journal to the un- 
mafking of the intrigues, cunning, and principles, of the 
Illuminées. Not a fingle prince encourages this publica- 
tion; feveral have prolcribed it in their ftate, while the 
molt Jacobinical publications are allowed a free circula- 
tion. The Eudemonia hasjuft been forbidden in the Aus- 
trian States, under the fpecious pretext, that its object and 
views are good, but that it makes principles known that 
are not fufficiently refuted. As a proof, however, that 
they were much better refuted than the Illuminées could 
wifh, we need only obferve, that the Gazette Littéraire 
of Gotha, the leading paper of the Sect, announced the 
prohibition before it was even known at Vienna. — -The 
reader will be lefs furprized at the artfuinefs of the pre- 
text, when he learns, that two of the cenfors y who are to 

* Memoirs on Jacobinifm in Germany. Anno 1794. 


pronounce on the literary productions, are the well-known 
Illuminées Sonnenfels and Retzer, who, had it been for a 
journal of another itamp, would have reclaimed the li- 
berty of the prefs in its favor. 

We muft now turn our attention to a new fpecies of 
Jacobins who are making an amazing progrefs in Ger- 
many. Thefe are the difciples of a Doctor Kant, who, 
riling from darknefs, and from the chaos of his Catego- 
ries, proceeds to reveal the myfteries of his Cofmopoli- 
tifm. According to this fyftem, — I. It is melancholy to 
be obliged to leek, in the hopes of another worlds for the 
end and deftiny of the human fpecies. — -II. It is not of 
man, conducted by reafon,as it is of brutes led by inftindt. 
The former has each for his end the developement of all 
his faculties; while, in the latter, the end is accompliïh- 
ed in each individual brute. Among men, on the contra- 
ry, the end is for the fpecies, and not for the individual j 
for the life of man is too foort to attain the perfection and 
the complete developement of his faculties. In the clafs 
of man, ail the individuals pafs and perijh; the fpecies a- 
ione furvives, and is alone immortal. — ill. With refpect, 
to man again, the end of the fpecies cannot be accom- 
plifhed; that is to fay, his faculties can only be entirely 
developed in the mo ft perfect Jiate of fociety. — IV. That 
perfect flrate of fociety would be a general confederacy of 
the inhabitants of the earth, fo united together, that dis- 
tentions, jealouiies, ambition, or wars, would never be 
heard of. — V. Thoufands and thoufands of years may e- 
lapfe before this happy period of perpetual peace may 
come; but, " whatever may be the idea conceived of the 
*' free exercife of our will, it is neverthelefs certain, that 
" the apparent refultof that volition, the actions of man, 
" are-, as well as all the other facts oj nature, determined 
" by general lazus." — This nature proceeds with a flow 
but certain ilep toward its object. Vices, virtues, fcienees, 
the diflentions of mankind, are in her hands, but the fure 
and infallible means by which fhe leads the human fpecies 
from generation to generation to the moil perfect itate of 
civilization. — Sooner or later the epoch of the general 
confederation, of 'univerfal peace, muft come; neverthe- 
lefs, even at that period, the hitman fpecies vjiilhave pro- 
ceeded but half way towards its perfection.* — I know 

* Plan of a General Hiftory in a Cofmopolitical View, by 
Kant. See The Spiclateur du Nord, April 1798. 


not whether this doctrineer Kant will inform us in what 
the other half of the way toward perfection confifts ; but, 
in the meantime, his difciples who are daily increasing, 
tell us, " that Europe muft neceilarily diflblve itfelf into 
" as many republics as there are now monarchies ; and 
" then only will the human fpecies mow itfelf in all its 
" ftrength and grandeur; then people incapable of go- 
" verning will no longer be feen at the head of nations; 
" they will then rife to that high ft ate of perfection at 
« prefent attained by the French nation, where birth is 
44 nothing, but genius and talents every thing."* Other 
adepts, however, perfectly underftand what is alluded to 
by the other halfway toward perfection; and thefe ac- 
knowledge man only to be in a ftate of perfection when 
he recognizes no other mailer but himfelf, no other law 
but his reafon. In ihort, it is man according to the pro- 
feflbr of Jena, it is the Magnus of Weiihaupt or of Ba- 

Notwitbftanding the different methods of proceeding, 
it is eafy to fee that the fyftem of Kant, at prefent Pro- 
felTor at Konigfherg, ultimately leads to the fame end as 
that of Weijhaupt, heretofore ProfelTor at Ingol/iadt. — » 
The fame hatred for revelation is to be found in both, as 
well as the fame fpirit of impiety, which cannot brook 
the idea of a world to come, where all delufion muft ceaic 
in the prefence of the Creator, and where the end of mail 
and of the human fpecies will be proclaimed at the tri— 

* Memoirs of the State of Jacobinifm in Germany. 

f I was not put to the trouble of read in g Doctor Kant's works 
in German. Mr. Nitfch has published a fort of analylis of them 
in Knglifh. Thole who might tremble at the idea of bewilder- 
ing themfelves in his chaos of Categories may read the account 
given them in the Britiih Critic, Auguft (796; and the reader 
may eafify judge of the abfurdity of the arguments which the 
Prttffian Doctor heaps up againft the very poffibility of revela- 
tion. A Doctor WiUicb has lately thown himfeif a rival of Nitfch 
in proclaiming the glorious feats of this profefTor of darknefs. 
Ï have perufed the analyfis that Dr. Willich has given us, and 
the praifes beftowed on the projet! of a perpetual peace. I cou d 
not underftand why he would only give the title of the work 
that relates chiefly to that point, I mean of that very treatife 
whence Doctor Kant's principles on Cofmopolitifin have been 
extracted. Was the diicipie afraid that it would have expofed 
the doctrines of his matter too much, and opened the eyes of:' 
the Englifh reader on this plan of perpetual peace, and on the 
drift of his whole fyftem of Cofmopolitifm ? 


bunal of a remunerating and avenging God. Kant and 
IVeiJkaupt, with fimilar pretenfions to fuperior genius^ 
are equally baffled in their attempts, falling into the molt 
voluntarily abfurd proportions, that leave the prefent ge- 
neration no other confutation in its afflictions, than the 
empty dream of the imaginary happinefs of thofe futura, who, in thoufands and thoufands of years, 
are, as we are told, to inhabit this earth. In both we may 
obferve that fame hypocrifv pretending to great fenfibility 
and virtue; prctenciins; not to know, that every individual 
who (hall be perfuaded that he is not born for any fixed 
or perfonal end, will foon fhape his conduce according to 
his views or to his pleafurcs, and will little regard the fu- 
ture Cofmopolites, their univerfal peace, or the happinefs 
that is to be fpread over the earth twenty or thirty ages 
after his death. The fame inept fatalifm is taught by them 
both, wiihing to reprefent nature as acting exactly as it 
pleales, in fpite of our volition, and prevailing over our 
paffions by its general la%vs\ and neverthelefs reprefent 
mankind as flow in feconding the grand object of Na- 
ture, j nft as we were free to accelerate or to retard its 
views by our actions. The only difference that can be 
perceived between thcfe two prototypes of German Ja- 
cobmifm, if, that the one at Konigfberg envelopes his 
views in a pacifie cant; while the other, in his myiteries, 
animates and infuriates his Epopts, teaching that the day 
is not far diftant when the adepts are to refort to force, in 
order to crufh and ftifle every thing that fhould dare to 
rHift them. But notwithstanding the pacific cant of the 
f>rmer, his doctrines alfo make his hearers thirft after that 
great day when the children of Equality and Liberty are 
to reign. His colleagues in the univeriities do not teach 
his principles with his coolnefs ; the difciples become vio- 
lent; the Jacobins fmile; and as the fyftem fpreads, the 
offspring of both thefe teachers unite and form alliances in 
their tenebrous abodes. Under pretence of this perpetual 
peace that is to be enjoyed by future generations, they 
have begun by declaring a war of cannibals againft the 
whole univerfe; nor is there to be found fcarcely one of 
their offspring, that is not ready to betray his country, his 
laws, and his fellow-citizens, to ereâ: that Cofmopolitan 
Empire announced by the Profeffor Kant, or to enthrone 
the Man-king of the modern Spartacus. 

Such is the ftate of the Se<St in Germany: It fways the 


Club?, the Lodges, the Literary Societies, the Dicafteres^ 
or Offices of Government, and even Princes. It ap- 
pears under variegated forms and names; but, however 
thefe may differ, it perpetually keeps that unhappy coun- 
try in a ftate of crifis. Every throne is undermined by a 
volcano that menaces explofxon whenever a favorable mo- 
ment (hall offer. 

Why will not truth permit me to declare, that the con- Jn 
fpiring Se£l has refpe£ted that nation which, content with England, 
the «vifdom, and living happy under the fhield of its laws, 
mud naturally have been adverfe to, and confiant in re- 
pelling the diforganizing plots and baneful myfteries of 
Illuminifm? But have we not feen that Minifter of Pet- 
kam, Rontgen, Cent to London under the protection of 
a great Prince? Nor is he the only apoftle of Weifhaupt has croffed the feas in hopes of illuminizine; England, 
The very name of Xaverius Zwack in thefe Memoirs re- 
called to the minds of many perfons the flay which that 
famous adept of Illuminifm made during a whole year at 
Oxford, juft after his flight from Bavaria. The exactnefs 
of his defcription, taken from the Original Writings, left 
not the leaft fhadow of doubt as to the perfon of the Cato 
of Illuminifm. This has made people underftand the real 
motives that induced this adept to make that famous town 
his habitation, though he pretended to have been attract- 
ed thither by the fame of its fcience. Neither the place nor 
the times, however, were propitious to his miffion, nor to 
principles that entailed upon him the juft contempt of the 
doctors. Mr. Hornfby, who had entrufted him with fome 
difcoveries in aftfonomy, will now underftand how this 
adept could barefacedly publifh them in Germany as the 
offspring of his own genius. This will alfo explain why 
the Cato of Illuminifm, who was defpifed at the universi- 
ty, and nearly expelled, never returned, though he only 
pretended a fhort abfence to the Continent. Other apos- 
tles have fucceeded him in his million; and, in gratitude 
for the afylum which this nation has granted us, I muft 
declare, that the miffionaries of Weilhaupt have not been 
foiled in all their attempts. 

When Mr. Robifon published his affertion that cer- 
tain Mafonic Lodges had been tainted by the illumiaizing 
brotherhood, patnotifm naturally exclaimed that it was 
impoflibb. Men who have instituted themielves into a 
fort of tribunal of public opinion called upon this refpec- 


table wrîter to produce his proofs. I know not what the 
anfwer of Mr. Robifon was; all I know is, that he might 
have replied, « When perfons who are entitled to ques- 
tion me (hall do fo, I will anfwer." — To thofe who may 
wifh to queftion me, I will fay, that there are circum- 
Itances which may forbid me to anfwer; it is sufficient 
that thofe who watch for the fafety of the nation mould 
be informed of them, that they may take precautions to 
counteract the Sed; befides, are there not many histori- 
cal truths, that cannot be proved in a court of justice? 

I make thefe obfervations with the more ail'urance as 
Government moft certainly have the competent proofs m 
their hands, which their vvifdom, nevertheless, has kept 
fecret.— I make them, becaufe Mr. Robifon has fpoken 
with fufficient ckarnefs, in his Appendix, and in his Notes, 
to fhow thathe was but too well informed when he f^oke 
of the intrufion of Illurniniftn into certain Enghfh and 
Scotch Lodges, without being obliged to particularize the 
Lodges. But he certainly acted prudently in not expos- 
ing himfelf to the fate of the celebrated Zimmerman, who, 
as all the world knows, fell, in ftmilar circumfhnees, a 
victim to the Illuminée P/;/7«-Knigge; not becaufe he 
had accufed him unjuftly, but that legal evidence was 
wanting to prove that Pbilo and Knigge were names ap- 
plicable to the fame perfon ; a fact now fo clear both by 
his own works and thofe of the adepts. They who have 
thus attempted to brand Mr. Robifon with the name of 
calumniator, would have done well to reflect on the ma- 
ny means employed by the Sect to influence fuch a judg- 
ment; that it is a ftanding lav/ of thè Sect, that where 
an author of merit cannot bt gained over, he U to be dis- 
credited by every means pcjjibie; and molt certainly he 
has a glorious title to the hatred of the Seat. I willingly 
confefs, that it would have given me great plesfure, had 
it been confonant with prudence, that Mr. Robifon had 
publifhed all his proofs, as I am perfuaded that many of 
thofe perfons who have been fo hafty and intemperate in' 
their judgments, would have voted him thanks for the 1er- 
vice he has rendered to his country, actuated, as I fuppofe 
them to be, with the fame zeal for its happinefs, but not 
equally informed as to the dangers with wnich it is me- 

Nothwithftanding the variance that is to be found be- 
tween that refpeiStable author and myfelf in fome articles, 


(particularly on the Catholic religion,* and on the Jefu- 
its, whom he might have reprefented in different-colours, 

* I do not here pretend to refute the religious prejudices of 
certain writers agaioft the Catholics: But what has the French 
Revolution to do with confeffion, with monaftic vows, with, 
indigencies, or the jurisdiction pureiy fpiritual of the Pope, 
and articles of fuch a nature? The proof that tbefe objects 
were far from contributing to the Revolution is, that the Ja- 
cobins fpare no pains to deftroy them. — In a book combating 
«he Jacobins, what can induce a writer to vent his fpleen a- 
gainft the 'teners of a Catholic? I might fayto many writers 
who have been guilty of this moil extraordinary imprudence» 
B;gin. at leaft, gentlemen, by making yourfelves acquainted 
with our tenets, and then fee whether we are able to defend 
them To orders 1 would fay, For God's fake let us expofe our 
belitf ourfelved, Jet us fay what we do and what we do not be- 
iieve. I he defence you may with the beft intentions fet up for 
us, may be more hurtful than beneficial toourcaufe. Mr. Ro- 
bilon, no d'ubt, thought that he was fpeaking in favor of the 
church or Fiance, when he faid, that that church had long 
fince eftablilhed its independence of the Court ot Home. If by 
the Court of Rome he means the temporal dominion of the 
Pope, the French had no great trouble in eftabiilhing fuch aa 
independence, as it never recognized any fuch dominion ; if he 
means the purely fpiritual jurifdiction ot the Pope, neither our 
Catholic Bifhopsi Clergy, nor Laity, ever wiihed to throw it 
off. They all continue to believe what they always have be- 
lieved, that the Pope, as fucceiTor of St. Petîr, has the juris- 
diction as firlt paftor over the Church of France, as he has 0- 
ver all others. Every one knows, that this jurifdi«Micn cf the fo- 
vereign Pontiff is held in our faith as an eiXential point of the 
hierarchy eftablilhed by Chrift; but every one alio knows, that 
thejuiildiétion of the Fope, as well as that of all Bifhops, is 
not of this world ; that it doss not militate in any way with 
the duties we own to our fovereigns ; that it can never abfolve 
us from the fidelity and fubniiflion which we ov/e to the laws 
of the State. I, therefore, here proteft again ft all thofe who 
may choofe to interpret the efteem I have declared to entertain 
for Mr. Robifon's work as alluding to thole parts of it that are 
abloluteiy contrary to my faith. On this occailon alfo I beg to 
obferve, that in the cafe of the prefent Revolution both Pro- 
îeftants and Catholics fhould unite, and lay afide their preju- 
dices anaintt each other, to combat the impiety of the Jaco" 
•bins, as their aim is to annihilate ire religions of both. Be' 
what party has a right to boaft, when the révolution is consid- 
ered ; Spartacus-We'ifhimpi and CWo-Zwack were two apos- 
tate Catholics — Phtlo- Knigge and Z.ucian-'Nicolù two apos- 
tate Proteftants — Thomas Paine an apoftare Anglican. In 
France, the Catholic citizens of Paris, the Proteftartt citizens 
of Nifmes ; in Ireland, large portions of a Catholic populace 
organized into a revolutionary army under Protettant cl)itL„ 

|24 ANTISOCIAL conspiracy; 

had he had, as we have, the whole hiftory of their pretend- 
ed Mafonry before him, a mere fiction of the Illuminées 
to dupe the Mafons, and avert the attention of the public 
from the true confpirators); notwithitanding this vari- 
ance, I (hall never hefitate to acknowledge, that he is en- 
titled to the thanks of his fellow-countrymen for having 
denounced a confpiracy that threatens this, as much as it 
does any other nation; I mail always bear willing tefti- 
mony to the juftice of his caufe, to the ardor of his zeal, 
and to the uprightnefs of his intentions. Meanwhile, till 
he may judge it proper to publifh his proofs on the Illu- 
minifm of certain Englifli Mafonic Lodges, I ihall men- 
tion a few circumitances that have come to my know- 

To my Certain knowledge, there are two men in Eng- 
land who have been tampered with by the Apoftles of 11- 
luminifm. One of thefe, who belongs to the Navy, ftill 
preferves that honeft indignation which muft naturally 
arife in an upright heart at f eing itfelf fo atrocioufly du- 
ped by an Inlinuator, who, under pretence of initiating 
him into the fecrets of Mafonry, was plunging him heaJ 
foremoft into Illuminifm. The other, a man of great 
merit, who might have known more had he not difcover- 
ed his real fentiments; but his letters bear teftimony of 
the following particulars : 

Of thofe books which (how the multitude of Illumini- 
zed LodgeSj there is one bearing the title of Paragrafmi 
and it is often put into the hands of certain candidates by 
the Infinuators. In this production we may fee the tra- 
velling adept Zimmerman boafting of having illuminized 
Lodges in England, juft as he had done in Italy and Hun- 
gary. In fome of thefe Lodges the tenets of Illuminifm 
were well received ; but of five that have come to my cor- 
refpondent's knowledge, two foon abandoned the myfte- 

In Germany, the Il'uminees take their origin in a Catholic 
Univerfity, and ail the Lutheran Untverfities are full of Illu- 
rninizing Proftfihrs. Such confiderations as thefe ihould cer- 
tainly put an end to reproach on either fide. I muft confefs, 
that the Lutherans and Calvinifts with whom 1 correfpond in 
Germany are much more candid; they fpare neither fide, and 
are the firfl to point out thofe of their own peifuafion who are 
tainted with Illuminifm. They behold the Jacobins as enemies 
to every religion; and when J-cobinifm is in queftion,they 
wifely confefs the neceffity of uniting all parties to crulh the 


ries of the modern Spartacus^ the other three are not 
known to have rejected them. 

Another apoftle (oon fucceeded to Zimmerman; this. 
Was a Duclor Ibiken, an alTumed name, perhaps, as it was 
cuftomary with the travelling adepts to change their 
names according to circumftances. Whatever may have 
been the cafe, this Ibiken, an emiiTary of' the Eccledtic 
Lodges of Illuminifm, began by uniting with fome Qua- 
kers. He was afterwards received into certain Lodges s 
and introduced fome of the preparatory degrees. He even 
fucceeded in completely illuminizing fome of the duped 
brethren. He alfo boaited of his fuccelTss in Ireland and 
England. He would foretel to his Englifh pupils, that a 
great revolution was about to be operated in the pitiful 
and miferable Mafonry of their country. Thofe to who.n 
this language was perfectly unintelligible at the time, have 
told me, that they have perfectly underftood his meaning- 
fince they have perufed my publication. They have loit 
fight of the Doctor, which was the natural confluence 
of his being admonifhed to depart with his myftefies by 
thofe who watch over the public fafety. 

Another emilTary foon after appeared, and coming from 
America under the name of Reginhard> declared him- 
felf an Alfacian, and formerly an Almoner in the French 
navy. He expected to be well received by certain En- 
gliih Lodges in correfpondence with thofe hehadjuft 
left at Bofton, and which, according to his account, had 
made a furprizing progrefs lince they had fraternized with 
the brethren that had gone from France to America. — . 
This Rcginhard did not appear (o zealous as the other 
apoftles; he even fignified his difguft with a miffion that 
fo little became his ftation of life. It was through him 
more particularly that my correfpondent became acquaint- 
ed with the cxiftence of Illuminifm on the banks of the 

This is certainly enough to prove, that the Illumini- 
zation of England was not neglected by the confpiring 
brethren. I will fay more, that notwithstanding the hon- 
orable exception 1 have made in favor of the Engliih 
Lodges, I am no longer furprized to hear of Illuminifm 
being well received by certain Lodges. And here I think 
it neceffary to repeat, that when I made the exception, I 
only meant to fpeak of what is called the National M'a- 
fonry, rejîrièfgd to the firji three Degrees. I Ihould have 


been more circumfpecl in my exception, had I known of 
a pamphlet, entitled, Freemasonry: a IVard to the 
Wife. Here, in vindication of the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land, I fee the moft violent complaints preferred againft 
the introduction of a variety of degrees, of which, in a po- 
litical point of view, it is certainly the duty of a well-or- 
dered government to reprefs the vice and immorality; the 
impiety of the Roficrucians is particularly complained of 
(page 9); and I think that in the courfe of thefe Me- 
moirs 1 have pretty clearly proved, that from the pro- 
found Roficrucian to the myfteries of Weifliaupt there 
is but a ihort ftep. 

There is alfo extant another work, printed fifty years 
ago, On the Origin and Doctrine of Freemajons. This 
work would have been of the greateft ufe to me had it 
fallen into my hands a little fooner. Let me no longer be 
accufed of having been the firft to reveal, that an impious 
?.nd disorganizing Equality and Liberty were the grand 
fecret of the Occult Lodges. The author of this work 
was as pofitive in this affertion as myfelf, and at that time 
clearly demonftrated it, by following, ftep by ftep, the 
Scotch degrees of Mafonry as they exifted in thofe days. 
Time may have changed certain forms; but all the nu- 
merous degrees ûyhd pkilofcpbicalhave not been able to 
a dan iota to the fyirems at that time followed in the 
Lodges of the ScoUh Jrcbite&s. That fpecies of Mafons 
is as bad as the Illuminées. It can fcarcdy be conceived 
with what art they proceed. As they are ftill extant in 
Great Britain, it is not too late to point the attention of 
the ruling powers toward them. Let us proceed at once 
to their laft myfteries. 

« When a candidate prefents himfelf to be received a 
« Scotch Architect^ the tyler afks him, whether he has a 
« vocation for Liberty, Equality, Obedience, Courage, and 
« Conflancy." When the candidate has anfwered Yes, he 
is introduced into the interior of the Lodge. Here it is 
no longer the representation of the Temple of Solomon, 
but of rive animals, the Fox, the Monkey, the Lion, the 
Pelican, and the Dove. The Signs, and the word Ado- 
naiy being given to the candidate, the orator begins an 
enigmatical difcourfe, of which the following is a part: 
" Croftinefs, Dijfi-mulation, Courage, Lov-e, Sweetaefs; 
« Cunning, imitation, fury, piety, tranquillity; mifchief, 
" nmnickry, cruelty, goodncfs, and friendâiip, are allons 


« and the (lime thing, and are generated in the fame thing. 
" They feduce, infpire joy, give rife to forrow, procure 
u advantage and ferene days. They are five in number, 
" and ftili they are but one. Soon- — foon — -foon — by him 
" that was, is now, and ever fhall be, Sec. &c." 

« The remainder of the difcourfe (fays my author) is 
« in the fame ftrain. However obfeure thefe things may 
** appear, they are neverthelefs clear as day, if attention 
" be paid to the figures that denote the character of F ree- 
K mafons. The craft inefs of the Fox denotes the art with 
<* which the Order hides its object. The imitation of the 
<c Monkey typifies that fupplenefs of mind, that addrtfs 
« with which the Mafons can accommodate themfelves 
u to the various talents and taftes of the candidates. The 
<c Lion denotes the ftrength and courage of thofe win» 
" compofe the fociety. The Pelican is the emblem of 
" the tendernefs that reigns among the brethren, The 
11 peaceable demeanor of the Dove isreprefentativecf the 
" peace of the golden age, or of thofe fcrcne days that 
*' Freemafons promife to the univerfe." 

The author from whom we made thefe extracts lived 
for a long time with Mafons of this fpecies. He was of- 
ten prefent at their Lodges and councils: He attended at 
their deliberations when contriving the means of accom- 
plifhing their plans. He then continues to fpeak of the 
initiation of a Scotch candidate: " There is no rule which 
u ordains, that the object of the Society fhould be made 
*' known to him in clear terms; but only in terms that 
" would be infufficient to make him wholly underftand 
V- the morality and polity that are univerfally received. — - 
" On the night of his reception they fimply tell him, that 
" Equality and Liberty among the brethen is the fole ob- 
" ject of the Society. But fhould the new Architect fhow 
" iigns of a perfect preparednefs for the ultimate myftery 
u or the Society, he is then let into the fecret, or rather 
" informed of the grand objeel of the Society, which is to 
" reduce all men to a reciprocal Equality, and to 
u reinflate mankind in its natural Liberty. In fhort, 
" after a few days meeting, they openly declare, that the 
" expreflion of eflablijlùng Equality among men, and of 
*' reinstating maiucind in their natural liberty, ind:;iintt~ 
a ly comprehends all perfons of whatever quality orfla- 


« tion they may be y zvithout excepting magiftrates^ rreat t 
« or/mall."* 

The ceremonies and catechifm of this degree perfectly 
coincide with thefe explanations. In fhort, every thing lb 
cl rarly demonftrates Equality and Liberty to be the ul- 
timate object of their myfteries, that the author attributes 
the origin, or, at leaft, the reftoration of Mafonry to Crom- 
well and his Independents. The author would have lim- 
ply attributed the reftoration to him, had he been ac- 
quainted with the manufcript of Oxford. Inferences of 
the utmoft importance may be drawn from this worlc, 
both as to the hiftory of Freemafonry and the intereftsof 
Governments. It is eafily feen at prefent, that the difor- 
ganizing myfteries of the occult Lodges are at leaft an- 
terior to the reign of the French Sophifters. Thefe may 
have new-modelled them after their fafhion, and multi- 
plied and varied the degrees j but their principles had 
been received in the Lodges long before Voltaire wrote, 
—The Knight Kadojch was already extant in the Scotch; 
• Jlnhitecl. When the latter is afked in his catechifm, 
what he is called, he anfwers cunning and fwiple; the 
Kadojch may anfwer bold ana impatient. The difference 
lies in the character, and not in the fyftems. This degree 
of Scotch Architect alio explains whence the pre-emi- 
nence of the Scotch Lodges arifes, and why the Lodges 
of other countries are fo defirous of correfponding with 
the mother Lodge called the Lodge Heredom of Kilwin- 
ning, in Scotland. It is there that the famous Jrchitccls 
Of Equality and Liberty are fuppofed to be the guardians 
of the laft myfteries. It was with this Lodge al fo, that a 
number of French Lodges at Marfeilles, Avignon, Lyons, 
Rouen, &c. &c. would be affiliated, notwithftanding the 
influence of the Grand Orient of Paris, f 

* Of the Origin of the Free-mafons, degree of Architect. 

\ I have in my poflefllon,the original of the patents empow- 
ering a Brother mafon to ereel Lodges under the direclion of 
that of Rouen. A Provincial holds his refidence at this latter 
place, and is entrufted with the power of judging the lawfuits 
or diflentions that may arife within his province ; but when any 
thing of grf at confequence has happened, it is referred to the 
Lodge of ' Heredom for judgment. Had jFofeph II. feen this, he 
might have called it an imperium in imperio, or an empire 
throughout all empires. The reader will remark, that the bre- 


In (hort, the difcovery of this degree of Grand Archi- 
tect is of importance to Governments in general, and par- 
ticularly to that of England; for it {hows the dangers to 
which a ftate is expofed where, in the midft of thofc breth- 
ren who dedicate themfelves to an innocent Equality, ex - 
ifr a number fufficient to tranfmit the Grand Myfteries 
of the Seel. 

In fpite of all the fecrecy obferved by this fpecies of 
adept, who is there that can view their very exiftence in 
any other light than as a perpetual confpiracy againft the 
ftate? How then can we be furprifed if the Illuminées 
found perfons in thefs countries willing to fraternize with 
them, and to combine their plots with thofe of the mis- 
fionaries ? However- pure the generality of the Englifh 
Lodges may be, is not this enough to fhow that the moft 
difaffrous plots may fuddenly burft from the Lodges; and 
that the prefence of virtuous men may only ferve as a 
cloalc to the defigns of the wicked? — Do not let me be 
told, that the Good counteract the evil intentions of the 
Wicked; for the latter can find means of meeting un- 
known to the former, though the fame Lodge may be an 
afylum for them both. There are Lodges now extant, 
that (to ufe the expreffion of a brother who frequented 
them a few months fince) would not admit a Jingle Aris- 
tocrat. — My reader muft understand fuch language?— 
There are Lodges the entries to which are perfect laby- 
rinths. The adepts do not go out by the fame houfes as 
they entered; and, the more completely to bame the vi- 
gilance of the conftituted authorities, they have changed 
their drefles. 

But let us for an inftant fuppofe, that the Sece could 
make no impreflion on the Engliib Lodges, we know that 
Chauvelin and Fandernoot^ on quitting London, left their 
emiflaries behind: public danger is belt probed by pri- 
vate facts; and the reader will not be furprifed when he 
fees me defcend to the following particulars relative to 
the emiflaries of Jacobinifm in England. 

Having been honored with the acquaintance of Mr. 

thren fay, Ueredom (Harodim), is a Hebrew word fignifying 
whiefs or governors. It is à be remembered, that there is 
another e'egreeof Grand Architect entirely" different from rhat 
which I have jull defcribed. The multiplicity of thefe de- 
grees only ferve the better to hide their objeft. 


Burke, I introduced to him a gentleman who wiflied t© 
confult him with refpedf, to a letter written to Manuel, 
who at that time governed the Commune of Paris, in con- 
junction with Tallien, the fanguinary butcher of the bloo- 
dy September. This was in the firft year of my emigra- 
tion. The letter had been written for a French nobleman, 
who, wifhing to return to Paris, thought it might be ad- 
vantageous to get a letter of recommendation to Manuel 
from a Jacobin then refident in London. This noble- 
man's wife fufpedted fome treachery, and opened the let- 
ter. The epiitle really began with a fort of recommenda- 
tion, but ended with faying, " this nobleman is, after all, 
a rank ariftocrat, who ought to be got rid of by the pikes 
or the guillotine, that he may not return any more to Lon- 

t." In the body of the letter an account was given to 
Manuel of the ftate of the brethren in London. Among 
other things it ftated, that five hundred perfons were pre- 
fer^ at their laft" meeting; that they were ardent in the. 
caufe; that their numbers daily increafed, and that every 
thing denoted the belt difpofitions for hoiiting the revo- 
lutionary ftandard. This letter was immediately laid be- 
fore the miniffry. 

Norwithftanding every method was adopted that wis- 
dom could fuggeft, the partizans of the Seel increafed, 
inftead of diminifhing; and, in a (hort time, there were 
at leaft fifteen hundred confpirators in London, worthy of 
beine marfhalled by jfourdan Coup-tcte. There were at 
the fame ' ; me in London two men who had been educa- 
ted in all the arts of the police of Paris, and they were or- 
dered to enquire into the ftate of the foreigners, and to 
liiiiinguifh the real emigrants from the new comers. It 
was loon difcovered, that a banditti of all nations, crimi- 
nals from the Bicetre^ fiom the galhes^ and who had es- 
caped the gallows; the choie n bands in fhort, of Necker, 
Orleans, and Mirabeau, had been fent into England by 
their fucceifors of the great club, to effecl: a fimilar revo- 
lution. It was in confequence of this that the Alien Bill 
was ena died. 

But the Seél: is relentltfs; it roars at the very idea of 
the obftacles it has met with in England. At London, at 
Edinburgh, at Dublin, it has ;*s national brethren, its con- 
f firing and Ccrref ponding Societies. In London we fee 
the duped brethren of the higheif. ariflocracy proclaiming 
the fiver eignty oj the people at their revels; while, in the 


hidden retreat of their fecret focieties, other brethren are 
p'otting how to put the fortunes of the ariftocratic dupes, 
of the banker, and of the merchant, in requifition for the 
ufe of that /over ei \n people \ in thofe fame recefTes, under 
pretence of Reform, do they wifh to ereîl on the ruins of 
the Britifh conftitution, the reveries of a Paine, a Syeyes, 
or of the Pentarques; they wifh to plant that tree of E- 
quality and Liberty whofe nourifhment is gore and pill- 
age, whofe fruit is murder, mifery, and exile. Others are 
training their deluded followers to aiTaflination, and are 
forging pikes.— Yes, the fcourge has been wafted acrofs 
the ocean with all its plots; the adepts have not forgotten 
the land of their anceftors, the Puritans, Anabaptifts, and 
Independents. They have difcovered their progenitors in 
thofe fame dens to which Cromwell had confined them, 
after having, through their means, dethroned and mur- 
dered his king, difïblved the parliament, and feduced the 
nation to his yoke. The brethren of Avignon recognized 
the Illuminées of Swedenbourg as their parent Seel; nei- 
ther were they unmindful of the embafTy fent them by the 
Lodge of Hampftead. Under the aufpices of De Mai- 
nauduc, they have feen their difciples thirfting after that 
celejlial jferufalem, that purifying fire (for thefe are the 
expreffions 1 have heard them make ufe of) that was to 
kindle into a general conflagration throughout the earth 
by means of the French revolution — and thus was Jaco- 
bin Equality and Liberty to be univerfally triumphant e- 
ven in the ftreets of London. 

But what a concatenation of confpiracies will the his- 
torian find when he fhali turn to the archives of thofe 
focieties ftyling themfelves of Conjiitutional Information 
or Correfponding. Here, however, Juftice and the Senate 
have interpofed; they have torn away the mafk, and be- 
hold the brethren of Edinburgh bound in the fame plots 
and machinations as thofe of Dublin, of London,oï Shef- 
field, of Manchefter, of Stockport, of Leicejler, and of 
many other towns, all uniting their willies, invitations, 
and addrefles to the Jacobin Legislators.* The Mother 

* I have annexed a more eKtenfive application of thefe Me- 
moirs to Ireland and Great-Britain at the end of this fourth 
Volume. Let me on this occalion beg and befeech every Ma- 
giftrate and every Clergyman, whofe province it is more par- 
ticularly to inftruct and guide the people at large, and for whom 
this work is more particularly adapted> to read once more aud 

33^ antisocial conspiracy; 

Society at once demonft rates all the arts of the Secret 
Committees of the Grand Orient under Philip of Orleans; 
the deep cunning of the Bavarian Aréopage under Wei- 
fhaupt; and the profligate means of feduclion of Hol- 
bach' s Club under D'Alembert. All thefe they combine 
in hopes of hurrying away a generous nation into the fink 
of impiety, and thence to rebellion; they combine, in 
hopes of uniting the Councils and the efforts of the difpers- 
ed brethren in the caufe of revolution. Subfcriptions are 
railed in Great Britain and Ireland, as they were in France, 
to print Paine's Code of Rebellion, and circulate it from 
the town to the village, and even in the very cottage.* — 
Others of the brethren are diftributing, at their own ex- 
pense, all the poifons of infidelity, nor do they blufh to 
go and afk fubferiptions from houfe to houfe for the re- 
printing of the m oft profligate and impious productions 
of Voltaire, Diderot, Boulanger, La Metherie, and of o- 
thsr Deiits or Atheifts of the age, and this under the fpe- 
cious pretence of enlightening ignorance, and how ? by 
putting all the blafphemies of the Sophifters into the hands 
of the people. 

The brethren of Edinburgh, like thofe of Berlin, were 
not to be contented with the mere arts of feduction. One 
might be led to think that the adepts Watt and Downie 
had received their inflru&ions from the Pruffian Areo- 
gage. Notwithstanding the immenfe diftance that divides 
Edinburgh from Berlin, they adopted precifely the fame 
plan to draw off the attention of the troops by means of 
tae burning of fume houfe, and while the foldiery fh<uld 
be occupied with extinguifhing the fire to fall on them, 
and in the midil of this popular commotion to proclaim 
the jacobin Code. — In London have we not ken regi- 
cides? At Paris, Lewis XVI. captive in his capital, was 
dragged to the guillotine. At Ublingen, Lewis XVIII. 
when a fugitive, was wounded in the head by a ball. In 
London, was George III. in the midii of the acclama- 
tions of his fubjedls, aimed at by the regicide crew; and 
if Heaven averted the ball, is the Sect lefs treacherous or 

with attentjoq the Reports of the Englifli Houfe of Commons 
made in 1794. After having perufed thefe Memoirs, they will 
view them in a very different light from what they formerly 
did. "l'?arf 

* ThotrUnds of that abominable pamphlet were fent out to 
the Britiih eilablilhmenis in the £afl-lndies. Tranf. 


lefs abominable, becaufe it did not fucceed in its foul at- 
tempt ? At length, difdaining obfcure crimes, and aiming 
at the annihilation of the Throne, of the Parliament, and 
of the whole Britifh Conftitution, they attempt to Induce 
the legions of the empire from their allegiance by means 
of the mod inflammatory hand-bills; they would per- 
fuade gallant troops to ihake ofFdifciplme and butcher 
their officers, as had been done in France. EmiiTaries 
found their way into the fleets; and the failors were for 
a time deluded by the fophifms of thofe feducers, who 
wifhed to pervert the bold opponents of the Jacobins on 
the ocean, into the treacherous abettors of thole lame Ja- 
cobins that dare not face an honefl: tar. In Ireland, they 
aflume another form; independence in church and ftate 
is held out to a deluded people by the emifiaries of thole 
who have obliterated every woribip and every law in 
France, in Corfica, in Belgium, in Savoy, in Holland, in 
Italy, to fubject the miferable inhabitants of thofe once 
flourifliing countries to the tyranny of the Pentarques. — . 
In that unfortunate country ail the arts of feduilion have 
been played off that Illuminifm could invent, and, its per- 
juries have raged to a frightful excefs. There did the le- 
gions of the Seel, conceiving themfeives powerful in their 
numbers, (ally forth from their lurking places. It was no 
longer a partial treafon to be puniihed; the force of ar- 
mies was necefi'ary to crufh whole legions of rebels who 
were daily expecting fuccour from a foreign foe. 

But, Praiie be to God on high, who, in his mercy, has 
counteracted the malice of fuch plots, of fuch feditions: 
Praife be to the all-powerful God, who has preserved this 
ftate from the machinations of its enemies ! — May the 
Hiftorian, after having traced the origin, the code, the re- 
union, the attempts, and the fuccciFes of fuch numerous 
confpiring Sects, againft God and his Son, againft thrones 
and kings, againft fociety and its laws, repole himfelf, and 
complacently view the happinefs of thefe Ifles, when he 
comes to treat of the land that has proved an afylum to 
fo many unfortunate victims ! Aday he triumphantly fay, 
" There it was that the furges of innirreâian were dafh- 
ed back upon itfelf, the attempts of Jacobinifm were as 
vain as the efforts of us fleets" — Happy ihall we be, if, 
by entering into this difquifition on the fury of Jacobin- 
ifm, we fhall have contributed to awaken the attention of 
nations to the true cauies of all their misfortunes and re- 



volutionary difafters! — Thrice happy fhall we be, if we 
{hall have fucceeded in guarding this nation againft the 
dangers with which it is threatened; a nation to which 
the world looks up for its fafety; a nation which, in its 
beneficence, is become our adoptive country. May it 
ever behold us offering up our prayers to heaven for the 
prefervation of its king, and for its profperity, with all 
that affection and zeal that nature infpires for one's na- 
tive foil ! 

To prefume that we have fulfilled our tafk in fuch a 
manner as not to ftand in need of the indulgence of our 
readers, would be impertinent. We ingenuoufly confefs 
the inferiority of our talents, and the many imperfections, 
we are confcious muft exift in Memoirs of fuch high im- 
portance to the public caufe. But with confidence we 
affert, that we have never fwerved from truth. It has 
been our conftant'and only guide in pointing out the cau- 
ies of the revolution, it (hall continue to be fo in treating 
ef fuch means, and drawing fuçh conclufions as muft ne- 
ceiTarily follow from the facts demonstrated in the courfe 
of thefe Memoirs. 



WHAT a painful and difgufting courfe have I at 
length terminated ! — Wandering through thofe 
fubterraneous haunts where, in the fhades of darknefs, 
confpirators were plotting againft all religion and fociety, 
I have frequently {hudderea with horror, and felt my cour- 
age finking ! Fired with indignation at the fight of fuch 
iniquity, fuch a concatenation of crimes ftill contriving, 
how often have I faid to myfelf, Leave this abyfs of wick- 
ednefs— -fly the abodes of thefe vile and monftrous con- 
fpirators ; it may be better even to fall their victim than 
to fully one's rnind with the recollection of fuch villany, 
treafon, and impiety, or to be the accufer to pofterity of 
the age in which we live. — But have I not cotempora- 
ries to be faved ? — There ftill exift nations that have not 
bent beneath the Jacobin yoke; my fellow-country men 
may, perhaps, be induced to fhake off that yoke, when 
they are made acquainted with the unparalleled plots and 
artifices contrived for their feduifion. And ought not 
posterity to be informed to what an extent this dijaftrous 
Sedt. raged in our days, that it may guard agaiiift a 
renewal of fimilar horrors? Such thoughts inspired me 
with courage; they have carried me through this difguM- 
ing tafk; they were my fupport when overpowered with 
the odious fight of legions of confpirators conjuring up 
every hellifh art to heap mifery on the inhabitants of the 
earth: moreover the moft covincing proofs have never 
been wanting. 

But can it be poffible that my endeavors fhould prove 
fruitlefs ? if fo, alas ! let thefe pages be rent afunder ; com- 
mit to the flames thefe Memoirs which bear teft imony of 
fuch a multitude of hideous plots that threatened fociety. 
Kings, Pontiffs, Magistrates, Princes, and Citizens of 
every clafs, if it be true, that I have attempted in vain to 
diilipate the fatal illufion; if it be true, that the peftifer- 
ous blaft of Jacobinifm has deadened your fenfes, and 
plunged your fouls into lethargy; if it be true, that the 
torpor of indolence has rendered you callous to your own 
dangers, as well as thofe that threaten your children, your 

3,5 antisocial conspiracy; 

country, your religion, and your laws; if you are incapa- 
ble of the leaft effort, of the f.nalleft (àcrifice for your own 
fafety ana for that of the public; if the world be peopled 
only by daftards, who are ready to fubmit their necks to 
the Jacobin yoke, let them be carried into bondage, let 
them be (laves to Jacobins and to they- principles; may 
their fortunes fall a prey to brigands; may their temples, 
thrones, governments, "palaces, and habitations, tall be- 
neath the blows of the relentlefs Sea». When you tear 
thefe pages, banifh from youj mind all prefage of difes- 
ters; pals your days in joy, FeTtivity and merriment, till 
the knell of revolution fhall found and ftartk ye from your 
lethargy. The Jacobins will take upon themfclves the 
care of haftening the fatal hour. To announce it before- 
hand to fuch torpid fouis would be to anticipate their lut- 
terions; no, fleep the fleep of death; may your ears be 
deaf to the found of thofe chains that are forging for you ; 
approach not where truth may undeceive you; no, follow 
in the retinue of fome talk prophet that may beguile you. 
'But fliould there be found men whofe manly courage 
would be fired with zeal for the public caufe at the very 
recital of fuch monftrous combinations againft church and 
ftate ; for them I write ; it is on them that 1 call when I fay, 
that notwithstanding all the artifices of the various Seèts, 
and the tremendous power which Jacobimfm has already 
acquired, Europe is not yet fubjeéted to them. It is yet 
polTible to crufh that Sect which has fworn to crufh your 

God, plunder your country, and annihilate fociety. — 

Your country and yourfelves may ftill be faved. But in 
the war that (be Se'tf is Paging againft you, as well as in 
ail o'her wars, the firft requitite for working your fafe- 
ty is ihe perfect conviction of your danger, and an accu- 
rate knowledge of the enemy, of his plans,and of his,means. 
It was not unintentionally that 1 heaped proof upon proof 
to demonftrate that Jacobinifn was a coah-ion of the 00- 
t> hifiers of Impiety Rearing to crulh the God of the Gos- 
pel; of the Sophijiers of Rebellion fwearing to overturn 
the thrones of kings; and of the Sophifters of Anarchy 
confpiring not onlv againft the ahar and throne, but uvear- 
bg to annihilate all laws, property, and fociety. I was 
certain that mv readers would neglect all means of idf- 
prefervation fo'long as they were not convinced of their 
danger. Should the proofs that I have adduced ftill leave 
them in doubt as to the reality of the plots of the beet, 


J (hall have loft my labor; lean but weep over their 
blindnefs ; they will have already fallen into that ftate of 
apathy into which the Seel: wifhes to plunge them. The 
lefs credit my readers {hall give to the reality of thefe plots, 
the more certain will the confpirators be of fuccefs. If 
Then I farther infift, let my inftances meet with a candid 
reception i for, reader, it is your fafety and that of the 
public weal that actuates me. 

Let us then fuppofe, for example, that a perfon comes 
to warn you, that you are furrounded by men who, under 
the cloak of friendfhip, are only waiting for a favorable 
moment to execute an old plan which they have contriv- 
ed of robbing you of your money and property, of firing 
your habitation^ nay farther, perhaps, of butchering your 
wife, your children, your relations ; fuppofing that the in~ 
telligence you have received of fuch a plot werefupport- 
ed but by a thoufandth part of the proofs that I have ad- 
duced of the plots contriving againft your country, and 
againft every ftate without exception, would you vv;ifte 
that time in idle declamations and fuperfluous doubts on 
your dangers, which your perfidious friends were hufband- 
jng for your ruin ? or would you expect to fee perfons be- 

feeching you to watch for your own prefervation ? 

Well, I now wifh to convince ye. whether princes, nor- 
bles, rich, poor, burgeiTes, merchants, citizens, in fine, of 
every clafs, that all thefe confpiracies of the fophifticated, 
mafonic, or illuminizing adepts, are confpiracies againft 
your perfons, againft your property, (whether hereditary 
or mercantile,) againft your families, your wives and chil- 
dren. Are you wild enough to believe, that while your 
country is delivered over to the revolutionary conflagra- 
tion, an exception will be made in your favor, becaufe 
you inhabit fuch or fuch a place, counting-houf/, or cot? 
In the univerfal pillage of the ftate, fhall your property 
be more facred than that of your neighbor, and eicape the 
rapacity of the brigands, or the requifkion of their Fen- 
tarques ? The characteriftic of a revolution made by fec- 
taries is, not that the danger is diminifhed by its univer- 
fality, but that terror, indigence, and fjavery, rufh down 
like a torrent, fvvallowing and beating down without di- 
ftindtion every thing that is to be found on its paftage. 

In the whole progrefs of the Sect, wherever it has ac- 
quired fovereignty, in France, in Holland, in Brabant, in 
Savoy, in Switzerland, in Italy, fearch for a fingle man 
U u 

33^ antisocial conspiracy; 

of property that has preferved it entire; a poor parent thaï 
has not had to fear for the requifition of his children, or 
his own labor j a fmgle family that has not to weep for 
the lofs, or ruin of fome one of its branches; a fingle citi- 
zen that can lay himfelf down to reft with the profpect of 
being able to fay» when he awakes, that his property, his 
liberty,, his life, is any better guaranteed to him, than was 
that of the unfortunate vi£Ums whom he had feen durin»" 


the day plundered of their property, dragged in chains, or 
falling under the infatiable guillotine. — No, they are not 
to be found. Ceafe then, fluggard, to flatter thyielf. The 
danger is imminent, it is terrible, it ftares ye all in the 
face without exception. 

Yet fink not under the prefigure of terror; that would 
be cowardice indeed ; for, though fo pohtive as to the cer- 
tainty of vour danger, I may boldly fay, Wiil it only, and 
your falvation is certain. I appeal to the Jacobins them- 
felves; for how often have they repeated, that K it is not 
poilible to triumph over a nation that is determined to de- 
fend itfelf." Will as they do and you will have little to 
fear from them. The true Jacobin is not to be difcour- 
couraged by oppofition, The myfteries infufe into the 
adepts a uniform, confiant, and relentlefs determination 
to attain the grand object in fpite of every obftacle; that 

, that irrevocable oath of overturning the whole uni- 
verle, and iuhjecting it to their fyftems, is the true prin- 
ciple whence originate their refources; this fires the zeal 
ol the adepts, and induces them to make fuch numerous 

■hces; it infpires its warriors with enthufiafm ; itcrc- 

rage and fury in the heart of its brigands. It is this 
principle which conftitutés the Sect; in that its force re- 
iides; it is the director and mover of its adepts, whether 
in arms, in the clubs, in the lodges, or deliberating in the 
fenate. — But what inferences may not nations draw from 
this very principle as to the nature of their plots? Does 
it not entitle us to fay, that the whole of the French revo- 
lution is nothing more than the offspring of that oath, of 
that premeditated determination of overturning the altar, 
the throne, and fociety, which the Seel has infufed into 

Jepts? It triumphs becaufe it knows how to will; 
hence it is evident, that to render their efforts abortive we 
need only îefolutely to ivlll the falvation of the altar, of 
the throne, and of fociety, and they are faved. Let it not 
be laid, that the Jacobins alone can be fteady in their caufe 


and predetermined on their object. To know the evils 
with which the revolution threatens you, and to determine 
boLdly and refolutely to counteract them, does not cer- 
tainly difpenfe us from the obligation of applying to the 
means, and of making the neceflary efforts and facrifices 
to deliver us from the fcourge; yet do not let it be; tho't 
that it is idle in me to infift on that buldnefs, fincerity, and 
determination. The French revolution is in its nature 
fimilar to our parlions and vices: it is generally known, 
that misfortunes are the natural confequences of indulg- 
ing them; and one would willingly avoid fuch confe- 
quences: buta faint-hearted reiifrance is made; our pas- 
fions and our vices foon triumph, and man is hurried away 
by them-. 

But mould Ï, on the contrary, have fucceeded in infpir- 
ing you with tne courage neceflary to make you act with 
relblution; if you need but to know the true means of 
counteracting the Sect to adopta firm renltance; then I 
may boldly fay, the Seel: is cruihed, the difafters of the 
revolution (hull difappear. — But the reader, whofe human- 
ity might be alarmed at my faying the Seal is -crufoeel, 
fhould remember that when i faid the Seclrnuji be crujh- 
ed or fociety overthrown, I took care immediately to add, 
" Let it however be remembered, that to crufh a Sect is 
" not to imitate the fury of its apofties, intoxicated with its 
" (anguinary rage and propenfc to enthufiafric murder. — . 
" The Sect is monitrous, but all its difciples are not mon- 
" iters; — yes,ftrike the "Jacobin, but /pare the Man; the 
w Se£t is a feet of opinion; and its deftrutition will be 
" doubly complete on the day when it fhall be deferted 
" by its difciples, to return to the true principles of rea- 
** fon and facial order."*" It is to reclaim the unfortunate 
victims of Jacobinifm from their errors, and toreftore t 
to fociety, not to butcher them, that i have been fo ionj* 
examining and tracing all the tortuous windings of the 
SscTt; and I am overjoyed to fee that fuch weapons 
felf-prefervation are the natural refait of thefe Memoirs. 
How different are thefe arms from thole with which the 
Sect has provided its difciples. 

The Jacobins have fcduced nations by means of a fub- 
terraneous warfare of illuiion, error, a 
the honeit men oppofe them with wifdom, truth, and light, 

* See Preliminary Difcoourle, Vol. I. P. xiii. 

340 antisocial conspiracy; 

The Jacobins are waging againft Princes and Govern* 
ments a war of hatred of the laws and of fecial order — à 
war of rage and deftruétion ; let a war of fociety, human- 
ity, and felf-prefervation be waged againft them. 

The Jacobins are waging a war of impiety and cor- 
ruption againft the altars and religion of every nation; 
let morality, virtue, and repentance be oppofed to them. 

I explain: — when 1 fpeak of a fubrerraneous warfare 
of illulion, error, and darknefs waged by the Seél, I al- 
lude to the productions of its fophifters, to the artifiCcSof 
its emiflaries, and to the myfteriesof its clubs, lodges, and 
fecret focieties. It would be ufelefs to contelt the point; 
for we have incontrovertibly demonftrated, that thofe have 
been the preparatory means for all its revolutionary tri- 
umphs. It is by fuch means that Jacobinifm has infinua- 
ted itfelf under the fpecious forms of a diforganiaing Equa- 
lity and Liberty, or of a chimerical Sovereignty of the 
People, which has ever been the cant of thofe fa&ious tri- 
bunes, who, by Battering their pride, fought to enflave 
that fame people. It is by retailing all the fophifticated 
doctrines of the Rights of Man to the multitude, by vio- 
lent declamations agairifl the exifting laws, by captious 
and fallacious defcriptions of a fuppoied happinefs which 
they are preparing for us, by urging nations on tozertain 
ejjays at leafty by fuch means do tue emiflaries of Jaco- 
binifin feduce nations, and imperioufly fway that public 
opinion which will fooner level your ramparts than all thé 
artillery that they can bring againft them; From fuch 
inconteftable facts I conclude, that if it be your in en ion 
to guard againft the misfortunes which have befallen 
France, you muft begin by difarming the Sect of all its 
means of illufion. Snatch from the hands of the people 
all thofe incendiary productions; but when I fay people^ 
I mean from every clafs of fociety; for I know none that 
are proof againft illufion; more particularly would I fay, 
from that clafs which has been fuppofed fo have been moft 
abundant in learning, that clafs of literary fophifters, fuch 
as our Voltaires, D'Alemberts, Rouflcaus, Diciero-s,our 
academicians, and our doclrineers of the reading focieiies; 
for this is* the clafs of all others thai has ihown us me ex- 
ample of the powerful illulion of fophiftry. It was from 
this clafs that the revolutionary minifters Necker and 
Turgot ftaned up; from this clafs arofe thofe - grand re- 
volutionary agentSj the Ivlirabeaux, Syeyes, Laclos, Cort- 


dorcets; thofe revolutionary trumps, the Brîflots, Champ- 
forts, Garats, Merciers, Pailorets, Gudins, La Metheries, 
Lalandes, Cheniers; thofe revolutionary butchers, the 
Carras, Frerons, Marats; I will alfo ùy of that clafs of 
advocates fo verbofe and fertile in delirium ; for from a- 
mong them fprung the Targets, Camus, Treillards, Bar- 
reres, and all the tyrants of the revolution, the Reveil- 
lère-Lepaux, Reubels, Merlins, and Robefpierres. What 
have all thefe men proved, whether taken from the acade- 
mies or from the bar? — that if they were the peifons 
whofe talents enabled them to reprefent all this fopbiftry 
of impiety, of fedition, and rebellion, in the molt fedu- 
ting colours, they were alio the perfons that were moft eafi- 
ly imbued with and drank moil deeply of the poifon;— 
they were at once the moil readily tainted and the moll 
eager to taint others. — No; I can make no exception of 
chiles 5 none are entitled to an exception when I exclaim 
to Magiftrates and Sovereigns — Will you lave the peo- 
ple from the difaiters of the French Revolution? — then 
fnatch from their hands thofe incendiary productions— « 
thofe libels of impiety and fedition. Let that man be pun- 
ifhed as a traitor 5 who writes and circulates fuch writings^ 
confeious of the injury he is doing to fociety; let him 
meec with the fate of a madman, if he thinks he can fe- 
duee, and Hop the confequences of feduciion. 

But I hear clamours on all fides ariiing in the literary 
world, of intolerance, of tyranny, of cramping genius ! — ■ 
I forefaw that I ihould have to treat with men lukewarm 
in the caufe, faying they were determined, nevertheleis un- 
willing; faying they detefted the revolution, but timor- 
ous when it is to be cruihed in the germ. But you, at 
leafl, who profefs to enlighten nations by your writing?, 
to point out maxims to Princes for the happinefs of their 
people, you who demoniirate the goodnefs of your inten- 
tions by the purity of your principles, by your zeal in de- 
fence of the laws, by the v/ifdom of your writings, is it 
from you, I afk, that fuch cries arife? — No, no: {hackles 
thrown on the venemous writer circulating his poifonsj 
will never give concern to the honeft writer; againft 
laws prohibiting poignards none will rebel but the aifas- 
fin. Let as no longer be led away by the ftale cries of 
Liberty of the Prefs, Liberty of Genius; fuch cries in 
the mouths of the Jacobins will be but a (hallow cover to 
their defigns;— fee what the Sect does iifelf, left any writ- 


cr ftould open the eyes of the people by the expofition of 
real truth; wherever the adepts have acquired dominion, 
iifk what is to be underftood by liberty of thinking, of 
fpeàking, of writing. They deftroy not only the author, 
but Teller, and even buyer of every book thnt combats 
their fyftems. The printing prefl'es of Crapard, the pub- 
lications of La Harpe, or the difcourfe of Camille du Jour- 

., are fo many con (piracies punifhed by the Pentarques, 
with exile to Cayenne. It is high time for nations to o- 
pen their eyes, and difpel the illufion of all this pretended 
oppreffioh of thought and genius. If Magiftrates are the 
dupes of iuch outcries, the people are the victims, and na- 
tions rauft be preferved from the illuiîon that they may 
be faved from the revolution, it is the act of a father and 
not of a tyrant, that takes from the hands of his children 
fuch inftruments as may prove fatal to them. 

Let the fophi&er talk of ufeful difcuffions. Go to an- 
tiquity, and quefrion the Roman fenate why it drove from 
the foil of the republic that fwarm of Sophifts* juif, arri- 
ved from the Grecian fhores, fo expert in the quibbling 
arts j and the fenate will anfwer, that they do not enter 
into difcuffions to know whether the plague is ufeful, 
that they haiten to feparate from their fdlow countrymen 
whoever has been tainted with it, and to deftroy what- 
ever may propagate it. Guard the people, therefore, 

tinft fuch vile feducers; tremble at the effects of their 
djfcouifesj but tear ftill more the puifons of their impi- 
ous and feditious productions. 

Your laws pronounce death againft a traitor, though 
he betrayed his confpiracy but by a fmgle word ; and a 
confpiring fophiiter may commune and habitually con- 
verle with all your lubjeéts by means of his writings ! he 
is in the midft of your families; he inftils his principles 
into vour children; his arguments become more and 

* The word foph ifter has been made ufe of throughout this 
work, to diftinguifh tbe modern rebels from the G eek Philo- 
fophers of the ichool of Sophifts. Johnion, in his dictionary, 
d .lines Sophister as a difpulant ..'. fubtle ; an art- 

ful but inj h is the ipecies of men that have 

been defe s work, who, confeious of their own fal- 

lacy, but acting the part or Satan to pervert mankind, mould 
never bë confounded with thofe men of antiquity whofe iys- 
: itttion may have been fallacious, but whofe inten- 

wete upright, and who did not combat every facred or 
fecial principle in hopes of fubvertiog fociety. "Tranf. 


more cogent ; he dwells on them ; they are prefented un- 
der all the dazzling colors that a perfidious genius could 
invent after a long iludy how to feduce your offspring, 
lead them aftray, or ftir them up to revolt againft you ! 
The treafon fpoken by the Jacobin, and for which he has 
been punimed, may have made but a flight imprefaon on 
his hearersj but this labored and ftudied concatenation 
of fophifms will make a deep impreffion. Your laws 
muft be inefficient indeed if the revolutionary writer is 
not flamped as the moft baneful of confpirators; and, 
Magistrate? whoever you are, you mult be moll unmindful 
of your duty, if you allow his writings to circulate freely 
through town and country. 

Are you ftill a ftranger to the immenfe power that 
fuch productions has given to the Seel? The revolution 
has not been ungrateful, and its gratitude points out its 
progenitors. Foiiow the Jacobin to the pantheon; fee 
to whom he has decreed honors, to whom he does ho- 
mage; afk him how Voltaire or Jean Jaques can have 
deferved fuch tribute, fuch honors. He will tell you, that 
thofe men are no more, but that their fpirit has furvived 
them in their writings, and more powerfully combat for 
thecaufe of Jacobinifm than all their armed legions. — . 
Here they prepare the minds and hearts of the people for 
our principles; there they gain over the public opinion 
to our caufe ; and when once that has declared for us, we 
may boldly proceed to certain triumph. Should fuch hon- 
ors dazzle any writer for an inftant, let him {lop and be- 
hold the (hades of the victims facrificed to the revolution 
flitting round the monuments erected to thefe revolution- 
ary deities; fee them ghallly and enraged, pafnng from 
the urn that contains the allies of Voltaire to that of 
Rouileau ; hear them exclaim in bitter reproaches, — ■ 
" Be fatiated with the fumes of Jacobin incenfe ! h is 
not on Jacobins that we call down vengeance from hea- 
ven, for you were our real murderers ! You are n >w 
the object of their adoration; but you were our firft 
executioners, you brought our King to the fcaffold, you 
Hill continue to be the butchers of our progeny. — Ô ye 
Idols of blafphemy and of anarchy ! may their blood, may 
our blood, may all the blood that fhall be fpilt by the bri- 
gands formed at your fchools, fall back upon you !" 

Ye whom the God of fociety has endowed with ta- 
lents which you may turn to tie detriment or conferva- 


tion of fociety, beware that fuch curfes do not fall upon 
you, flee from any thing that may hreed remorfe. Be not 
dazzled wich the Jacobinical tribute paid to thefe fophis- 
ters of darknefs; tney may have fucceeded in obfcurinç 
the light ; it is your duty to rend the cloud afunder, and 
bear in triumph the fuudamental truths. The God who 
formed man for fociety did not give him the code of E- 
quality and Liberty, the code of Rebellion and Anarchy. 
The God who fupports fociety by the wifdom of the laws, 
pever abandoned the making or fan&ioning of thofe laws 
to the caprice of the multitude.. The God who has point- 
ed out the empire and (lability of the laws as inherent ta 
that fuburdination of the citizens to the magiftrates, and 
to their fovereigns, d;d not create as many magiftrates 
and f wereigns as he did citizens. The God that ha? 
bound all claffes together by their mutual wants, and 
who, in of this diverfity of wants, has en- 
dowed men with a variety of talents for different arts 
and profefîïons, has not given the fame rights to the me- 
chanic or to the fhepherd as he has to the prince that is to 
prehde over the ftate. Reftore to thefe fimple and plain 
truths, all that refplendency which has for a moment been 
obfeured by the fophifters of rebellion j and the dangers 
of the revolution will foon difappear. Be as earneft in 
reftoring the people to light, as the Jacobins have been 
in plunging them into darknefs. Reflore them to their 
principles pure and untarnished. There is no compound- 
ing with error ; the Sedt cares not by which road illu T 
fion may lead you to revolution, provided you do but fall 
a victim. Some it will attack with anti-religious fophifms, 
while it tampers with others by means of its antifocial 
fophiftry. To fome it will unfold but a part of the con- 
fequences to be drawn, point out but one half of the ca- 
reer that is to be i un, or, under pretence of reform, pro- 
pofe fome few eflays or new means to be tried. But far be 
driven from us thefe demi-geniufes of demi-revolutions 
with their long train of demi-confequences ? This is the 
tribe whence the Se<5t will felect a La Fayette or a Neck- 
er, pu{h them forward as long as they can ferve the caufe, 
and then abandon fuch non-entities ; or thofe open re- 
bels ftyling themfelves Conjliiutwnalifts, or thofe others 
called (probably through derifion) Monarchifts. They 
were the beginners of the revolution, and are at this pre- 
fent day imbecile enough to teftify their furprize at other 


rebels having fhivered a fceptre which they had begun by 
disjointing. Writers of this fpecies, fo far from enlight- 
ening the people, only contribute to lead them into the 
path of error; and that was the tafk of the firft revolu- 
tionary adepts. 

In your writings beware of falling into an error fimi- 
lar to that of a celebrated author, who thinks he is ferving 
the caufe of monarchy when defcribing religion as a fruit- 
lefs ally. How is itpoffible that he fhould not better feel 
the confequences of that farcaftic fentence borrowed from 
JBayle and Rouffeau, he who, in the midft of the moft 
prefling and moft appofite exhortations to princes to unite 
and combine againfl Jacobinifm, forgets himfelf Co far as 
to ùy y " In a fimilar crilis, the Romans would have flown 
** to arms refolved to conquer or die, the primitive Chris- 
e< tians would bave Jung hymns to Providence and rujhed 
" to martyrdom.', their fucceffors neither die nor fight.*" 
Moft undoubtedly, it cannot be the intention of the au- 
thor to revive that contempt which the Sophifters fo much 
affect for Religion ; but what a falfe policy to reprcfent 
that alledged nullity as inherent to Chriftianity at a time 
when the courage of nations fhould be ftirred up againfl: 
the revolutionary tyrants ! Happily it is not true, that the 
primitive Chriftians would only have fung hymns to Pro- 
vidence and ruihed on to martyrdom. The primitive 
Chriftians were not ideots ; they did not confound the 
legitimate powers, which they could only oppofe by the 
courage of martyrs, with the ufurped power of a tyrant 
or of barbarians that came to inundate the empire. They 
could conquer or die under the ftandard of the Csfars as 
manfully as the Romans; nay, they furpafied thern in cou- 
rage and relignatiori, and their apobgifts were well 
grounded when they let the Sophifters at defiance to point 
out a fingle coward or traitor among the Chriftian le- 
gions. In our days too, did thofe heroic Chriftians of 
the Vendee content themfelves with finging hymns, they 
whofe courage was more terrible to the republicans than 
all the combined forces of Clairfait or Beaulieu r" Where 
have we feen any of our emigrants that have diftinguHh- 
ed themfelves by their piety, chanting hymns to Pro- 
vidence during the hour of battle ? Whence this triple 
X x 

* Mercure Britannique, Vol. I. No. IV. P. 39». 


infuît to the Chriftian hero, to his religion, and to the 
very evidence of reafon? Whence this affectation of re- 
presenting the powerful and active incitements of Chrift- 
ianity as ufelefs to governments ? Is not the crown of a 
ioldier dying for laws or for his king, which his God 
commands him to defend, as valuable as your laurel- 
wreath ? Tell then the Chriftian foldier,that the coward 
and the traitor (hall not enter into the kingdom of Hea- 
ven, and fee whether he will not conquer or die. You 
think that you are ferving the caufe of fociety againft Ja- 
cobinifm by reprefenting Chriftianity as imbecility. Ja- 
cobins would reward fuch farcaftic fentences, becaufe 
they *forefee their confequences. Are our writers then to 
be always outwitted by theirs; they can combine their 
efforts againft the altar and the throne; and fhall we 
never be able to defend the one without betraying the in- 
terdis of the other ? 

What can be the caufe of fuch imprudence, fuch falfe 
lights ? Neither do they ftudy fufHciently the Se& nor its 
artifices. They wifli to be blind to its power, and even to 
its influence. I alfo am an admirer of the vigor of that 
fame writer, who feeks to ftir up the courage of nations ; 
but {hould he mifiake the real caufes of our misfortunes, 
what have we not to fear from writers who are endowed 
neither with his knowledge or his energy ? Will not the 
Seel: rejoice to hear him fay, " it is far more to that con- 
" tinental fatalifm than to the illuminées, that we are to 
" attribute the lethargy of the higher orders of fociety?" 
I know not what continental or infular_/i?fû/////z can fig- 
nify. God forbid that Princes fhould for an iiiftant be- 
lieve in it, for it would only be immerfing them {till deep- 
er in their lethargy. No efforts are made againft fatality j 
I know, at leaft, that the Illuminées would rejoice to fee 
no credit given to their exifting influence; for the lefs 
they fhall be feared in confequence of your writings, few- 
er will be the precautions taken to guard againft them. 
I am pofitive, that had you ftudied one half of the arts 
employed by the Infmuators to feduce the higher clafTes, 
and even courts themfelves, you would be the firfttofind 
a very different caufe than fatalifm for the continental 

* It is evident, however, that the author of the Britijh Mer- 
cury never wifhed to favor the Illuminées. He is as indignant 


Far be from me the abfurd pretention of alone enjoy- 
ing the means of giving ufeful counfels. It is, on the 
contrary, becaufe I with that the public fhould be im- 
proved by your's, that 1 am eager to fee you better in- 
formed of the real caufe of all our misfortunes. I could 
wifli to fee a holy league formed of fuch men of talents 
as are really actuated with a true zeal againft the revolu- 
tionary errors. My reader has feen the baneful effects 
of that coalition of the fophifticated writers of Holbach's 
Club, of the Sophifters of the Mafonic and of the Illu- 
minized Lodges ; he has feen the influence of their prin- 
ciples on the public opinion, and of opinion on our mis- 
fortunes; why fhould not virtuous and learned writers 
then unite in their efforts to bring back the public opin- 
ion and the people to the true principles, by laying open 
all the artifice and cunning that has been employed by the 
Seel to feduce them. 

The Code has been explicit on the means to be em- 
ployed for the fedu£tion of youth, a time of life moft ac- 
ceffible to illufion. Will not virtuous fathers take upon 

as we are at the fucceiTes of the inept Phihfophifls of modern 
republicanifm, of that levolutionary warfare waging againft 
property and the laws, of thofe young Jacobins juft corning 
from the Univerfity of Gottinguen. He is indignant at the 
audacity of the revolutionary letters and of the northern league, 
that is to fay, of a company of Theologians, Prcfeffors, and Phi- 
lo fophers offiolfiein, who afk to form a central auembly, having 
under it fubordin^te committees to form and direct public edu- 
cation, without being under any control of government . laws or 
religion (P. 192). He would have fpoken juft as we have done 
of the Illuminées, had he known thefe pbiio/cpbical abfurdities 
and their fucceflès to be the work of the Seel; that the youths 
come from Gottinguen were juft arriving from a haunt of Illu- 
mimfm ; that the northern league is nothing more than a brant h 
of the German Union invented by the Illuminée Bahrdt: that 
the plan of education originated with the lUuminee Campe, 
heretofore pallor and preacher to the gan il'on of Potzdam. call- 
ed to Brtinfwick, protected by the firft minilter, and decora- 
ted with the appellation of French Citizen, in recompenie for 
what he has more particularly written on the independency of 
education. — (See the Univerfal Revijion of 'every thing relating 
to Schools, Vol. VI). 1 (hall therefore tepeat. Studv the Seer, 
ftudy its code, its hiftory ; ftudy its means for feducing the 
Great; and. fo far from defpifing the influence of the Seel, you 
will find the caufe of that difaftrous lethargy which haa feized 
on men whofe duty it is to be moft active, far better explained 
than by your Fuialifm. 

348 antisocial conspiracy; 

themfelves to difcard from their children matters of fufpi* 
cious characters, and books that dilieminate thefe poifons? 
Will not governments take as much pains to drive the 
adepts from the pulpit, from the chairs of fcience and pro- 
feflorfhips, as we have ken the Se£t taking to make it- 
felf matter of education and to corrupt youth ? Unhappy 
we, fhould the reader be affrighted at the detail of fucji 
precautions, while the Seel attends to each particularity^ 
and we have- ken it as eager for the nomination of a 
country fchoolmailer, as for the fuccefs of an adept at 
court, or the nomination of the general who is to com- 
mand its legions. 

One fpecies of illufion appears to be the favorite en- 
gine of Jacobinifm, I mean that theory of ellays in go- 
vernment, and thofe demi- reforms. No art has been 
more powerfully played off on the Englifh nation than 
this ; let the people be put on their guard againft this 
illufion ; let them be taught, that Fiance alfo began by 
ellays and demi-reforms ; I need not hint at their confe- 
quuiccs. If it be neceflary to humble the pride of the 
jacobin Sophifrer, and blight the very idea of that pre- 
tended happinefs which they attach to their fyftems, let 
the people learn that fuch efTays have long fince been 
made; that the brigands who appeared under the differ- 
ent denominations of Lollards, Bcgards, followers of John 
Wall, of Mailiotin, and of Muncer, all promifed the fu- 
preme happinefs of Equality and Liberty; that it was 
perfectly ufelefs to talk to us of the Philofophy of a revo- 
lution that was nothing more than the repetition of the 
errors of certain Sects of which the barbarous and de- 
vastating tenets could only be equalled bv the horror and 
contempt in which they are held by our anceflors. When* 
under pretence of arguing on certain truths the Jacobin 
feeks to lead you into difcutfion, guard againft his (o- 
phifrry, by anfv/erinp, that no argumentation can be held 
with Wei pt or Robefpierre; the fir ft will retail all 
the arguments of former brigands, the latter does what 
they did; for if our modern Jacobins have invented any 
thing of their own, it is a little more artifice and an un- 
paralleled ferocity. They are then the more entitled to 
our contempt i.i:d hatred. 

If every where encountered by this two-fold fentiment, 
the Sett will K>on lofe that power of illufion which has 
prepared its triumphs, and you will fee it Ihrinking back 


into its fubterraneous lurking places, the occult Loda^s 
which have fo long iïnce offered it an afylum. There 
it wiil once more attempt to recruit its legions, and con- 
trive plots for the fubveriïon of the altar, of the throe, 
and of fociety. But here what honed citizen can be 
blind to his duty ? Under whatever name, pretence, or 
form, the magistracy may have thought proper to tole- 
rate thefe clubs, fubterraneous hiding-places, or Lodges 
of fecret focieties, what proofs are they waiting for to 
profcribe them all, now that they have (cen legions of 
confpirators (allying forth from thefe recefTes ? You who 
look, upon yourfeives as entitled to an honorable excep- 
tion, why are you feated there Mill ? You are tender of 
your perional loyalty, of your fidelity to your religion and 
to your country, how can you make fuch fentiments agree 
with your predilection for Lodges that you know to have 
been the afylum of the moil confpiring Se£ls ? Do not 
pretend that it is us, for it is the Jacobins, the moit mon- 
strous chiefs of the Jacobins, their correfpondence, their 
fpeeches, and all the archives of their hiftory, that have 
unfolded to you the immenfe fupport they have derived 
from your myfteries and from all your fecret focieties-, in 
the profecution of their confpiracies againftyàf/^/y in ge- 
neral, againft all laws, and againft every altar. In vain 
fhall you attempt to hide it ; no part of hiftory can be 
better authenticated; thefe confpiracies are proved at any 
rate to have gained admittance into your Lodges, and to 
have acquired ftrength and numbers from them. Your 
particular Lodge may not be one of thofe with whole 
honor the Seel: has tampered; we are willing to beiicve 
it ; but what proofs can you adduce ? the Seel: knows too 
well how to clothe perjury in the garb of innocence — - 
We are willing to believe it, and that will be another 
motive why we fh mid conjure you in the name of your 
country to abandon thofe Lodges. Your prefence is on- 
ly a cloak for confpirators. The more unblemifhed may 
be your character of honor, the more will the confpiring 
adepts boait of your name, and of the fraternity and in- 
timacy in which you live with them. — We addrefs our 
complaints to you yourfeives, but own that we have fuf- 
ficient grounds to addrefs them to the prince or to the 
fenate; may we not with truth denounce you as demi- 
citizens, lince by your oath the interefts of the brother- 
hood are more dear to you than thofe of your fellovv-fub- 

35© antisocial conspiracy; 

jects ? Are we not entitled to afk, whether you are not a 
fecret enemy to every citizen who has the intereft of re- 
ligion and his country at heart, fince you are a member 
of a fecret fociety, under the cloak of which a multitude 
ôf brethren are confpiring againft our religion and our 
laws, and that it is impoffible to diftinguifh the innocent 
fr./m the guilty ? What right would you have to com- 
plain if the fenate and your prince were to exclude you 
from your magiftracy, or from every office that requires 
the whole attention of an impartial citizen, and on whom 
no fufpicion can alight, as it appears that your affection 
is at leaft divided between fociety in general and your fe- 
cret focieties, as that affection, according to your own 
laws, muft be greater for the members of your fecret foci- 
eties than for us; fince, infnort, it has been demonftrated, 
that a large portion of the members of fecret focieties are 
rr reconfpirators? In vain will you cbjedi that you have ne- 
ver vvitnefled any thing reprehensible in the Lodges. Were 
you only initiated in the myfteries of the Grand Lodge 
of London, know, that notwithftanding all the exceptions 
we have made in its favor, fufpicions are even caft upon 
that Lodge, and a reviewer thinks himfelf founded in de- 
nying the validity of fuch exceptions.* If you are fo 
Carelefs of your reputation as to remain infenfible to fuch 
fufpicions, allow me at leaft to addrefs myfelf to you in 
the name of all mankind, whofe intercfts you tell us are fo 
dear to you. 

No longer than a century ago the remaining part of 
Europe was nearly a ftranger to your Lodges and their 
myfteries. You made it the baneful prefent ; the new- 
erected Lodges have filled with Jacobins, and from them 
the moft difaftrous fcourge that has ever befallen the uni- 
veiib has rufhed forth to produce thefc terrible effects; 
you imparted to them the myfteries of your Equality and 
of your Liberty; to combine and prepare them, you in- 
troduced them into your tenebrous afyiums; to prepare 
their pupils, you taught them your trials and your oaths; 
and that they might propagate their confpiracies from 
pole to pole, you lent them your language, your fymbols, 
your figns> your cypher, your directories, your hierarchy, 
and all die regulations for your invinble correfpondence. 

* See the Monthly Review, Appendix to Vol. XXXV.Page 


The offspring may have improved on the myfteries of 
their progenitors; but has not their conduct been fuchas 
to make you abjure all connection with them; have not 
your Lodges been fo prophaned as to make you haften to 
abandon them; is not the difaftrous fcourge that has 
burft from them a Sufficient ground for eternally clofing 
their gates ? O you, whofe fleets, under the protection of 
heaven, ride triumphant over the main, difpelling the 
fleets of the Sect? O grant to the univerfe a victory, 
perhaps of ftill greater importance. At the fight of your 
admirais the Sect difappears; drive then from itsrecelTes 
that bantling of yours; Show that if the abufe of your 
myfterious affociations may in poifibility be fatal to the 
univerfe, you are willing at lead to 'deprive the vtie con- 
Spirators of every plea that can tarniih your glory. Show, 
that if fports, innocent in jour hands, could grow into a 
fcourge in the hands of others, you are not backward in 
making a facririce of fuch utility to nations. Your ex- 
ample would be powerful; and it is incumbent on you 
to pronounce the anathema on fecret focieties; to clofe 
the gates of the Lodgts, to clofe them all without excep- 
tion, nevermore to be opened, whatever may be the na- 
ture of their myfteries. None can exift into which the 
St£i will not attempt to penetrate ; none can exiit where 
the magistrate and honeft citizen can fit down certain 
that the Sect has not intruded with its plots and means 
of {'eduction. The more zealous you may be for the pre- 
servation of our laws, the lefs will you be enabled to fe- 
cure us againft the plots of the Sect; for though it fliall 
ever commune with you it will not lay its views open to 
you until it has feducedyou. Mafons of England, what 
a fatal gift have you made to the world ! May the his- 
torian who (ball write the annals of this age, when 
Speaking of the fcourge that has ruihed forth from the 
Lodges, conclude by faying, if England made the banefij 
preSent to the univerfe, it was alio the firit to facririce its 
own Lodges for the fafety of nations. 

Why ihould not every honeft Mafon on the Conti- 
nent addrefs himfelf in terms fimilar to thofe in which we 
addrefs the Engliih brotherhood ? Their prefence would 
no longer be a cloak to the Myfteries of the confpiring 
Jacobins. Left to themfelves, they could no longer phad 
the innocence of their Myfteries. If the Magiitrates 
treated them with all the Severity of the law, he would not 


have to fear the protefts of honeft citizens. Then would 
every thing denote that the time was come to ftrilce all 
fecret focieties with the anathema of the laws; then 
would all the productions of the Sect be fupprefTed, or 
thrown away with indignation by every clafs of citizens. 
True principles only would be taught, and thefe would 
difcard from the minds of the people all thofe diforgani- 
zing errors. The Seel: once diflodged from its lurking 
place?, truth and light would difpel that warfare of illufion, 
error, and dapkru-fs, which, waged by the Sophiftefs of 
Jacobinifm, prepares the way for the triumphant entry of 
its deflrroying brigands. 

But that long-expected day, that day of devaluation 
and plunder foretold in the Myfteries, has dawned. In 
darknefs have the adepts multiplied, and the legions of 
the Sect have Cdlied forth. They now wage the war of 
pikes and deftructJon, they wave the firebrands of revo- 
lution, but have not abandoned the warfare of iMufion.— - 
Sovereigns and Miniiters of Empires! It behoves you 
to item the torrent of thefe men of blood by the marfhal- 
led band of heroes whom you command. I do not pre- 
tend to Hep over the threshold of the chamber where our 
warriors kt in council to deliberate on the means of van- 
quiihing the Sect in the field of battle. But, to enfure 
the fuccefs of your valorous efforts, may we intrude on 
your wifdom to represent that force fbould not attrait 
your entire attention ? The Jacobin is no common ene- 
my. He wages a war of Seel, of profelytifm againfc you ; 
and Sects are not to be vanquished by the fame arms as 
warriors waging a glorious war, or brigands rufhing 
forth from their ungrateful fhores in queft of pillage and 
booty. The feat of conflicf lies in opinions. The Jaco- 
bin lias all the enthufiafm of the Seébary, and has alio the 
force of arms ; that you may overpower his arms, you 
ftiould know the object of his deliriu-n. 

I began by declaring, and think I have eftablifhed the 
pofition, that in this warfare of pikes and firebrands the 
Seat fends forth its legions to ihiver the fcepter, not to 
fight the power; it has not promifed to its adepts the 
crowns of Princes, Kings, and Emperors, but has requi- 
red and bound thofe adepts by an oath to deftroy them all. 
In the Sovereign it is not the perfon that they hate ; but 
it is the chief, the Minifter of the Social Order. The 
war ij; wages againfi a nation is of a fimrlar complexion ; 


it is that war of opinion, which hates, not the Englifh. 
man, but the laws of the Englifh, which abominates not 
the German, the Spaniard, or the Italian, but the God, 
the Altars, the Thrones, the Senates of the German, the 
Spaniard, or the Italian, in (hort, of every people. Do 
not fuffer yourfelf to be mifled ; the Pentarques will cer- 
tainly attempt to warp thefe plans and plots of the Se£t, 
and make them fubfervient to their own ambition; but 
have not the myfteries taught us, that the elevation of an 
Orleans, a Barras, or a Rewbel to the throne, never en- 
tered the mind of the adepts when they murdered their 
lawful Sovereign ? 'It may fupport its tyrannic Pen- 
tarques in the deftruclion of kings and governments, but 
it will crufh thefe tyrants in their turn, when they mall 
have completed the deflruclion of fociety. It is not a 
new Empire that they are feeking to eftablilh; it is at 
the annihilation of every Empire, of all order, rank, dis- 
tinction, property, and focial tie, that they aim. Such is 
the Ultimate View of its myfteries of Equality and Li- 
berty. Such is that reign of anarchy and ablblute inde-r 
pendence, proclaimed in the fubterraneous lurking-places, 
under the appellations of patriarchal reign, of the reign of 
Reafon an d of Nature, 

Sovereigns, Minifters, You who watch for the fafety 
of the fubje£t, ! Is it clear to you why we (o much in lilt 
on this general and predominating hatred as the fole prin- 
ciple and object: of this terrible war ? Becaufe it imme- 
diately points out that it behoves you to combat this re- 
lentlels foe by an ardor and zeal for the univerfal main- 
tenance of focial order; becaufe it is now more than ever 
incumbent on you to caft afide all ideas of perfonal in- 
terest, that might counteract the general effort ; becaufe, 
were it poffible that the interefts of the Sect could for a 
moment coincide with yours, it would be only a duty that 
you would fulfil in fufpending thofe mutual refent'ments 
or national jealoufies that have but too long nurtured en^ 
mities and bloodfh'id; becaufe much woe will befal you, 
if you be imprudent enough to think but for an inftant 
than you can either make the principles or the legions of 
the Sect the instruments of your vengeance, or of your 
perfonal views; for the powers you put in motion Ihall 
{bon fall back upon you. 

I am not one of thofe who thought that they could 
trace fuch a kind of policy in the firft motions of the 

Y y 

354 antisocial conspiracy; 

French revolution, pretending that foreign powers had 
abetted the Jacobins with a view, if not to crufli, at leaft 
to weaken the ancient and powerful fabric of the French 
monarchy. I have probed the ftrength of the Se£t when 
it rufhed from its dens. But let it not be overlooked by 
hiftory; let the terrible example of that man who was 
held one as one of the greateir. politicians of the age, be 
ever prefent to the eyes of fovereigns. The Seel: began 
to demonfrrate the firft elements of its Code of Equality, 
Liberty, and Sovereignty of the People; baneful policy 
ordered La Fayette, D'Eftaing, and Rochambeau, to pro- 
ceed to the fuccor of a colony afTerting its fovereignty 
againft its mother country. I do not pretend to difcuis 
the rights of London or of Philadelphia ; but let the mi- 
nifter, the politician Vergennes rife from his grave, he 
who in America would make, and in Holland abet, revo- 
lutions of the people equal and free; let him look to the 
throne, or feek the (bvereign whole intereft he thought 
' to ferve when ufmg the Seci as an engine of ftate ! ! Let 
the miniiler of Joleph IL \L mean, Mercy D'Argenteau, 
come forth ; let him behold to what an end the fervices 
of thatfovereign populace would lead which he was about 
to affemble in Brabant, or the fervices or thofe pretended 
friends to the public fafety, in other words, of the emijfti- 
ries of the Sect, already omnipotent in Paris, or of thofe 
Jacobins that he would receive and fupport, that he might 
opprefs through the means of anarchy.* No, the Seel 
that has fworn to (hiver every fceptre will not avenge 
any quarrel of your's, or prove a fupport in danger. — > 
JBaniih then every idea of alliance or union with its prin- 
ciples and means ! it can never lole fight of its Ultimate 
End; and if it fhould afFedt, to make a common caufe 
with you in the annihilation of the throne that gives you 
umbrage, it will only be that it may find you Handing 
alone and deftitute of allies when it fhall turn back upon 

To renounce fuch temporary and difaftrous fervices 
can be no great faenhce. \yhen the common enemy of 
fociety rears its head, is it not the duty of the chiefs of fo- 
ciety to forget all private quarrels, and unite in combat- 
ing lo formidable a foe ? Every ftep gained againft it, 

* See Letters on the Affairs of the A uftrian Netherlands» 
Let. II. P. 31. 



"will be a flep gained for yourfelf, for your people, and for 
that portion of fociety over which you prefide. Still far- 
ther from your mind be all thofe ideas of cold economy, 
calculating the; facrifices or efforts you will have to make, 
or the indemnities you may claim ! When the houfe that 
joins your palace is in flames, do you think yourfelf fafe be- 
cause you have not contributed to the conflagration ? Or 
do you enquire what reward is offered for extinguishing 
the flames? More wildly avaricious, would you think of 
pillaging that houfe while the flames were communicating 
to your own ? Save the univerfe, and you ùve your own 
empire. Every throne beat down by the Jacobin, re- 
duces an obftacle that he has to encounter in the attack 
of yours. Will the arfenals he fhall pillage, will the re- 
quifitions of men, and legions raifed, in the newly con- 
quered ftates, enfure the indemnities you afk ; or do you 
expect, by complacency, flaltery, and meannefs, to have 
an exception made in your favor ? Can you hope to fee 
the Pentarques always preferving their neutrality in your 
regard, becaufe for the moment they are pleafed not to 
demand any farther facrifices from you ? Or, when you 
defert the common caufe, will you ground your fecurity 
on treaties of peace, or even on treaties of alliance offen- 
fiveand defenlive ? O virtue ! what defertion of the com- 
mon caufe ! O (hame ! O cowardice ! No, the very u'ca 
of fuch treaties could never have entered your mind, had 
you been acquainted wiih the Seel: that propofts them. 
You have figned them ; but you do not enjoy peace, not 
even a neutrality. You are its flave. You are only the 
mouth-piece of its imperious dictates, until the Seel: fhall 
choofe to llrip you of even the femblance of authority — 
You will tell us, perhaps, that you have been neuter in 
the conteft j that is to fay, you have not dared to attack 
the Jacobin that only waits to drag you into flavery till 
he fhall have cruihed thofe with whom you fhould have 
leagued, and who could have defended you or avenged 
your death. — You have lived in peace with the common 
enemy of fociety ! You have fworn to abandon fociety to 
be butchered, thrones to be annihilated and iceptres to be 
fhivered ; and this without ihowjng the leatr. refifrance. 
— Have you made treaties of alliance? then you have 
fworn to fupport the deftroying hordes, and to contribute 
towards the deft ruclion and devaluation of fociety. 

You are fenlible as we are of the fhame, of the igno- 


356 antisocial conspiracy; 

miny, of fuch-a-neutrality, peace, or alliance.— But a fa* 
perior force commands. . . . Then fay that you are van* 
quiftied, that you are a flave to the Se£t, and we (hall 
then aik, if on no occafion a valiant death be preferable 
to fiavery ? Is that throne faved, around which you ftill 
hover, by permiffion of the Seel:, merely as the mouth- 
piece of its commands ? Are your people faved, who are 
obliged to fully their hands with the crimes inherent to 
Jacobins ? Is that Have free, who, chained to the bench 
of the gallies, can only handle his oars in the fervice of a 
pirate ? If you itill preferve any glimmerings of Liberty, 
if your ftrength be not entirely exhaufted, rife, Oh ! rife 
once more, and fight the battles of fociety ! — Could you 
ftill be lead aftray by that flitting femblance of authority 
which the Seel has allowed you, hearken to Jean de Brie, 
propofing in the name of the S ear, in the midft ofitsle- 
gillators, to raife a legion of twelve hundred ajfajjins^ and 
to fend them, not to kill one king, but to murder every 
king! Did not thofe iegifiators announce to you in terms 
fufHciently clear the fate which they intended for you and 
your people, when they declared that they vto\i\<\ frater- 
nize wi h every nation that wifhed to (hake off its laws 
or rife againfl: its m agi ft rates and fovereign ?* Would 
you wifh to perfuade yourfelf that there exifts a iingle 
king who is not comprehended within the revolutionary 
profcription, go and affift at the annual celebration of the 
feftival held by the Se£t in honor of the murderers of 
their king; go and hearken to their conftituted authori- 
ties, and to the ambaffadors whom they fend to the neu- 
tral or allied Powers, all folemnly f wearing the oath of 
hatred to royalty. You have feen the adepts teaching in 
the univerfities, that but a few more years will elapfe be- 
fore the lait myfteries of the Seel: ihall be accomplished ; 
then neither king nor magiftrate fhall exift, nor a fingle 
nation, country, or fociety governed by laws. And with 
fuch a profpeft before you, do you ftill hefitate at throw- 
ing afide petty jealouhes and perfonal interefts ? Shall 
pretentions, miirrufts, and enmities, between king and 
king, or nation and nation, difunite you, when fociery 
çalk upon you for the dstfence not only of your own crown 
but of every crown, not -only of your own nation but of 
every nation wherever laws are recognized ? 

* Decree of the 9th November, 179*. 


It is not yet too late. Nations are {till more powerful 
than the Sect; let then every nation unite ; let their Icings, 
their fenates, their people, join in the commun caufe; let 
every man living in the ftate of fociety confider the war- 
fare waged by the Se£t againft fociety and property as 
aimed at his own perfon. Shall the heart of the Jacobin 
alone be inflamed by the fire of enthufiafn ? Shall the 
defolation of your country, the destruction of your altars, 
of your laws, of your fortunes, the devaluation of your 
towns and manfions, the tearing away of your children, 
not roufe you from your lethargy ? Shall not fuch fights 
infpire you with courage, are ihey not inducements for 
facrifices as powerful atleaft as the enthuliaf n of delirium 
in the Jacobin i Shall it (till continue to be faid, that the 
Brigands alone know the power and ftrength of union ? 
Kvery where they are one; they have but one object in 
view; they all ferve but one and the fame caufe; they are 
brethren wherever they meet, merely becaufe they uni- 
verfally aim at the destruction of the focial order. May 
chiefs of nations then unite in one common tie of affec- 
tion; for it is the common intereit of all and each of 
them to preferve that focial order. Such would be my 
definition of a war or zeal for fociety, a war entirely cii- 
rected againft the Sect, and the only means of depriving 
it of thof; refources which it may have but too plentiful- 
ly drawn from politicians hacknied in wars of vengeance, 
jealoufy, and ambition, but little accultomed to the idea of 
i'uch facrifices as wars for the general intereft of fociety 
may require. 

When I thus wifh to ftir up ail nations to make but 
one power, but one nation in the common caufe; when I 
thus wiih to fee them all actuated by the fame zeal and ar- 
dor for combating the Sect; the reader may be tempted 
to afk me, what is become of the war of humanity, of 
felf-prefervation, that I wifhed to fee oppofed to that war- 
fare of fury, destruction, and of fanguinary rage againft 
fociety? — Doubtlefs, it mult afflict me thus to found the 
general alarm, which calls your embattled legions into the 
field of Mars; but when we behold thole of die Seét nur- 
tured on blood and carnage; when thoufands and hun- 
dreds of thoufands of citizens, whole fluggard tranquilli- 
ty and averlion to refiftance could not fave them from fall- 
ing victims; when women, aged parents, and even chil- 
dren, have been butchered fo recently in the mountains 


of Switzerland, juft as they had been before in the fields 
of" La Vendée, and in divers parts of France ; when in eve- 
ry country into which the Seel can penetrate, the inha- 
bitants mult either bend the knee to adore the idol, or per- 
ifh beneath the piker,; who will be the true friend to hu- 
manity? Will that man fet himfelf down for a friend to 
humanity, and as having preferved fociety, who would let 
the armies of the Sect fucceilively proceed from Brabant 
into Holland, from Savoy into Switzerland, from Pied- 
mont into the Milanois, and from thence to Rome, eve- 
ry where overturning focial order, becaufe the Sect eve- 
ry where met but with a feeble and partial refinance?— 
Which then {hall be the true friend to humanity, the man 
who permits the fcourge to extend and ravage all Europe, 
or he who excites you to crufh the germ of fuch horrors ? 
Will the preferver of your life be the man who, fearing 
to probe your wound, (hall let mortification engender in 
your fl --in; or he who, employing the cauftic or the blade$ 
ihall confume or amputate the decayed part to preferve 
the body? Had the counfellors of fuch a cruel humanity 
forefeen that a Sect, whofe empire is terror, whofe means 
are thofe of brigands and affaffins, was not to be over- 
powered by their perfidious complaifance, what horrors, 
and what rivers of blood, would have been fpared. What 
numberlefs citizens has that reign of terror chained to the 
ftandards of the Seel, citizens even who abhorred it!— 
And what numbers would have joined your ftandard, in 
defiance of the reign of terror, had they feen you Waging 
a war againft the Seél, and not a war of ambition. I ne- 
ver affiired at the councils of princes, and am willing to 
believe that my fellow-countrymen have formed an erro- 
neous judgment, and that the reports of partitioning and 
of ambitious views may even have originated with the 
Sect, fince it acquires fuch empire through its means; that 
error has recruited the ranks of the Se<5t with foldiers whofe 
courage and lives Would have been at your difpofal, had 
you found means of convincing them that you had fled 
to armsfolely to vindicate the caufe of monarchy, of their 
religion, and of their laws; had they not been led to think, 
that between two enemies they were obliged to repulfe 
that which was coming, not to defend them, but to pro- 
fit by their diiîcniions, and deliver up their country to pill- 
age, or make them fhare the fate of Venice or Poland ! — . 
Deprive the Jacobins of this vain pretext; let every peo- 


pie that groans under the bondage of the Se& learn from 
your candid declarations, fupported by your deeds, that 
you only come as their faviour and liberator, that your 
legions have no other obje£t in view than the reftoring 
ofthem to the bleflings of fecial order. 
. Bat whither am I wandering, and what was I about to 
promit ? Shall the fate of my country, the deftiny of em- 
pires, folely depend on the ftrength of armies ? There is 
a war far more terrible than that of brigands, which the 
Seel wages againft us. The amazing progreis of impi- 
ety, the corruption of morals, and general apoftacy of an 
age ftvling iifelf the age of Philofophy ; thefe are the real 
arms of the Seel, the grand fource of all misfortunes. Ye 
who may be affrighted at thefe truths became thev may 
affeâ you moie particularly, turn back to the caufes of 
our misfortunes, and you will trace them all to this apos- 

Infuriate as a demoniac of blafphemy, a difaftrous So- 
phifter exclaimed, I will not ferve, my Reaf m mail be 
free. The God of Revelation may perfecute me, but I 
will perfecute him; I will raife a fchool againft him, I will 
furround myfelf withconfpiring adepts, i will fay to them 
Cru/]) the IVretcb — Crufh J — C — . This fchool was 
eftablifhed on the earth ; kings and great men applauded 
the doctrines of this demoniac; they relifhed thembecaufe 
they flattered and unbridled their paffions. This was the 
fir ft ftep towards the revolution. Do not come and 
plague me with idle reprefentations; turn to the archives 
of the impious man whom thou haft idolized; there are 
my proofs. Princes, Nobles, Lords or Knights, fuch was 
trie crime, I will not fay of each of you in particular, but 
fo predominant among you, that I may in feme fort call 
it the crime of your corps. The minifters of that God 
whom you abandoned admonifhed you of the fcourges 
with which apoftates are threatened, and told you that 
your example would be fatal to your people as well as to 
yourfelves. Do you remember how their menaces were 
received ? Attend for a moment to the a£ts of that fchool 
which you fetj up in oppofition to us. Heaven, in its 
wrath, has permitted the offspring of the fophifte.- to 
multiply like unto the locufts. They thought themfclves 
the Gods of Reafon; they alfo raifed their voices, declar- 
ing that they would not ferve; but, turning their eyes to- 
ward you, they added, oppreflion and tyranny has placed 


men like unto us upon thrones; chance of birth has made 
men Nobles and Grandees who are not fo good as our-' 
felves. They faid it; and that Liberty which you avert- 
ed againft your God, when ftimulated by your paffions, 
they now aftert againft you at the inftigation of their pride. 
■ — They con/pire againft the throne and the nobility that 
furrounds it. Abandoned to your blindnefs, you courte- 
ously received this cloud of fophifters, juft as you had re- 
ceived their progenitor. — The priefts of the living God 
came once more and admonifhed you, that this fchool of 
impiety would not only operate the ruin of the church, 
but fweep away into the common mafs of ruin Kings, 
Princes, Laws, and Magiftrates. Reaibn called as loudly 
on you as your priefts; but you had turned away from 
Revelation, and you refufed to hearken to the voice of 

The God whom you daily irritated by your apoftacy 
permitted this cloud of Sophifters to defcend into the a- 
byfs of the Lodges, and there, under pretence of Mafonic 
purfuits, the occult adepts combined their confpiracies 
againft the altar, the throne, and all diftinclions, with thofo 
of the pretended fages whofe dupes you have been. The 
adepts now multiplied as fad as the Sophifters.— ■-Under 
the aufpices of another pretended Sage, who could im*. 
prove on every fpecies of impiety and blafphemy, a new 
Sedt is foftered under the name of Illuminées. — Thefe, 
like the hero of your apoftacy, fwore to cru(h Chrift, as 
his offspring fwore to cruih you yourfelves ; and in com- 
mon with all brigands, fwore to annihilate the empire of 
the laws. — Such has been the fruit of that Philofophifm 
which you would fo obftinately portray as true wifdom. 
At length to diflipat. the illufion, and to call you back to 
the faith of his Gofpd, far more than to avenge himfelf, 
what has your God done? He has filenced his prophets 
and the doctors of his law; he has faid to them, "Dis- 
continue thofe leiTons with which you combat the deliri- 
um of thefe impious men, They raife their Reafon up 
againft me ; it is my Son whom they have fworn to crufh. 
They wiih to reign alone over that people. They have ta- 
ken upon themfelves the important talkofleading them to 
true happinefs ; I will let them a£t; I abandon that peo- 
ple to the wifdom of their new teachers. You, my priefts 
and pontifFs, fly from amidft them, carry away with you 
the Goipel of rny Son. Let their iagcs beat down hi3 


altars ; let them raifc trophies in his temples to their he- 
roes who had fworn to erufti him; and let that people 
proceed under the fole direction of the light of their Rea- 
fon. Begone, retire; together with my Son I abandon 
both the people and their grandees to their fages ; let 
thofe fages be their leaders, fince they turn their backs 
upon me and my Son." 

Frenchmen, the God of your forefathers has thus fpo- 
ken. Oh, how deeply and eafily can he confound the 
prudence of prudent men and the xvifdom of fages ! Go ; 
proceed through that vaft empire which he has abandon- 
ed to your pretended Philofophy. Hispriefts have aban- 
doned it; his altars are beaten down; his gofpel is no 
longer to be found. Now calculate the crimes and difas- 
ters ! ! Go and wander among thofe ruins, behold thofe 
mazes and fhapelefs heaps of rubbiih. Afk of the people, 
what is become of thofe millions of citizens that former- 
ly thronged in their towns and fields; inquire what in- 
undation of Vandals has devastated their land. What has 
been the fate of that town, that proudly towered in mag- 
nificent palaces, or thofe other towns, the modern rivals 
of ancient Tyre ? By what means have thofe riches 
dwindled into nothing that were annually brought from 
the Ihores of the ealT, or the Ifles of the weft. Thofe notes 
of mirth, thofe rural fongs, why have they givW place to 
groans and complaints ? Why is that brow, formerly the • 
ieat of content now knitted and downcaft with terror ; 
and why thofe fighs, that even the fear of being heard 
cannot fupprefs ! All you inhabitants of France, who 
were formerly i'o happy under the laws of your forefa- 
thers, but at prefent victims to all the horrors of the re- 
volution, have you not among ye its Philofophers, the 
wifdom of its Deifts, of its Atheifts, and of its Philan- 
thropists ? And you in particular, the difciples, and for a 
long time the zealous protestors of all thefe revolutiona- 
ry fages, how comes it to pais that you are now difperfed 
on the face of all Europe, poor and deferted ? Is not that 
Philofophy which you fo much idolized now triumphant 
in the very centre of its empire? 

Ah, how bitter would be fuch lan<niaG;e in the mouth 
of a God but too well revenged ! Unhappy victims of 
your confidence in thefc falfe fages ! You now conceive 
how terrible it is to be abandoned to the empire of im- 
piety ! Confefs at laft, that your credulity, your confi- 
Z z 


dence in thefe heroes of Sophiftry has been difaftrous in- 
deed ! They promifed you a revolution of wifdom, of 
light, of yirtue ; and they have curfed you with a revo- 
lution of delirium, extravagance and wickednefs. They 
promifed you a levolution of happinefs, Equality, Li- 
berty, of the golden age ; and they have brought down 
upon you the mod frightful revolution that a God, juft- 
\y irritated by the pride and wickednefs of men, has ever 
poured down upon the earth. Such is the end of all that 
impiety which it has pleafcd you to ftyle Pbilofophy. 

Never let any peribn pretend to dilpute the prime 
caùfe of all our misfortunes. Voltaire and RouiTeau are 
the heroes of your revolution, as they were of your Pbi- 
Iofophifm. It is now time to diflipate the illufion, if you 
with to iee the (courge ceafe, and preferve yourfelf from 
a iimilar danger in future. You muft work a revolution 
that will be the death-blow to that philofophifm of impi- 
ety, if you wifli tu appeafethe God who has only permit- 
ted this fcourge to bcfal man to avenge his Son. It is not 
by perhffing in the outrage, by leaving your hearts a 
prey to the prime caufe of all our misfortunes, that you 
will find the termination of them. The great crime of 
the Jacobin is his impiety; his great ftrength rcfts in 
yours. The powers of hell will fécond him when he 
combats a gain it Chritt; and will heaven, think ye, de- 
■ elare for you, fo long as your morals and your faith ihall 
declare you an enemy to the Son of God ? Bv your im- 
piety you become the brother of the Jacobin. You are a 
jacobin of the revolution againft the altar j and it is not 
by periiiting in this hatred againft the altar, that yru will 
appeafe the God who avenges the altar by the revolution 
annihilating our thrones and our laws. 

Such is the lait and moil important lefTon'that we are 
to derive from thofe feourges that have befallen us in the 
fame gradation as the fophifters of impiety, the fophifters 
of rebellion, the fophifters of anarchy confpired. — O that 
•I may have Succeeded, when terminating thefe Memoirs, 
in engraving it deeply on the minds of my readers ! May 
it more particularly contribute to pave the way for the 
restoration of religion, of the laws, and of happinefs in my 
country ! — May the refearcfres that I have made to disco- 
ver the caufes of the revolution, be ferviceablc to nations 
that may ft ill preferve therrrfelves, or rid themfelves of 
ftxrh difafters! — Then will that God who has fup ported 
me in my puifuit, have blcfled aiv labors with an ample 



N O i 

For the End of Volume IF. of the Memoirs ilhiftrating 
the Hijlory of Jacobinifm. 

ON publishing the Tranflation of the Firft Volume of 
thefe Memoirs, I declared that I confidered myfelf 
as only fulfilling a duty in laying open fo excellent a work 
to thofe of my countrymen who were not fufficiently vers- 
ed in the French language to read the original. The ob- 
ject of the Author throughout has been to fhew the uni- 
verlal havock and defolation with which thefe depredato- 
ry Sects have threatened all Europe] Mine has been to 
excite the vigilant attention of my countrymen, left they 
fall into the Inares that are laid to entrap them. This will, 
I hope, be thought a fufEcient reafon for the following 
more circumftantial application to Ireland and Great Bri- 
tain of the dreadful plots that have been detailed in theie 


Ireland, ever fince the year 1782, had prefented a per- 
petual fcene of different affociauons for different objects. 
The Volunteers had given rife to much debate; the Ro- 
man Catholics had been actively employed in petitioning 
the legiflature for the redrefs of certain grievances under 
which they labored j and their prayer was at length part- 
ly acceeded to. 

The firft appearance, however, of the aftociation to 
which we now allude was in June, 1791. The proposals 
for it are couched in the ftyle and exact terms of the Hie- 
rophants of Illuminifm. They recommend the formation 
of an affociation, or, as it is ftyled, " a beneficent con- 
" fpiracy" to ferve the people; affuming " the fecrçcy 
" and fo me what of the ceremonial attacoed to Freema- 
" ionry." Secrecy is declared to be neceflary to make 
"the bond of union more coheiive, and the. (pi rit of uni- 
" on more ardent; to envelope the plan with ambiguity; 
u to facilitate its own agency; to confound and terrify 


" its enemies by their ignorance of the defign, extent, and 
" direction," &c. Its Ceremonial is alfo Mafonic, in or- 
der to create enthuliafm. " Let every member wear (day 
" and night) an amulet round his neck, containing the 
" great principle which unites the brotherhood, in letters 
" of gold, on a ribbon, ftriped with all the original co- 
" lour?, and inclofcd in a (heath of white filk, to repre- 
" fent the pure, union of the mingled rays, and the aboli- 
" tion of all fuperficial difrinctions, all colours, and {hades 
" of difference, for the fake of one illuflrious End. Let 
A " this amulet of union, faith, and honor, pendent from the 

cc neck, and be bound about the body next to the fkin, 
" and clofe to the heart." — Mafonic Secrecy, Equality, 
and Union, cannot pofiibly be better defcribed. 

Its members are to be chofen from among men in the 
prime of life, without diftinction of religion; true philan- 
thropies, who are not bound down to obedience to that 
" wizard word empire, nor to the fovereigmy of two 
<c founding fyllables;" from among men, in fhort, " who 
" know libertv, who wifh to have it, and who are deter- 
" mined to live and die free-men, (vivre libre ou mourir.) 

This aflbciation (at fir!! called the Iriflj Brotherhood, 
and afterwards the United Irilhmen) " will have, it is 
" faid, an eye provident and prcfpe£tive, a reach and am- 
" plitude of conception commenfurate to the progreilive 
" diflufion of knowledge; — it will make the light of phi- 
" lanthropy converge." Its end is declared to be " 'J he 
" rights of men in Ireland^ the greaieft happinefs of the 
" greateft" number in this Ifiand; the inherent and inde- 
" feafible claims of every tree nation:" For, "the rights 
" of man are the rights of God; and to vindicate the one 
" is to maintain the other. We mull be free, in order to 
" ferve him whofe fervrce is perfe£f. freedom." 

The Hierophant next proceeds toftate, that "to form 
" a fummary of the national will and pleafure in points 
" moil interefting to national happinefs, and then to put 
" this doclrine as fpeedily as may be into practice, will be 
" the purpofe of this Central Society, or Lodge, from 
" which other lodges in the different towns will radiate." 
The diftincrions of rank, of property, and of religious 
perfuaftoris, are to be abolished; but whether any thing 
fhort of " great convuljion" can effectually and fpeedily 
procure the reform propofed, is to be, with many other 
principles of (edition, the fubjeâ; of future difcuflion by 
the afïociatiôn. 


The whole body was to meet four times a year, and 
the (regulating) committee once a month. Thefe meet- 
ings were to be "convivial; conversational, not adebat- 
" ing fociety; and confidential, the heart open and the door 
" locked." Their external buftnefs to confifr, " I ft, in 
" publications to propagate their principles and effectu- 
" ate their ends. All papers for mis purpofe are to be 
" fandrioned by the Committee. — 2dly, Communication 
' ; with the different towns to be affiduoufly kept up, and 
" every exertion ufed toaccomplifh a National Conven- 
" tion. — 3 lly, Communication with Jimilar focieties a- 
" broad, as the Jacobin Club at Paris, the Revolution 
" Society in England, the Committee of Reform in 
" Scotland." 

Eulogies were to be pronounced (as in the Minerval. 
Schools) " on fuch men us fliall have deferved well of their 
u country until death, whofe works mould live in a li- 
<( brary to be formed by ihe fociety and dedicated to Jibe » 
" ty." The arilrocracv (poor dupes) were to be made their 
" inftrumems." — (Iri/h Report, appendix, A T o. IF.) — 
Such was the plan on which this afl'ociation was to be 
formed, and it was recommended to the people of Belfrul 
by a Air. Tone. On the 9th of November, 1 79 1, the day 
on which theaffociation was inftituted at Dublin, a (mil- 
iar invitation was publifhed by it, and was iigned Napper 
Tandy. Thus do we find that Liberty, Equality, Secre- 
cy, Union, and the Rights of Man, were the real objects 
of this allocution. It is true that Parliamentary Reror.n 
and Catholic Emancipation were held out as their only 
objects; but it has fince appeared upon oath, that thefe 
were only pretexts, and that " the people in Leinfter, 
" Munfter, and Connaught did not care the value of a pen, 
" or the drop of ink it contained, for Parliamentary Re- 

"form, or Catholic Emancipation." (Appendix, No. 


Their Forms and Regulations were alfo Mafonic. — 
Members were honorary or ordinary, and admitted be- 
tween two fpon fors, who vouched for the characters and 
principles of the candidates. The fign and word were a- 
dopted. Funds were produced by admiiïion Les, loans, 
and voluntary contributions of the ** Arijhcrats." Taxes 
alfo of one penny per month were levied on the individ- 
uals of the aflociation, and were generally tranfmii ted 
through regular gradations to the High Superior?. Many 


changes, however took place on this fubject, and Iatter- 
ly three pence per month was levied. Thefe funds were 
not even entrufted to the Provincial Committees; but a 
member of ihe Executive attended to carry away the mo- 
nies as foon as they were received. It is true, indeed, that 
the Executive acounied to ihe Provincial Committee once 
every three months. 

A Chairman, or Mafter, prefided over the Lodges, 
whofe duty it was to preferve order and direcSt debates; 
he had the power of fining ref.aclory members to the a- 
mount of five {hillings, and even of expelling the member 
if he continues to be contumacious; as alfo to erafe fuch 
members as did not attend their duty after they had been 
ferved with a regular no. ice. Officers were appointed, 
and the fecretanes always belonged to a higher degree. — 
The concatenation of the degrees perfectly coincides with 
Wehhaupt's plan, as the following fcale of correfpond- 
ence (of National, Provincial, County, and Baronial 
Committees, emanating from the Individual Societies) 
will demonstrate. 















-A- _/v -/y, S>. S^ -K. _A_.A.^ .A» .A- -*- 

When an Individual Society amounted to thirty-fix 
members, it was equally divided by lot. The fir it eigh- 
teen drawn by the Secretary were confidered as the fenior 
fociety, the remaining eighteen formed the junior fplit, 
and received its number from the Baronial Committee 
through the medium of the fenior fplit. 

The Baronial Committee was compofed of the fecre- 
taries, treafurers, and a delegate from each individual 
fociety under their direction. The County and Provincial 
Committees were to be compofed of the fecretaries, trea- 
furers, and a delegate from the Committees immediately 
under them. — (Ibid. No. II.) Ireland was fubdivided in- 
to its four Provinces, and its thirty-two Counties»; but 


as (bon as two County Committees were formed, the Pro- 
vincial Committee of that province was to be chofen.-— 
When two Provincial Committees had been elected, the 
National was formed of five members from each Provin- 
cial Committee. 

No perfon whatever could mention the names of com- 
mittee-men; they were not even known to thofe who had 
elected them in the cafe of the National or Executive 
Committee, the fecretaries of the Provincial that examin- 
ed the ballot only informing the perfons who had the ma- 
jority of voies, without reporting to the Electors. Thus 
was the fociety entirely governed by unknown Superiors. 

When any queftions were propofed in an inferior focie- 
ty, and this fociety vviflied to tranfmit them to other fo- 
cieties (either to get information on the (u'oject, or for any 
other reafon) it was to fend them to the committee under 
whole immediate direction it might be. 

Strange members were admitted to the meetings, (or, 
as they termed it, " to the honors of 'the fitting* ') on pro- 
ducing their credentials; but the fecretaries made no re- 
turns in their prefence. ^ 

A teft was taken by every candidate previous to his ad- 
miffion, in a feparate room, in prefence of his two fpon- 
fors, and of a member delegated by the Mafter for that 
purpofe. The tell was declared to be " a facial and fa~ 
créa compati" and was in the words following: " I A. B. 
u do voluntarily declare, that I will perfevere in endeavor- 
" ing to form a brotherhood of affection among Iriihmen 
" of every religious periuafion, and that I will alfo perfe- 
" vere in my endeavors to obtain an equal, full, andade- 
" quate reprefentauon of all the people of Ireland. I do 
" farther declare, that neither hopes nor fears, rewards nor 
a punishments, Shall ever induce me, directly or indirect- 
" ly to inform or give evidence againft any member or 
" members of this or fimilar focieties, for any act or ex- 
" preffion of theirs done or mado: collectively or individ- 
" udly, in or out of this fociety, in purfuance of the ipirit 
" of this obligation." — (Ibid. No. II.) 

Dublin, Belfaft, and Newry, were now become the 
head-quarters of the new conspiracy. The latter town 
even enjoyed the exclufive privilege of printing the con- 
stitutions of the affociation, till by a decree of the 7th De- 
cember 1796, it was refolved, that they Should be printed 
in three different parts of the Kingdom for conveniency's 


Jake. A delegate was alfo deputed from thence into the 
county of Cavan and the province of Leinfter, where he 
founded a number of focieties. The whole county of 
Antrim was foon in a ferment; its inhabitants were dis— 
fenters, whofe religious tenets bordered on democracy. — - 
The new-fangled Rights of Man began to be the favorite 
theme of all tne difcontented in Europe; Paine's Works 
Were profufely diftributed among the Iriih ; publications 
of all fores and fizes were circulated, holding out " Ig:io- 
" rancc as the demon of difcord — Union, as power, wis- 
" dom, and the road to liberty," and teaching the riling 
brotherhood " that a more unjuft conftitution could not 
K be devifed, than that which- condemned the natives of a 
" country to perpetual fervitude under the arbitrary do- 
" minion of flaves and (trangers; — that the firir and in- 
£< difpenfable condition of the laws in a free frate is, the 
" aflent of thofe whofi obedience they require — that the 
* will of the nation mud be declared. — Away from us 
£t (cries the Hierophant) and from our children thofe pu- 
" erile antipathies fo unworthy the manhcod of nations, 
tl which infulate man as well as countries, and drive the 
* c citizen back, to the favage." No longer {hall man con- 
fine his attention to fome few fragments of the temple of 
Liberty. In future, " the ample earth is to be its area, 
" and the arch of heaven its dome." — (Ibid No. V.) — 
The means of acccmpliihing thefe great things were the 
union of the whole people; and England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, were fimultancoufly to raife their voice. In ftiort, 
the clergy, gentry, and government, were held out as the 
real oppreffors of the people ; and thus were all the prin- 
ciples of anarchy and deftruction of property to be infufed 
into that fame people. Clubs and meetings were held un- 
der various denominations ; the Defenders were invited to 
unite and make a common caufe ; and the County Com- 
mittees were particularly entniited with the care of mak- 
ing an union between the Orange Men and the Catho- 
lics, though great precaution was to be obferved in fpeak- 
ing of the latter, left die Proteftants fhould take alarm. 
Union among themfelves and difafïeâion to government 
was to conftitute their whole ttrength. It was feared that 
the Catholic Clergy would impede their iinifter defigns; 
reports were fpread, " that the titular Bifhops had been 
" lummoned before the Privy Council, and that they had 
" received a bribe of five hundred guineas ; that they 


11 were to fummon all their Priefts, and command them 
« to do all in their power to difcover fuch of their flock 
« as >vefe United Infhmen, or had any connection with 
" fuch." — (Ibid No. II). — In thofe parts where the 
whole population was Catholic, hand-bills were distribu- 
ted, pu, porting to be the Constitution of the Orange 
Men, which was death and destruction to every Catholic; 
for, if the common people could be once Stirred up to re- 
bellion, it waseaSy to turn their minds againft government 
as the centre of the Orange union (and what great weight 
muft this aSTertion have lately acquired, when that badge 
was worn by perfons whofe duty it is to be ever above 
party prejudice!) while, as in the county of Armagh, 
which had been the fceneofmuch Strife between the con- 
tending parties, the Sect Succeeded in uniting and leaguing 
them in one common caufe againft thole who were held 
out as the oppreflbrs of the State. 

The chain of correspondence once perfectly eftablifhed, 
communications were opened with England and Scotland, 
and négociations carried on with the French during the 
laft fix months of 1795; and in April 1796 the outlines 
of a Treaty with France was drawn up by the National 
Committee, and tranfmitted to the French Directory. — • 
In the mean time the Seel continued to propagate its 
principles and enroll recruits, and on the 8th of Novem- 
ber all the aSSociations received orders to hold themfelves 
in readinefs to rife, and to procure arms and ammunition, 
as the French were immediately expeJied. 

On the 24th of December the French really did make 
their appearance at Bantry; and, Strange to fay, they were 
not Seconded in their attempts by the people, who uni r 
verSally roSe in the South to oppoSe their invaders; but 
this is accounted for in a Still more extraordinary manner. 
The Executive had received news, that the French had 
deferred their expedition till Spring ; this circurnftançe 
threw them " off their guard, and in confequence of it 
" no meafures were taken to prepare the people for the 
" reception of the French army. The people were left to 
" themfelves." I hope in God that this avowal, made by 
one of their intended Governors, may prove a wholefome 
lefTon to that Same people, and encourage them to follow 
the loval and genuine dictates of their hearts. — (Ibidenu 
No. XXXI). 

In future, the bufinefs that will chiefly occupy the 
A aa 


Committees will be reports on men, arms, and money, 
which latter article appears to have been a fubject of great 
contention. Each degree thought itfelf intitled to dis- 
pofeof at leaf! a part of their funds; and fuch had been 
the law originally; but the High Superiors found it ne- 
ceffàry to declare, that no Committee below the County 
fliould be empowered to difpofe of the funds. Soon after 
this power was confined to the Provincial,~and ultimately 
one of the Executive Directors always attended at the 
Provincial Committee to carry away with him to the Na- 
tional Committee whatever contributions had been levied 
on the brotherhood. The jealoufy of the brotherhood 
obJiged the National Committee at one time to ifiue a 
piociamation, declaring that not " one penny of their mo- 
ney had been expended any other way than that it was 
intended for. 1 ' The vigilance of Government greatly 
contributed to augment the expenfes of the Seel:, as ma- 
ny of the members were taken up and brought to trial. 
Thefe were defended at the expenfe of the brotherhood. 
A regular Committee for the defence of prifbners travel- 
led the circuits ; and the eminent talents of Mr. Curran 
(employed at a great expenfe) will ever ftand a voucher 
that juflice was done the prifbners wherever he was pre- 
fers. Large fums were fubferibed by all clafies, and the 
duped ariftocrats (or, as one of the fecrctaries ftyles them, 
the Arajior ricks) contributed at one fingle fubfeription, 
in the county of Antrim, 374I. At the fpring afiizes of 
1797, held in the county of Down, 750I. were expend- 
ed, and a fafe conveyance had been procured to the pri- 
soners that were confined in the jail of that county. — 
This, however, was not the only means of defence devi- 
fed ; for it was given as the opinion of a County Com- 
mittee, " that if there is any United Irifhmen on the ju- 
*' ry that will commit any of the prifoners that is confi- 
" ned for being United Irifhmen, ought to lofe their ex- 
" ijlcnce." The expenfes became fo heavy at length, 
from buying arms and fupporting and defending prifoners, 
that a lottery was fct on foot; but what reader would fus- 
peét. (as was really the fact) that this meafure was ob- 
jected to, on the plea that it encouraged the immorality of 
the people ? 

To return to the new military organization of the Sect. 
It was ordered, that every Baronial Committee fhould 
form its three individual focieties into a company of one 


hundred men, choofing one captain, two lieutenants, and 
five fergeants; total 108. The reader has already fcen 
how exactly thecorrefponding fcale coincided with Wei- 
fliaupt's Illuminifm; but when the military formation be- 
gan to take effe£t, and the numbers increafed beyond all 
expectation, it was deemed neceflàry to extend and change 
certain parts of this fcale. Greater danger attending the 
taking of arm?, the individual focieties began to fplit as 
foon as their numbers amounted to twelve. Thefe were 
to be near neighbors, the better to watch over each other's 
actions and to enfure fecrecy. The fecretai ies alone were 
to form the higher committees. They were the bearers 
of all orders from the higher to the lower degrees; they 
reported the progrefs made by, and the views of, the Se£t, 
in as much as it was thought necefiary to let them into 
the fecret; for we find that even the County Commit- 
tees were not in the fecret as to the nature of the en- 
gagements entered into with the French. What unhap- 
py deluded people then were the lower aiTociators, who 
were informed of nothing, but were to be the mere agents 
of rebellion and murder, and were hurried on into this 
abyfs of horrors by a t'cw political libertines who grafp- 
ed at dominion, and wilhed to wade to the helm of the 
ftate through the blood of their countrymen! Neverthe- 
lefs every petty piece of information that was tranfmitted 
to the lower degrees was ftyled a Report to their ConJIi- 

According to the new fcale it was ordained, that te M 
Individual Societies mould be under the direction of one 
Baronial Committee; TEN Baroniah to one upper Baro- 
nial; and in large towns TEN upper Baroniah to one 
Dijiricl. Eut as foon as a County contained four or more 
Diftrict Committees, the County Committee was creat- 
ed. When committees had been appointed in two coun- 
ties, the Provincial Committee was formed of two dele- 
gates from each, and the National Committee (or the Ex- 
ecutive) of five delegates from each of the four Provin- 
cial Committees, though the National Committee was 
formed as foon as two Provincial Committees had been 
elected. A part of this Executive was ftationary in each 
province; and it appears that Dublin, Cork,' and Gal- 
way, were their reiidence in three provinces; but with 
refpect to Ulfter, it does not appear whether BclfaM, Ar- 
magh, or Newry, could claim the honor. From this v. iv 

37 2 antisocial conspiracy; 

formation, each upper Baronial will be found to contain 
a regiment— (Ibid. XXIV.) 

One Individual Society 
One Baronial 
One upper Baronial | 10 

\% Men. 



The captains elecled the colonels, and the latter pro- 
pofed three perfons, one of whom was created adjutant- 
general by the national committee. It may not be impro- 
per here to remark the care with which thefe higher con- 
fpirators fought to preferve their authority in their own 
hand?, even in cafe of a revolution; for when there was a 
queftion afterward of forming a National Jjfembly, it was 
refolved that each of the thiuy two counties fhould de- 
pute one perfon to be added to the Executive, all lower 
focieties being caft out of the balance, and only to be con- 
sidered as agents, who, after having been robbed of every 
moral and civil virtue, were to raife on high their fangui- 
nary chiefs and feducers, glutted with the blood of their 
lawful governors. 

Here we fee the amazing progrefs made, and the great 
power acquired fincethe 9th of November, 179 1. Every 
thing now took a ferious and military turn. The new- 
eledted officers werj in/lrucledtojludy tallies and acquire 
every fpecies of military information with refpeel: to roads, 
magazines, mills, &c. Plans were devifed for the fupport 
of the wives and children " during the exertions of the Bro- 
" therhood in the field." Every thing that could thwart 
government was difculTed and refolved. The confump- 
tion of fpirits was prohibited, in order to hurt the excife; 
bank-notes were cried down; and even the buying of 
quit-rents was exprefsly forbidden. In the mean time the 
High Superiors faw that this armed mob could not be 
competent of themfelves to cope with the king's troops; 
a means of debauching the latter from their allegiance 
was therefore contrived. Hand-bills were privily circu- 
lated, holding out their officers " as tyrants that had re- 
<c belled againft the rights of man^ and whofe orders were 
" damnable ;" bills, in fhort of the moft inflammatory na- 
ture were difperfed among the military by the towns- 
people, who were charged with the feduction of the troops 
of their garriion. They fwore-in fome few of the foidiers; 
r::t:!c fwore others; and when their number was fuffi- 
Cicnt, focieties was formed in the regiments. Here again 


we find the fign and word-, which were changed every 
month j the cateclnfm for recognizing a true brother; and 
the oath, which was, ct to be true to the French Repub- 
" lie, and to take the life of any man who would attempt 
** to difcover." . . . — The rule for reckoning on friends 
among the military was, " that in cafe the perfon fworn 
" is an United Irishman, and has not taken any aclive fL-ps 
" againft the body or any of its members, out of the line 
" of his proftjjion, he was to be deemed frill the Friend of 
" the United Iriihmen."— (Ibid. No. XIV.)— The bet- 
ter to propagate the fyftem, it was held out to the mili- 
tary, " that when the French fhould come, the foldiers 
" were to be fuch as them; that there were to be no 
• " rich i but all Equality; and that there was no ufe 
" in their going againlt the French, became when all the 
" Powers were againir. them, they could make no hand 
" of them." — They were alio tampered with refpe&ing 
their pay. When all this had fufficiently fucceeded, " a 
" foidier in each company was appointed to make a re- 
" turn of united men in his refpective company, while 
" two of the fteadiefr. men," from each regiment, " were 
" employed to carry thefe returns" to the towns-people. 
Thefe, in return, informed them of the progrefs made by 
the Seel: in Ireland, and of its numbers on board the En~ 
glifn and Fi ench fleet; as alfo of all kinds of news from 
the latter. A plan was fettled, " that upon a lignai given, 
" (and this was fetting fire to a houfe, or fome fuch to- 
" ken,) if i't was by day-light, the men fhould turn out 
" of the ranks; and if it was by night, and it could be lb 
" contrived, an United Irifhman fhould be fentry at the 
" gate, who was to fell the barracks; and fuch United 
" Irifhmen as were within the barracks were to exert 
" themfelves in feizing fuch arms and ammunition within 
<{ as they could get. — If there were but thirty friends in 
4C the barracks, by having them difperfed up and down in 
" the rooms, when the attack was to be made, they could 
" give the arms to the towns-people." — If any part of the 
garrifon were not to be depended upon, the cannons feiz- 
ed were to be pointed on the barracks, or whole corps 
were to be cut off for refilling to coalefce with them. — > 
Some of the brotherhood even went (o far as to attempt 
to fet fire to the (lores; but the burning coals were luck- 
ily difcovered by a dragoon. Such was the plan for gar- 
rifons and towns ; the mode of proceeding in carap is ex- 


empli fied in that of Bandon: " On the I ft of Jul)', 1 797, 
M the country was to be fet on fire on both ends, and in 
" the middle j and then, with what friends Mr. O'Brien, 
" near Bandon, could fend them, and what friends they 
" had in camp, about Four Hundred, they intended firit 
M taking the cannon, and then talcing the bell-tents, with 
w the iraall arms, which they would give to the country 
" people lent by Mr. O'Brien, and then go put General 
w Gtote and as many officers as they could to death, and 
t( retreat to Bantry, take pofTeffion of the battery, and 
" keep it, if poffible, till the French would land." It ap- 
peared that, at a future time, when a rifing was alfo to 
have taken place, that the foldiers tvere to put all their 
cpcers to death, and the yeomanry alfo if they oppofed them. 
Li return for (o £gnal a fervice, the town of Sicibbereen 
was to be given upr<? the foldiers for pillage during eight 
hours. — (Ibid. XXIX.) Thus do we fee the gradual pro- 
grtfs of this horrid ailociation toward its cruel and fangui- 
nary object — the great end i ! — The committees in 
future proceed with the greateft eagerncfs to prepare every 
thing that can involve their country in rebellion and blood- 
shed. After the example of the bloody Marat, and accord- 
ing to the true principles of the Sect, a paper, entitled, the 
Union Star, was publifhed atBelfaft, printed only on 
one fide, fo that ic could be pafted on the walls of the 
ftreets. — Let this paper defcribe itfelf: — " As the Union 
" Star is an official paper (of the Brotherhood) the mana- 
" gers promife the public that no characters (hall be ha- 
" zarded but fuch as are denounced by authority, as be- 
** ing the partners and creatures of Pitt and his fanguina- 
" ry journeyman Luttrell." (that is to fay, Lord Car- 
" hampton, the commander in chief.) " The Star offers to 
" pubjic juftice the following deteftable traitors, as fpies 
" and perjured informers. Perhaps fame arm more lucky 
" than the reft may reach their hearts, and free the world 
" from bondage." Then was given a lift of profcriptions, 
exactly fuch as Marat gave when he ftyled himfelf the 
political calculator, becaufe, when four men had been torn 
to pieces by the demoniacs of Paris, he ftated, that fub- 
tracting 4 from 30,000 there ftili remained 29,996 aris- 
tocrats to fall beneath the national vengeance. Now this 
official writer, in his frantic rage, thus addreiles his Sove- 
reign: " Let the indignation of man be raifed againftthe 
u impious wretch who profanely affumes the title of reign- 


* { ing by the grace of God, and imnudently tells the world 
" he can do no wrong. — Oh, man! or rather lefs, — Oh 
" king ! will the fmothered groans of my countrymen, 
" who, in thy name, fill the innumerable dungeons you 
u have made, for ajftrting the rights of man, be confid- 
" ered no wrongs? — -Go, impious blafphemer! and your 
u hypocritical (bcerers, to the fate Philosophy, Jufiice, 
" and Liberty configns thee. 'Tis inevitable, thy im- 
•* pofitions are detected; thy kind have been brought to 
"juftice. The nrft poiTeiîbr of thy trade has recently bled 
" for the crimes of the craft. — We appeal to thy noble 
u and venerated name, O Brutus ! who bravely aflafftn- 
" ated the tyrant of your country amidil his cohorts^ and 
" in the prefence of his penfioned fenate." — (XXFH.) 

Thefe are literal extracts from this paper; and no 

Knight Kadofch of Mafonry, nor Man-king of illumin- 
ilm could hold more violent language. — Another paper, 
nearly as wild, called The Press, was publifhed by Mr, 
Arthur O'Conner, with a fimilar view of inflaming the 
minds of the people. The violence of his own productions 
may beprefumed from the fentence he paries on all the moil 
violent papers of England in his letter to his Brother.—- 
" We (Burdett and himlèlf) ordered you the Courier; 
*' as to the morning papers they are mere lumber in your 
" ofHce; (o we did not fend you more than the Courier, 
<c as in the bufinefs of the Prefs we found it ufeiîfs to have 
u any other." — (Trials at Maidjione.) 

The Committees continued to receive daily reports of 
the motions and determinations of their allies, the French; 
of their friends in England and in Scotland; and of the 
immenfe progrefs that the Seel was making. November, 
1796, they are informed, " that four new Societies arc 
" organized in Scotland, and that the County of Kerry 
" Militia required one hundred conftitutions for their own 
" ufe." — In April, 1797, " that their numbers are im- 
u menfe in Leinfter, though unacquainted with the fys- 
" tern of organization. In Ulfter there were 1 16,844 men 
" organized."* 

* The refolutions entered into by the united focieties of 
Donagbadee and its vicinity (and feized on the 14th of April, 
1797) are too explicit to be omitted here. They refclved, that 
" all power is radically in the people ;" that " at the prefmt 
" crifi-5 the people being united mould arm, chufe their officers, 
•■ and taks a ârft, fécond, and third requifition of fuch as ate 

376 ANTISOCIAL conspiracy; 

In May, a new fecne opens kfelf, which unfortunately 
{hews us, that the Iriih Broherhood were no ftrangers to 
deliberate atFafîination. — Between the hours of eight and 
nine of a Sunday moining, the 7th of May, 1797, a man 
of the name of James Dunn (a. imith and farrier, who had 
been in Lord Carhampton's fervice for the fpace of fif- 
teen years, and lived in a houfe at his lordfhip's park- 
gate) preferred himfclf at a Baronial Committee^ held in 
a pubiic-houfe, Strand-ftreet, Dublin. Maurice Dunn, 
the keeper of the houfe, was his fponfor, and " would en- 
K gage his life for him that he was up or Jiraight." Here- 
upon the figns of the Brotherhood were put to him; and 
having, by his anfwers, proved that he was a true and ac- 
cepted Brother, the chairman took die chair. James Dunn 
then fubmitted to the Society, " that he and a few more 
" friends were thinking of doing out ((hooting^ Carhamp- 
" ton, becaufc he was a great hindrance to matters get- 
ct ting forward." This n^ws electrified the whole com- 
mittee with joy. — One exclaimed, "It is great news/ 8 
— " It is glorious news," cried another: " It is the beft 
" news we have heaid yet," laid a third: and a fourth de- 
clared, that " it would do more for the caufe than had 
" ever been done before." Dunn then mentioned a nar-r 
row part of the road leaning to Luttrelftown, and aftone 
wail from whence he might have -a flap at Lord Carhamp- 
ton, who, he faid, was damned wary., and always carried 
piftols with him; but one good bkmderbufs would do as 
much as ten piftols. He then declared that four friends, 
John Broderick, Peter K.eilly, Patrick Catty, and Ed. 
Martin, had engaged to join him; on which the Commit- 
tee named feven of their members to deliberate on fo im- 
portant a bulinefs, and ordered them to meet at feven 

" able to $ro forth to war in defence of their tights as men ;" 
that " if any prove hoftile to liberty, their eftates or property 
" fhall be confifcated, and converted to the national fund." — 
All enemies to the caufe were to be tried by a jury, " accord" 
*' ing to the law then extfling ;" and a Revolutionary Commit- 
tee was to be eftabiimed. Jt is true, that this patriotic zeal was 
condemned by the Provincial Committee as premature ; but it 
is to be remembered, that the High Superiors of the Ssct feared 
nothing but a premature infurreclion ; *' for (fay they), by that 
" means Government would have it in their power to put us 
" down, never to rife, at lead for a century; and like wife we 
" have paid a great deal of money to the people in gaol, and 
*' it will take a targe i'um of money to affift them all winter." 
~-( 'Appendix No. II). 


e'clock the fame evening, when Dunn and his compa- 
nions were to attend. The cuftomary oath of fecrecy was 
taken by all prefent, to the number of 17; they then part- 
ed, after giving as the new word tc A good act." — At 
feven in the evening the delegated members met, one ex- 
cepted. The oath of fecrecy having been adminiftered to 
the four friends, they were introduced. Thomas Byrne 
then faid, " I fuppofe thofe arc friends and gentlemen;— - 
" I fuppofe we all underftand what we are met about V* 
— " If they were not," anfwered Dunn, " I would not 
" bring them here." — " We know the bufinefs we are 
" metabout (fays Byrne) ; let us proceed." Various plans 
were then propofed for doing his Lordfhip out. — Dunn 
repeated his; Byrne would have at lead a party of nine 
mounted; but John Ferrai, with fanguinary zeal, infilled 
that every perfon prefent Ihould partake of the foul deed; 
and his opinion was adopted. Another refolution propos- 
ed by Byrne then pafTed: " That three at leaftfhouldgo 
" out difguifed with loofe coats and blunderbufTes; and 
" the reft, as yeoman cavalry, to be armed with piftols." 

The plan of execution was, that " thofe with blun- 

" derbulTes were to come at the back of the carriage and 
u to fire in; thofè with the piftols were then to ride on, 
" and lire in at the windows, left the fire from behind 
" fhould not have taken effect; and as thev paffed the 
"footman and pojlillion they were alio to difpatch them; 
" they were then to recharge their pieces, ride on in a 
" body towaids Dublin, and keep together, fo as to fe- 
u cure their retreat." A new oath was then taken, " to 
" be ftaunch and fteady, and true to one another in the 
" bufinefs." — When the book came to John Ferrai, he 
enthuliaftically exclaimed, " If this bufinefs milles, if pro- 
" vifion be made for my family, I will undertake to da 
" him in the ftreets." Several meetings were afterwards 
held on the fubjecl;; for never was a murder more deli- 
berately planned. — Money being neceflary for procuring 
arms, the chairman of the committee applied to the Baro- 
nial Secretary, who referred him to the Treafurer; and 
the Sunday after (May 14) James Dunn and Patrick Car- 
ty were arrefted in the Phcenix-Park. Carty had, togeth- 
er with his father (a Chelfea penfioner) been a confiant 
laborer on Lord Carhampton's demefne, and had a houle 
rent-free. The day after the arreft Lord Carrmmpton vi- 
lited Dunn in prifon, in the hope that he would difcover 
B bb 


what had become of ihe three other aflafilns, but he re- „ 
ceived no fatisfadtory anfwer. On his Lorufhip exprefs- 
iïrg his furprize that the prifoner fhould be capable of fo 
atrocious a deed, the alTaflîn anfwerèd, that " he thought 

* it was a gnod ail; that he had no perfonal diflilce to his 
K Lordfhip, and would never execute it alone, but with 

• his party; that he had never fuffered any injury from 
u him ; but that he was fworn to execute it, and if he were 
" out of that (the pnibn) he would execute it if he could." 
As to the murdering the poor innocent poftillion, " it 
" was to do the thing completely." — After this are we to 
be hi i prized at the horrid murders that have taken place. 
Lord Cat hampton, fome time after the arreft of the fon, 
had an interview with Carty, the father, and told him, 
" that if his fon would give examinations, he was inclined 
" to let him do fo; and in that cafe he thought his life 
u might be faved; and he defired the father would tell the 
K fon fo." — The father faid, " he was apprehenfive, that 
" if his fon gave examinations, he would be murdered." 
I have dwelt on this example, as it was the fubject of a 
trial, in which the Attorney-General proiecuted for the 
crown, and four counfel attended on the part of the pri- 
foner, Mr. Curran, Mr. M'Nally, Mr. Greene, and Mr. 
Emmet t, who had himfelf been a member of the Execu- 
tive Directory from January to the beginning of May. — 
Such able counfel, and fo public a trial, will ever ftamp 
this as an authentic document. — f See Report of the Trials 
of Carty and Dunn, publijhed by Ridgeway.) 

In June, the captains were informed, that the national 
committee had been fitting fifteen days; but as only ten 
thoufand men of the County of Antrim would rife, the 
bufinefs was retarded. The colonels of the County of 
Down were unanimous for the rifing. In July their hopes 
were buoyed up by an intimation that 75,000 men were 
embarked at the Texel for Ireland; but theie were irre- 
parably broken by the immortal Duncan on the nth of 

In Auguft they received news, that a number of focie- 
ties had been formed in North America, and that thefehad 
iranfmitted 211 dollars to their Brethren in Ireland.— In 
October a perion, juft arrived from Scotland, attended at 
the county meeting, held at Down Patrick, and «fleived 
" a Scotch conjiitution, which was, word fop word, 
tl the fame as ihe Jrijh; only that the words North 


<c Britons were put in the place o/Trishmen." No- 
vember 14th, inquiries were made of the delegates of the 
Province of Ulfter, " whether they thought that they 
" could difarm the military within themfelves; and they 
" all faid that they could, except Armagh." — (Appendix^ 
No. XIV.) — On the 28th of December, « One confti- 
" tution was voted to a member, to be given to part of 
" a Jhip's company lying in Bclfaft Lough, for the propa- 

<c gation of the general principle." At the Provincial 

Meeting for UHter, held the ift of February, 1798, it 
Was reported, that " three delegates (of whom the unfor- 
" tunate Quigley, fince executed at Maidftone, was one) 
" had juft arrived from France; that the French were go- 
" ing on with the expedition j and that it was inagreat- 
*« er ftate of forwardnefs than was expected j but what 
" was mod flattering, was, that three delegates had been 
<c Jent from the United Britons to the fri/h National 
u Committee', and that from that very moment they were 
" to conjider England, Scotland, and Ireland, aja 
u one people acting for one common caufe: Theie were 
" Legiflators now chofen from the three kingdoms to act 
** as an executive for the whole." — They were alio in- 
formed, that Quigley and one Arthur Mac Mahon, of 
Hollywood, had been the two principal perlons who c/ar- 
ing the preceding fammer, had opened the communication 
with the United Britons — (Ibid.) The delegates from 
England brought an addrefs from the United Britons to 
the United Iriih. In high flown and patriotic language, 
the United Britons informed their fellow men, that 
" various political focieties had been inftituted for the pur- 
" pofe of reform.— But they had vanifhed, or difcon- 
" tinued their exertions. The Loneon'Correspond- 
" ING. Society^ and other focieties in union with it, had 
u 1 ifen upon their ruins." That England was never with- 
out friends to fubftantial Liberty; but that the flame of 
Liberty had been for a long time lmothered, " till the 
" French revolution again fanned its dying embers into ;i 
" glow, which, they hoped and trufted, would never be 
" extinguifhed — Our numbers (fay they) are irnmenfe, 
u our influence dill more considerable, and our fentiments 
** accord with yours. We are unthinned by the tyranny 
" of the law or of the fw.oxd.-~ Our delegate is ei ti ' 
" to lay before you our proceedings." And they conclude, 
" With beft wiihes for the amelioration of the condition 


t£ of man, and hopes that your exertions and virtues, aid- 
" ed by an united people, will fpeedil_y emancipate your 
tc country: — We remain, in bonds of Brotherhood and 
" Union, 

" Yours fraternally." 
Friday, Jan. 5, 1798. 


It appears on the evidence of John Hughes, (Lords^ 
No. I.) a printer of Belfatt, that the delegate was a Mr. 
Bonham, who was accompanied by Citizen Baily and the 
younger Binns. The latter, who was introduced to Hughes 
by Quigley, faid that he had distributed molt of the print- 
ed acdrcffcs, and defired to have an edition of them print- 
ed. Accordingly a thoufand were printed, and three gui- 
neas paid for them by a perfon of Belfaft. 

During this month a regular military committee was 
appointed by the Executive, " to confider and digeft fuch 
" plans, and direct the military force in fuch manner, as 
tc might be neceflary in cafe of infurrection;*and in cafe 
" of invafion to co-operate with the French." 

On the 27 ch of February it was reported, that the As- 
fociation had at that time fourteen delegates in France, 
and that there had been held in London a meeting of all 
the delegates of England and Scotland. In March, the 
brotherhood of the Province of Leinfter iuftained a con- 
siderable fhock, by the arrefcof fome of its leading mem- 
bers; but on the 25th of the fame month it appears, that 
" the Provincial Committee of Leinfter had perfectly re- 
" covered from the fhock; they (the delegates of Leins- 
" ter) were only four days from the time they were tak- 
" en before they had the whole province in a complete 
14 ftate of organization; the Government had alfo taken 
*' three of the Executive, but there were three appointed 
• " in their place the very evening after they were taken." 
How truly does this demonstrate Weiihaupt's afTertion, 
that when he once has properly organized his bands, he 
will bid defiance to all his opponents. 

Another principle ot that prototype of rebellion had, un- 
fortunately, been too well understood by the founders of 
the Iriih brotherhood, and that was to make themielves 
mafters of the education of youth. Many fchoolmafters 
(as I have been credibly informed) have mown them- 
ielves extremely active in the whole courfe of this unfor- 


tunate affair. The very fiift man who was tried and exe- 
cuted in Ireland, for (wearing in the deluded Irifh to be 
true to the French, was a fchoolmaiter called Laurence 
O'Connor. — The following are extracts from his papers, 
and proved on his trial: " I, A. B. do fwear in the pre- 
u fence of Almighty God, that 1 will be true to the pre- 
u Jent United States of France and Ireland, and every 
" other Kingdom in Chrijlianity, without its being hurt- 
" ful to ibul or body, as long as they prove fo to me.— 
" And that / will not come as evidence againft any of my 
" brethren or committees, in any court or place whatfo- 
u ever, excepting in court-martial, under penalty of be- 
" ing excluded, or death without mercy. — All brothers to 
" live lovingly and harmonioufly, and quarrelious to be 
u excluded, as the Committee thinks proper." 

" Thefe articles are according to the Foreign United 
" States of France and Ireland, by order of our commit- 
tee of L. G. No. 1 6." 

A fécond paper was in thefe words : " The bearer, A. 
" B. was initiated into our fublime degree of L. L. L. by 
« me C. D." 

There was alfo found on the prifoner three regular cer- 
tificates, one of Free Mafons, a lécond of Royal Arch, and 
a third of Knights Templars, fhowing that O'Connor 
was of thefe Orders. One of the Counfel attempted to 
explain away the oath, reprefenting it as " the mere rhap- 
fody of a warm imagination, ufed to exercife itfelf on Ma- 
fonic myfteries;" he reprelented to the jury, that "it 
would be a cruel verdict indeed that would convict a man 
of high treafon, merely for ujing a fexv cabaliflical words 
andfymbols." — I will venture to affirm, that fhould the 
learned counfel ever chance to perufe the Memoirs of y#~ 
cobinifm, he will have a clearer infight into the Caufe he 
had to defend, than when at Naas at the adjournment of 
the fummer amzes in 1795. — (See his Trial.) 

What a melancholy icene did the feat of fcience (I mean 
the Univerhty of Dublin) prefent, when on the 19th, 
20th, and 21ft of April, 1798, it appeared on thecleareft: 
evidence that a body of United Infhmen had organized 
themfelves within the walls of the College! had confult- 
ed about providing themfelves with arms, and had elec- 
ted officers ! — Nineteen ftudents were expelled, and foma 
other perfons cenfured. — [Viptation held by Lord Clare.) 

In the mean time open rebellion continued its progrefs; 

j|8.£ antisocial conspiracy; 

and on the ift of April it is reported to a committee, that 
a letter had been received u from Bartholemew Teeling 
K (executed in September 1798, being talcing in arms with 
" the French in their invaiion at Killala) who was one 
" of the delegates in p rânee, ftating, that the French 
" troops would mofl certainly be on board by the middle 
" of this month. The troops from Breft and that neigh- 
" borhood were determined to try to evade the Britifh 
<c fleet, and to land in Ireland ; of courfe the Bntifh fleet 
" would follow them; and while thus drawn ofF, all the 
u other troops embarked at other ports would make a 
" decent on England. Whatever might refultfrom this 
" attempt, it was the fixed determination of the National 
tc Committee, in cafe the French (hould be fruftrated, 
" that the brotherhood Jhould of themfehes make a rifing. 
*' The citizens of Dublin, it was fuppofed, with the as- 
" hitance of the army, could feize the capital at any mo- 
" ment." Unfortunately, the principles of the Sect had 
made iuch a progrefs, that as early as February the re- 
turns declared the number of the brotherhood to amount 
in Ulfier to 110,990, in Munfter to 100,634, and in 
Li. liter to 08,272; and out of 8,000 military in Dublin 
alone, it was ftated that 3,800 would act againft Govern- 
ment. The Executive proceeded to carry their determin- 
ation into execution. Dublin, Chaptl-izoo', the camp and 
the government, were to be feized on at one and the fame 
time; and the iignal was to be given to the whole coun- 
try, by the burning of the mail coaches. But, in order 
to get poilefllon of the camp at Lehaunftown, the Meffrs. 
ares applied to Captain Armitrong, who, true to his 
duty (and happily for his country), laid open the whole 
of the plan to his commanding officer at whofe expr._ is 
deiire he continued to commune with the confpirators. 
He was queitioned by them as to the ftrcng and weak 
fides of the camp; and a Mr. Lawlefs (a furgeon), with 
the natural humanity of his Seel:, obierved, that <c the 
trees on the right of the camp would be veiy convenient 
for hanging people." At length it was agreed, between 
the Meifrs. Sheares (John was a member of the Exe- 
cutive) and Captain Armftrong, that the latter fhould 
" erect a ftandard upon the night to be fixed upon for 
" the attack upon the camp, which was to be joined by 
" all whom he had previoufly known to be United Irifh- 
" men; that no per Jon was to be /pared; and they were 


** not to be given the option of joining at the time of the 

The camp once carried, and Dublin fallen into the 
hands of the confpirators, we may judge of the ufe they 
meant to make of their victory, by the following para- 
ges of a proclamation found in the poll'effion of Mr. Hen- 
ry Sheares, and in the hand- writing of John Sheares, the 
member of the Executive : 

• " Irifhmen ! your country is free, and you are about 
K to be avenged. That vile government, which has fo 
** long and fo cruelly oppreffed you, is no more. Some 
<c of its molt atrocious monflers have already paid the 
"forfeit of their lives., and the reft are in our hands.— — 
" Arife then, United Sous of Ireland ! Rife like a ejreat 
*' and powerful people, determined to live free or die ! — > 
" Arm yourfeives by every means in your power, and 
" rujb like liens on your foes — in the caufe of Liberty, 
4c inaction is cowardice, and the coward Jhall forfeit the 
<c property he has not the courage to protect. : let his arms 
" be feized, and transferred to thofc gallant fpirits who 
u want and will ufe them. Yes, Irifhmen, we ("wear by 
" that eternal juji 'ice, in whofe caufe you fight, that the 
" brave patriot who furvives the prefent glorious ftruggle, 
<{ and the family of him who has fallen or (hall fall here- 
** after in it, fhall receive from the hands of a grateful na- 
** tion an ample recompenfe out of that property which 
11 the crimes of our enemies have forfeited into its hands. 
" But ive likewije fwear^ to punijl) robbery with death 
" and infamy ! ! ! 

" As for thofe degenerate wretches who turn their 
" fwords againfr their native country, the national ven- 
" geance aivaits them : let them find no quarter^ unlefs 
" they fhall prove their repentance by fpeedily dfert- 
« ing, — 5cc. &c. 

u Many military feel the love of liberty glow within 
" their breafts, and have joined the national ftartdàrd. 
u Receive with open arms fuch a9 fhall follow fo glori- 
" ous an example. But for the wretch who turns his fword 
" aguinft his native country, /*■/ the national vengeance 
*' be viftted on him; let him find no quarter." — ('1 rial of 
ÂfeJJrs. Sheares. 

The foregoing is more than fufficient to (how the na- 
ture of this anociation. My object has not been to write 
the hiftory of the late rebellion, but merely to (how that 



its object, end, and means, were entirely fimihr to that of 
the infernal Seel defcribed in the Memoirs that have jult 
been laid before the Engliih reader. May my country- 
man profit of this awful example in Ireland, and guard 
againft the infidious progress of that Sect in Great Bri- 



When we turn our eyes toward Great Britain, alTo- 
ciations of a fimilar tendency appear; under a great di- 
vcrfity of names indeed, but all actuated by a fimilar Spi- 
rit. Their firft object was, to captivate the minds of the 
people by means of tt lectures delivered on political fub- 
" jecls, calculated by their very extravagance to catch 
" the attention of the audience ; and in the courfe of them 
a every topic was employed that could inflame their 
" minds, alienate them from the laws and conftitution of 
" their country, and habituate them to principles of fe- 
" dition arid rebellion. The moft violent publications 
" to the fame effect were fecretly but generally circulated 
" in hand-bills, both in the metropolis and in the remote 
" parts of the country. Every point that could excite 
" difeontent, according to the purfuits, interefts, or pre- 
judices, of different clailes, has been fucceffiveiy dwelt 
" on, and always in fuch a manner as to connect it with 
" the leading deiign. The attempt to accomplifh this 
" End has appeared in the fhape even of play-bills and 
" fongs ; feditious toails, and a itudied felection of the 
" tunes which have been moft in ufe in France fince the 
*■- Revolution, have been applied to the fame purpofe, of 
" endeavoring to render deliberate incitements to every 
" fpecies of treafon familiar to the minds of the people." 
(Eng. 2d Report, p. 20. ) — " In the fame manner (ùy 
" the confpirators) that a farmer may be roufed by the 
u mention of tithes, the jhoe-makers may by the excejfive 
" dearnefs of leather, the inn-keeper by the numerous and 
" unneceffary Jianding army, and ALL by a temperate 
a and difpajfionate relation of the immenfe number of fine- 
" cure places and ufeiefs offices, in which the corrupt and 
" proftitute favorites, agents, &c. of the Rich and Great 
" riot in the fpoils and plunder wrefted from the hufband- 
u man, mechanic, &c. — (Jp. C. p. 28.) 

The alTociatiou that took the lead was, the Society 


for Constitutional Information, which on the 
23 J of March, 1 79 1, voted thanks to Thomas Paine for 
His work on the Rights of Man. — ( Ibid 21.) Other (o- 
cieties, fuch as thpfe of Shefneld, Manchcfier, &c. palled 
ftmijar votxs for his having demonft rated the rights of 
man in a manneryâ char and convincing. In May, 1792, 
this fociety fefolved, that a communication fhould be 
opened with the Jacobin Club of Paris ; and an addrefs 
to that ciub was ti anfmitted, figned by the chairman. An 
addrefs was aifo voted to the National Convention on tr e 
gth of November, 1792, in confequence of the attack of 
tne luth of August on the French Monarchy ftyling the 
Convention " frvants of the fvcreign people, and bene- 
« faclors of ma <tkind. 'i he benefits ( t hey fay ) will in part 
« be ours, but the glory will be all your own; and it is the 
« reward of your; it is the prize of virtue." 
--.(Ibid 24.) 

Another aff -dation, calling itfelf the London Cor- 
responding Societ y, was inftituted in January, 1792. 
It immediately formed a clofe connection with the Society 
for Coratitutional Information; on the 12m October, 
I7Q2, it framed an addrefs to the French Convention; 
the deputies who prefented it, " after pointing out their 
« wilhes to effect in this country a revolution fimilar to 
« that made in France, cohfider the example of France as 
" having made revolutions eafy ; adding, that it would not 
« be extraordi'i'iiy, if in a fhort fpace of time the French 
" ihould fend addreflès of congratulation to a National 
" Convention of England; and the prefident in his ànfwer 
« fays, the moment, without doubt, approaches when the 
« French will bring congratulations to the National Con- 
« vention of Great Britain." — (Ibid. 25. J The frater- 
nal embrace and the honors of the fitting were the natu- 
ral recompenfe of fuch patriotic declamation. The ùn- 
o-uinary Barrere, St. André, and the infolent Roland were 
declared honorary members, and the fpeeches of the two 
former on the trial of Louis XVI. were entered on the 
books of the fociety. 

Various fociettes were now formed in different parts 
of EnMand, all correfponding with thofe in London, as 
their centre. Reform in parliament, univerfal fufFrage, 
and annual elections, were the objecls held out to the over- 
credulous. Soon we find the London Society for Con- 
stitutional Information and the London Cor- 


responding Society in clofe connection with, and 
actually directing, fimilar focieties at Hertford ; at 
Cambridge ; in Norfolk, at Norwich; atLiECES- 
ter; in Warwickshire, at Coventry and Birming- 
ham; at Nottingham; in Derbyshire, at Derby 
and Be/per; in Cheshire, at Stockport; in Lanca- 
shire, at Liverpool and Manchejier ; in Yorkshire, 
in the Weft-Riding, at Shejficild, Leeds, Bradford, Hal- 
ifax, Huddersfield, and Wakefield; in Northumber- 
land, at Ne-wcaflle upon lyne, &cc. Aflociations were 
alio formed at Bristol. With refpe<5r. to Scotland, 
Edinburgh appears to have been the central point for 
that country correfponding with London. In the interior 
of Scotland, and under its direction, we find many towns, 
fuch as Leith, Dundee, Perth, Stirling, Kilfyth, Kyrkin- 
tulhch,Glafgow (which alfo correfponded with London) 
Paijley, Strathaven, Dalkeith, Sec. The fame rules of 
proceeding, and for fubdividing the focieties, are to be 
traced again. But nothing can better illuftrate the na- 
ture of thefe aflociations than that of Sheffield. 

This affectation they tell us (Appendix D.) themfelves, 
" originated in an afTembly of five or fix mechanics, who 
" by their meeting at fome one of their houfes, and con- 
w verjSng ahotit the enormous high price of provifions; the 
" grofs abufes this nation labors under from the unbound, 
" ed authority of the Monopolifers of all ranks, from the 
" king to the peasant; the wafteandlavilliof the pub- 
t{ lie property by placemen, penfioners, luxury, and de- 
" bauchery, fources of the grievous burthens under which 
" the nation groans ; together with the mock reprefent- 
" ation of the people; — thefe being the fubjects of their 
" converfation, they concluded, that nothing but dark- 
" ness and ignorance in the people could fuller the 
" rights of every freeman to be thus violated." They 
then invited their neighbors to deliberate on this patrio- 
tic difcovery; they re-printed an edition of 1600 copies 
of Paine' s Rights of Man, and fold it at fix-pence to en- 
lighten their fellow-countrymen. They ftyle themfelves 
the Society for Conftitutional Information, write up to 
London, on the 15th of January, 1792, to requeft the 
favor " of forming a connection with all the like fbci- 
4t eties in England, and efpecially with thofe or lome of 
" them in London, the Thatchtd-houfe, the London-ta- 
" vcrn, or others, and humbly folicit their advice and as- 


<( fiftance In the accompliftiing thereof, in order to form 
** our refolvesftmilar to theirs ; becaufe, as we are aétu- 
*' ated by the same caufe and principle, and all our in- 
" terefts being one, our ■ fentiments ought and mujl be the 
"fame." In about four months after, they inform the 
London Society, that " not only their large and popu- 
u lous town, but the zvhole neighborhood for many miles 
** round about, have an attentive eye upon them ; and that 
" molt of the towns and villages were forming themfelves 
*' into fimilar aJfociations,Jtr icily copying after us ." They 
alfo declare their object to be, " a radical reform of 
" the Country as foon as prudence and difcretion would 
M permit, and eftabliflied on that fyftem which is confilt- 
" ent with the rights of man." They requeft that cer- 
tain members of their aiTociation may be admitted to the 
London meeting, which now becomes the regulating cora- 
mitiee, that u a more clofe connection might be formed 
u and communication be maintained, " for the extenhon of 
" ufeful knowledge from town to vi liage ,and from village 
" to town, until the whole nation be lufficiently enlight- 
" ened and united in the fame caufe, which cannot fail of 
" being the cafe wherever the molt excellent works of 
" Thomas Paine find reception." Should any perfon 
wifh to be convinced, that all thefe, as well as the Irilh 
focieties,were formed on Weifhaupt'scorrefponding fcale, 
let him attend to the improvement which the Sheffield 
people were about to adopt at the end of the 4th month, 
and after this offspring of the difcontented mechanics had 
correfponded with London : " It is certainly (they fay) 
" the beft way of managing large bodies, as in great and 
" populous towns; viz. dividing them into fmall bodies 
" or meetings of ten perfons each, and thofe ten to ap 
" point a delegate. Ten of thefe delegates form another 
" meeting, and fo on, delegating from one to another, till 
u at laft they are reduced to a proper number for confti- 
" tuting the Committee or Grand Council." After 
this, it is really ufclefs to trouble my reader with any 
thing more on the nature or principles of the focieties of 
Great Britain. We find fubicriptions carried on for the 
defence of the profecuti on commenced againft Thomas 
Paine. The Scotch Societies agree with thufe of Eng- 
land to hold a Convention, which, tho' not general from 
England, met in Octooer, 1793. — (Appendix F.) — A 
letter was there read from the four united fucieties of ire- 

3?H ANTISOCIAL conspiracy; 

land. Citizens Hamilton Rowan :nd Simon Buthr at- 
tended from Dublin, but were n:<t delegated; however, 
the latter made a report to the convention' on the ftate of 
Ireland. Margaret^ a London delegate, laid, « The fo- 
" cieties in Lon Ion arc very numerous, though fomewhat 
" fluctuating. In fomê parts of England whole towns 
" aie reformers; Sheffield and its environs have 50, OOO. 
u In Norwich there are 30 focieties in one. — If we could 
" get a convention of England and Scotland called, we 
" might reprefent fix or /even hundred tho'-fand males, 
** which is a majority of all the adules in the kingdom; 
" and miniitry would not dare to refufe us our right 1 -." 
They had held fourteen fittings, when the m igilirates 
thought proper to put a (top to it and arreft fome of the 
members j others aped the conduct of the tiers etat at 
Versailles, when ordered to difperie, and adjourneu from 
place to place; happily, however, they did not fucc^ed. 
All their forms, and even their modes of fpeech, were 
fervilely copied from the French. After the numerous 
adherents that they had feduced, it is natural to think that 
the teachers of the Sect thought it time to bind the mon- 
Jiers who dared oppofe them ; to effectuate this, pikes 
were forged in different parts of Great Bnuin. " A 
" plan (writes the fecretary of the Sheffield focie y, m 
w April, 1794) has been formed for carrying into effect 
"this neceliitry bufinefs (of arming). Pike-t>lades are 
tc made with hoops for the fhaft to fit the top enJs; the 
" bottom end of the (hafts lhould be about an inch thick- 
M er, and fir is recommended for the (hafts, feledte